A master of ancient Chinese architecture

On April 1,
The CPC Central Committee and the State Council decided that,
Will be set up in Hebei Xiong’an District,
This is known as the “Millennium plan, the national event.”

The location of the new district is so important,
Is because more than 20 million people in the capital of Beijing,
In addition to the administrative deputy center to move to Tongzhou,
But also the industry will be transferred to the new security zone,
Let it really focus on the power of the capital.

Let a country’s capital,
Focus on the function of political and cultural center,
Build a new city outside the center to carry other functions.
This city planning and construction ideas,
In fact, as early as 60 years ago,
There is already a person made.

But his proposal has not been adopted,
Itself has been a very unfair criticism.
This person is Liang Sicheng.

At the beginning of the building,
Liang Sicheng was appointed as,
Deputy Director of Beijing Metropolitan Planning Committee.
Liang Sicheng life is committed to the protection of ancient architecture research,
In the face of nearly 3,000 years of history in Beijing,
His mood is very excited.

Splendid culture, royal ancient building,
Courtyard, alley, old city wall …
These are the symbols of Chinese ancient culture,
Beijing is also the background and facade,
How to integrate into the new town planning,
Is a very important proposition.

But one day,
Mayor Peng Zhen standing on the tower of Tiananmen Square,
On Liang Sicheng said: “hope the future,
Looked from here, everywhere are chimneys. ”
Liang Sicheng listened to surprise, he thinks,
Beijing is the ancient city of cultural architecture,
Should not develop industry.

Best like Washington,
Become a political and cultural center. to this end,
Liang Sicheng on Beijing city planning,
Made five suggestions:

1. The capital should serve as a political and cultural center rather than an industrial center.
2 Restricted urban industrial development. Otherwise it will lead to traffic congestion, environmental pollution, the population surge and housing shortage.
3. Save the Forbidden City, especially the ancient building walls, the tower.
4. New buildings in the old city must not exceed three levels.
5. West to build the north and south axis of the new government administrative center.

However, when the Soviet experts,
Adhere to Beijing to Tiananmen as the center,
And asked the expansion of Tiananmen Square,
The construction of the replica of the Kremlin and the Red Square,
For public rallies and parades.

In the idea of ​​Liang Sicheng,
If in the west along the north and south axis,
The construction of a government administrative center,
Both for the construction of important new towns,
Without destroying the original axis of the ancient city.

Can protect the ancient architecture of Beijing,
And will not give the new city bloated hidden dangers.
Finally, five suggestions inside,
Only the protection of the Forbidden City was accepted.

At that time, Liang Sicheng’s wife Lin Huiyin,
Directly into the Peng real office with its argument.
Peng really do not understand aesthetics, do not understand architecture,
See Lin Hui due to menacing, said:
“This is Chairman Mao’s instructions,
Chairman Mao said the wall is a feudal symbol,
Is the emperor used to block the farmers.
The party and the people heart to heart, no walls. ”

Lin Huiyin said: “That do not split it!
It can be converted into a park around the city,
Planted on the walls, kinds of grapes,
And then put on the bench, everywhere in the city hall stairway,
In the traffic arteries opening opening, so,
Beijing people can rest in this entertainment,
But also dilute the feudal symbol! ”

Obviously, Liang Lin two people to protect the ancient painstaking efforts,
At that time no one can understand.

Liang Sicheng envisioned Beijing city

In 1953, Zuo Anmen was destroyed;
In 1954, Qing Shu Temple towers were destroyed;
In 1956, the Chinese door was destroyed;
In 1957, Yongdingmen, Guangqumen,
Guang’anmen, Chaoyangmen destroyed;
In 1958, Youanmen was destroyed;

1965 to 1969, Dongzhimen, Xuanwumen,
Chongwenmen, Andingmen, Fuchengmen,
Xizhimen, Yuan wall destroyed.
Dongdan and Xidan’s archway also disappeared.
So far only Zhengyangmen, Deshengmen,
The bell tower was partially preserved.

