Scientists reveal the cause of the “larger” supermassive black hole 13 billion light-years away from the Earth

  At the center of every galaxy is a supermassive black hole, which is a monster that keeps surrounding stars, planets, gas, and dust together. In the decades since astronomers began to study them in earnest, we have confirmed that these celestial bodies do exist in the universe.
  We also know that they are an integral part of star formation; and we have also developed a technique that can directly image them. However, what makes astronomers always confused is: How did these beasts become so large, and how can they grow so quickly?
  The key to the answer may lie in celestial jets-supermassive black holes sometimes emit energetic particles or burst out radiation. We don’t know why these black holes do this, but two new record-breaking studies from the same international team of astronomers show that, whatever the reason, these jets may help supermassive black holes to grow rapidly.
  The first discovery reported by the Astrophysical Journal was a supermassive black hole 13 billion light-years away from the earth and 300 times the mass of the sun. Astronomers used infrared observations from the Magellan Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile to confirm that it was the source of the jet that was first discovered in 2015. This supermassive black hole is the most distant (ie, oldest) black hole capable of producing jets ever detected.
  The second discovery is about to be published in a preprint research report in the Astrophysical Journal. The research shows that astronomers first explored astrophysical jets from a supermassive black hole in 2018, which is a distance from the earth. 12.7 billion light years, one billion times heavier than the sun. The team used NASA’s Chandler X-ray Observatory for observations and looked for X-ray radiation from high-calorie objects in the universe. It is reported that this is the most distant astrophysical jet that has been observed in X-rays in human history.
  In a nutshell, each set of discoveries broke some profound astronomical records, but this is not why they are so important. Both of these findings help explain why supermassive black holes can grow so quickly even if they continuously release high-energy matter. It can be said that the discovery of the team of astronomers proved for the first time that this type of jet actually stimulates the rapid advance of the black hole.
  After Magellan confirmed the existence of the black hole, the research team used other instruments (such as the Very Large Telescope in Chile) in the first investigation to identify the black hole and other characteristics of the jet, such as mass.
  There are also some data showing how jets stimulate the supply of black holes. In fact, the strong gravitational force of black holes draws a large amount of gas and dust into its event horizon (point of inability to return). Since the matter has angular momentum, this means that it does not just enter directly, but rotates around the orbit of the event horizon. At the same time, the radiation pressure in this area (generated by the friction and pressure of the substance in the orbit itself, which heats itself until it glows) pushes the gas away from the event horizon.
  This is a complicated process, but in essence, the jet of high-energy particles moves outward as the gas offsets the angular momentum of the gas. Moreover, unlike the characteristics of radiation pressure that can emit light in all directions and radiate outward, this jet is very narrow, so it can hardly interact with and affect the distant, non-dense gas layer. These jets cause many gases around the event horizon to directly fall into it by causing the gas to lose angular momentum and hardly push back.
  In this way, the jets can ensure that the black hole does not actively act on itself — so that it can continue to supply, NASA astronomer and co-author of the two papers Thomas Conner said, even though scientists believe these jets It may have played a role in encouraging the supply of black holes, but until now we have not seen any convincing evidence.
  X-ray studies provide evidence for this idea. These observations indicate that this jet has traveled 150,000 light years from its source, which makes it the first X-ray observation of a long-distance jet: the jets previously observed are only a few thousand light-years away.
  Conner said: “This large-scale X-ray inspection means that these jets have been traveling for a very long time.” This is not a short-lived phenomenon, but a normal state that can last for hundreds of thousands of years, which is enough to help a super large Mass black holes supply themselves to grow very rapidly. He said: “We now know that this is a long-term process, and this is how these jets can help these supermassive black holes form…”
  Both studies laid the foundation for subsequent discoveries. They can help us learn more about how supermassive black holes evolved and helped shape the early universe. Now, we have a better idea of ​​how to find such an ancient black hole, and we have a deeper feeling that more X-ray observations are essential for learning the working principle of jet replenishment power.
  For Connor, these additional observations will be the key. After the major discovery, he felt very encouraged. He said: “I hope this discovery can point out that there are still many such objects in the universe, and I hope we can break the research record again as soon as possible.”