Three other phases of Captain von Papen’s campaigns against the Allies
upon American territory as a base of operations remain to be set forth.
They are his supervision of a bureau for obtaining fraudulent passports
for German reservists ordered home to fight for the Fatherland, the
fomentation of insurrections in the colonies of the Allies and of war
between Mexico and the United States.


The passport bureau is a striking instance of Germany’s disregard of the
rights and laws in a neutral country. With the sending of Great
Britain’s ultimatum to Germany, the cable between Germany and the United
States had been cut. The United States forbade the use of wireless for
the transmission of messages in code to Germany, or the use of the cable
for cipher dispatches to the warring countries. The Allies’ war vessels
began at once to search all passenger ships for German citizens, taking
them off and sending them to concentration camps. Meantime, von Papen,
Boy-Ed and the other German officials realized the utmost necessity of
transmitting to their respective home offices information concerning the
developments in America. They knew also the vital necessity of sending
back to Berlin, army and naval officers who had been selected and
trained for special commissions in the event of war.

But they had been taught in their early days the value of fraudulent
passports, and to these they turned at once. The Germans had at first no
regular passport bureau for the aid of German reservists. Every German,
left to his own resources, did the best he could under the
circumstances. Carl A. Luederitz, German consul in Baltimore, has been
indicted on a charge of conspiracy in connection with obtaining a
fraudulent passport for Horst von der Goltz under the name of Bridgeman
Taylor. The young German has confessed that with the aid of Herr
Luederitz he applied for a passport and on August 31, 1914, obtained one
bearing the signature of William J. Bryan, then Secretary of State. To
get that document von der Goltz took an oath that he was born in San

But this method was rather loose, and upon Captain von Papen devolved
the necessity of establishing a regular system. The military attaché,
always resourceful and daring, selected for the work Lieutenant Hans von
Wedell. Von Wedell had been a newspaper reporter in New York, later a
lawyer; but when he received orders from Captain von Papen, he gladly
undertook the work in New York, bureaus being started in other cities.
He opened an office in Bridge Street, New York, and began to send out
emissaries to Germans in Hoboken, directing them to apply for passports.
He sent others to the haunts of hoboes on the Bowery, to the cheap
hotels, and other gathering places of the downs-and-outs, offering ten,
fifteen and twenty dollars to men who would apply for passports. He
spent much time at the Deutscher Verein, at the Elks clubhouse, where he
would meet his agents, give them instructions and receive passports. His
bills were paid by Captain von Papen, as revealed by the attaché’s
cheques and counterfoils. These show that on November 24, 1914, von
Papen paid him $500; that on December 5, he gave him $500 and then $300,
the latter being for journey money; that he paid von Wedell’s bills at
the Deutscher Verein, amounting in November, 1914, to $38.05. Meantime,
he was using Mrs. von Wedell as a courier, sending her with messages to
Germany. On December 22, 1914, he paid Mrs. von Wedell, by his own
account, $800.


The passports which von Wedell, and later on his successor Carl Ruroede,
Sr., obtained, were used for the benefit of German officers whom the
General Staff had ordered back to Berlin. American passports, then
Mexican, Swiss, Norwegian and the passports of South American countries,
were seized eagerly by various reservists bound for the front. Stories
were told in New York of Germans and Austrians, who had been captured by
the Russians, sent to Siberia as prisoners of war, escaping therefrom,
and making their way by caravan through China, embarking on vessels
bound for America, arriving in New York and thence shipping for neutral
countries. Among them was an Austrian officer, an expert observer in
aeroplane reconnaissance, who lost both his feet in Siberia, but who
escaped to this country. He was ordered home because of his extreme
value in reconnoitring. The British learned of him, however, and took
him off a ship at Falmouth to spend the remainder of the war in a prison

Captain von Papen used the passport bureau to obtain passports for spies
whom he wished to send to England, France, Italy and Russia. Among these
men were Kuepferle and von Breechow, both of whom were captured in
England, having in their possession fraudulent passports. Kuepferle and
von Breechow both confessed.