Walls, archway, moat all gone,
This has gone through years of war,
The Eight-Power Allied forces did not demolish,
Japan invaded China did not demolish the great city,
Eventually destroyed in the hands of their own people …

Beijing ancient city

It is said that during World War II,
Before the US Air Force bombed Japan,
Made a special trip to Liang Sicheng to ask,
What places to protect can not blow up.

Leaves draw Kyoto, Nara and Osaka,
Marked the direction of the monuments, said:
“From my personal feelings,
I can not wait for you to fry all Japan,
But this is the ancient city, fried bad.
After all, this is the crystallization of human civilization. ”
So the temple of Kyoto three thousand, so far good.

May 1953, Beijing began to dismantle the floor.
Lung disease has been heavy Lin Huiyin rushed to the scene,
Voice hoarse against Wu Han shouted abuse,
The sadness of the presence of the presence of all moving.
Previously, she also said to Peng Zhen:
“You demolished the 800-year-old antique,
One day, you regret it, want to cover,
Can only cover a fake antique! ”

No one than Liang Lin couple,
More cherish this piece of land on the ancient building,
In the years of war,
They have been risking their lives,
Research and protection of ancient Chinese architecture,
How they can not think of it,
The birth of a new capital,
Actually have to pay such a heavy price.

The accumulation of ancient Chinese civilization,
Not just a nation’s cultural crystallization,
It is also a miracle in the history of all mankind.
The former director of the Institute of Cultural Relics Luo Zhewen said:
“If the piece of ancient city can be retained so far,
It will be the only thing in the world to be completely preserved,
The most magnificent, the most magnificent momentum,
Historical and cultural city,
Even today’s Paris, Rome,
It is difficult to match. ”

History is not as if.
Liang Sicheng’s words,
You can let the ancient building of Japan to stay,
But he almost tried his best,
Also failed to leave the ancient city of the motherland.

And more ironically, at that time,
In the debate with Peng really planning issues,
He had said with great pain:
“On these issues, I was advanced,
You are behind, 50 years later,
History will prove you are wrong,
I am right. ”

Sure enough, now,
Sandy sky, groundwater depletion,
Haze to the sun, traffic congestion …
These more and more real problems,
Constantly plagued the capital of Beijing.

How can not believe Liang Sicheng it?
He can put his own life,
There is no reservation to the ancient Chinese people na.
Liang Sicheng was born in April 1901,
Father Liang Qichao to avoid the Qing government persecution,
So he was born in Tokyo, Japan.

In the father’s influence and supervision,
He pursued the “Zuo Zhuan” “Historical Records”
Since childhood there is a strong national consciousness.
11-year-old return, 14-year-old into Tsinghua,
Juvenile he is the school man,
Academic history, the interest is very extensive.

Chorus, military band, soccer team,
Where he has his shadow.
The biggest hobby is painting a pen,
So became a school art editor.

In 1924 in the United States,
Study at the University of Pennsylvania,
Liang Sicheng great interest in ancient buildings,
I do not know how many ancient buildings composition.

Before returning home, he traveled to Europe,
Greece, Italy, France and other countries,
The protection of the ancient building gave him a shock.
China has thousands of years of civilized history,
And every dynasty change,
Ancient buildings have to suffer a trauma,
Chinese people want to learn their own architectural knowledge,
But also rely on foreigners to sort out the information,
What is this sad thing!

At that time Liang Siqi vowed,
We must study their own country’s architecture,
Write a history of architecture for it.

After returning home soon,
He went to Northeastern University to teach,
Founded the history of modern Chinese education,
The first department of architecture,
Determined to cultivate China’s own architectural talent.

Unfortunately, did not last long, and soon after,
918 incident broke out, his family moved to Peking.
In Peking, he participated in the Chinese construction society,
In this specialized study of China’s ancient academic institutions,
Liang Sicheng first proposed field investigation method:
“Modern scholars scholarship, the first evidence,
To the theory of the backing,
Popular saying the so-called ‘hear as a see’
Suitable for scientific methods. ”

At that time, the domestic political situation has been turbulent,
People living very hard,
But he insisted on a long walk,
Open a new era of ancient research.

Go to Hebei old county,
On the way to back a few pounds of heavy equipment,
To take a mule car, take tens of miles to arrive.
But to see the old temple in the mountains that moment,
Liang Sicheng tired of the body suddenly disappeared.

During the day, he followed the monk to eat together,
Bite the mosquito bites at night can not sleep.
In such a difficult condition,
He did not want to compromise at work,
Specifically called the young assistant to the house,
Come up with the world’s highest level of architectural publications,
“This is now the world level,
Our figure will reach this level. ”

To reach this level,
easy to say, hard to do.
From the inside to the outside, each size are mapping correct,
Even the inscriptions, historical materials are also detailed records.

Due to the current situation of turbulence,
Not only data to be accurate,
And the efficiency is even higher.
In order to speed up the mapping process,
Liang Sicheng work more than a dozen hours a day,
In the investigation of the county should be the wooden tower,
In order to take pictures of the top of the tower,
He boarded the top of the 60-meter high, feet vacant,
In the most dangerous place, take important panorama.

The assistant looked at him carefully,
Deeply held a sweat for him,
Liang Sicheng came down with joy.
For him, can take pictures for these buildings,
It is like a poet to write a wonderful verse,
The musician wrote a wonderful movement.

This is the ancient wisdom and effort,
Study them, give them “biography”,
Is talking with the ancients.

In the ancient building research business,
On the Liang Sicheng have a huge impact,
Is the well-known talented woman Lin Huiyin.
Even Liang Sicheng took the road to the building,
But also because this is Xu Zhimo miss,
Jin Yuelin struggling to pursue the woman.

Under the arrangement of the parents with him,
Lin told him that he was ready to study the building.
Later, Liang Sicheng recalls:
“When the first visit to Lin Huiying,
She just came back from the UK, in the conversation,
She said later to learn architecture,
I did not even know what the building was.
Because I love painting,
So, finally I chose,
Building this profession. ”

In 1927, both of them,
Very good grades graduation,
And on March 21 the following year,
Complete the wedding in Ottawa, Canada.
Lin Huiyin outstanding temperament, only learned,
The pursuit of her men row a long list.
But she happens to marry Liang Sicheng.

Later, some people will draw out the beam,
Jokingly said: “read these drawings,
Lin Hui know why not choose Xu Zhimo. ”
From these meticulous, accurate artwork,
It is easy to see how Liang Sicheng is a person.

At that time mapping, measurement tools so simple,
Political turmoil, life is precarious,
Get will lose their lives,
He did not work hard, travel thousands of miles,
The ancient Chinese architecture of the past glory,
Inch inch in mind on paper.

Lin Huiyin accompanied him,
Shuttle in the flames of war on the earth,
In the old building before the quiet stop,
With awe, devout and professional skills,
Recorded a passing time,
Dig out a rich treasure.

Really let them hold their hands,
Not only the value, not only talent,
There is a like-minded heart.
They are so love the cause of architecture,
With a strong national consciousness, patriotic feelings.
This love is better than sweet words,
They support each other from the soul,
As the stars of each other.

After the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War,
Japanese invited Liang Sicheng,
Attended the “East Asian Association for Commonwealth”.
Liang Sicheng how could promise,
Night with the whole family to avoid Kunming.

The results in the backcountry of Sichuan,
All sources of funding are all cut off,
Lin Huiyin and suffering from severe lung disease,
He himself had a spine soft tissue sclerosis.
At that time the United States invited him to go abroad for treatment,
He and Lin Huiyin refused to say:
“How can we stay away from the motherland?”

In the country’s dilapidated houses,
Leaning on the dim oil lamp,
The couple also insisted on working,
Until the end of the war.

Liang Lin two of the work,
It seems incredible today.
Between 1930 and 1945,
They and the construction of the Society of colleagues,
Has gone through 15 provinces in China, more than 190 counties,
Survey survey of 2738 ancient buildings.

Due to fearless wind and rain several times to study,
Only Liang Sicheng crack the mystery of the ancient Chinese architecture,
Completed the “create a French” interpretation.
At the beginning of writing “Chinese architectural history”
His condition has been extremely serious,
Coupled with lack of material, nutrition can not keep up,
And finally fell off a lifetime of disability.

Is unknown in the small village,
He wrote the first Chinese people to write their own,
“Ancient Chinese Architecture History”. This book,
Reached the predecessors have not reached the height,
Far more than the level of foreign research.

In October 1946,
Yale University asked him to give lectures,
Liang Sicheng will own his work,
Various ancient architectural pictures, manuscripts,
One by one in front of the international academic community,
Won countless admiration and praise.

To this end, the United States Princeton University,
Presented his honorary doctorate degree.
British science historian Professor Joseph Needham,
Called him “the master of ancient Chinese architecture.”
American scholar Fei Zhengqing evaluation he said:

“World War II, we reunited in western China,
He has become a half disabled patient,
But still desperate,
In extremely difficult conditions committed to academic,
In my mind, he is not afraid of difficulties,
Dedicated to the noble model of science. ”

Can be such a,
Chinese architects of the master figure,
After presenting the capital Beijing building plan,
Not only watched it be high-level veto,
But also for this by a variety of injustice criticism.

In February 1950,
He and study the British architect Chen Zhanxiang,
Put forward the famous “Liang Chen program”.
In this program, the two suggested that,
Outside the old city on the west side of the new district,
A convenient thing to connect the old and new roads,
Like the pole to take up the political heart of China.

The results as the beginning of the article said,
The plan was rejected and the old town was demolished.
Despite Liang Sicheng lobbying, writing,
Clarify the harm that continues to do so,
But at that time insisted on the development of modern industry,
Eventually waved his hand, so that Beijing’s ancient buildings,
Become a holding soil slag.

The vicissitudes of the cultural heritage of the millennium,
A nation’s historical mark,
It was so rudely destroyed.
How much invasion of foreign enemies did not destroy,
Finally destroyed in their own hands!

To this end, Lin Huiyin depression and end,
Liang Sicheng can only paralyze sitting in the window,
Hear today demolition of the demolition that tomorrow,
Heart constantly dripping bleeding.
“Beijing every demolition of an ancient city wall,
That is to dig me a piece of meat ah! ”

Watch the old city was demolished, Lin Huiyin worried

Liang Sicheng wrote a letter to Zhou Enlai

Even more disappointing is that,
1966, Department of Architecture, Tsinghua University,
He had cultivated students rebellion,
Actually posted a poster to attack themselves,
Asked him to write “various crimes”.

He was rebelled from the Department of Architecture,
Chest hanging “against academic authority” brand,
The wages were suspended, the duties were removed,
In the house without plumbing supply,
Three days a copy of the family, five days a bucket,
The spirit suffered a great torture.

But who can think that is the case,
One day, Liang Sicheng heard outside the demolition of the wall,
Opened a section of the Yuan Dynasty “wall”
Quickly called the second wife Lin Zhu to see,
“It ‘s best to take a picture of me back.
So painful, dangerous situation,
His mind is still building.

Metro program, clearly wrote: control traffic flow

On January 9, 1972,
To protect China’s ancient architecture,
Exhausted the life of Liang Sicheng,
In the double torture of poverty and pain,
Left the absurd world.

Even then, he still said:
“Many cities in the world have grown up,
Sooner or later you will see one day,
Beijing’s traffic, industrial pollution, population, etc.,
There will be a big problem in the future,
We should not take the wrong path of others. ”

In the awareness of the problem today,
Really, owe him a cry.