But so reckless was von Wedell’s and Ruroede’s work that the authorities
soon discovered the practice. Two hangers-on at the Mills Hotel called
upon the writer one day and told him of von Wedell’s practices, related
how they had blackmailed him out of $50, gave his private telephone
numbers and set forth his haunts. As a result of this and other
information reaching the Department of Justice, Albert G. Adams, a
clever agent, started out one day, got into the confidence of Ruroede
and offered to get passports for him for $50 each. Meantime, von Wedell
had gone on a trip to Cuba, apparently on passport matters, and Adams,
posing as a pro-German, got into the inner ring of the passport-buyers.
He was informed by Ruroede as to what was wanted.


Though in the early days of the war it had not been necessary for the
applicant to give to the Federal authorities anything more than a
general description of himself, the reports of German spies in the
Allies’ countries became so insistent that the Government directed that
the document, bearing the United States seal, must have the picture of
the person to whom it was issued. The Germans, however, were not
worried. It was a simple matter to give a general description of a man’s
eyes, colour of hair, age and so forth, that would fit the man who was
actually to use the document and then forward the picture of the
applicant, who, getting the passport, would sell it. Even though the
official stamp was placed on the picture, the Germans were not dismayed.
Federal Agent Adams rushed into Ruroede’s office one day waving five
passports which had been issued to him in a batch by Uncle Sam. Adams
seemed proud of his work. Ruroede was delighted.

“I knew I could get these passports easily,” boasted Ruroede. “Why, if
Lieutenant Hans von Wedell had kept on here, he never could have done
this. He always was getting into a muddle.”

“But how can you use these passports with these pictures on them?” asked
the agent, curiously.

“Oh, that’s easy,” answered Ruroede. “Come into the back room and I’ll
show you.” The agent followed the German, who immediately soaked one of
the passports with a damp cloth and with adhesive paste fastened a
photograph of another man over the original upon which the imprint of
the United States seal had been made.

“We wet the photograph,” said Ruroede, “and then we affix the picture of
the man who is to use it. The new photograph also is dampened, but when
it is fastened to the passport, there still remains a sort of vacuum in
spots between the new picture and the old, because of ridges made by the
seal. Well, turn the passport upside down, place it on a soft ground
made with a silk handkerchief, and then, taking a paper cutter with a
dull point, just trace the letters on the seal. The result is that the
new photograph looks exactly as if it had been stamped by Uncle Sam. You
can’t tell the difference.”

Through the work of Adams, four Germans, one of them an officer of the
German reserves, were arrested on the Norwegian-America liner
_Bergensfjord_, outward bound to Bergen, Norway. They had passports
issued to them through Ruroede’s bureau under the American names of
Howard Paul Wright, Herbert S. Wilson, Peter Hansen and Stanley F.
Martin. Their real names were Arthur Sachse, Pelham Heights, N.Y., who
was returning to Germany to become a lieutenant in the German Army;
Walter Miller, August R. Meyer, and Herman Wegener, who had come to New
York from Chile, on their way to the Fatherland. Ruroede pleaded guilty
and was sentenced to three years in Atlanta, Ga., prison. The four
Germans, also pleading guilty, protested they had taken the passports
out of patriotism and were fined $200 each.

Von Wedell, himself, was a passenger on the steamer _Bergensfjord_, but
when he was lined up with the other passengers, the Federal agents, who
did not have a description of him, were deceived, and let the vessel
proceed. He was taken off the ship by the British and placed in prison.

The arrest of Ruroede exposed the New York bureau, and made it necessary
for the Germans to shift their base of operations; but it did not put an
end to the fraudulent passport conspiracies, as will be shown. In the
face of the exposures, so daring were the German agents that they
continued to commit fraud upon the United States, and to put in danger
every honest American travelling in Europe with an American passport.


Captain von Papen was a supervisor and a promoter of sedition. His
headquarters in Wall Street were the centre of lines running out to
British and French colonies, where Germany planned at critical moments
to start revolutions, if it would help her interests.

One of the enterprises which Captain von Papen, acting under orders from
Berlin, supervised in the United States, was a revolt against British
rule in India. Preparations for this insurrection had been in the making
for years, and, in the course of all of them, German agents were working
with the Hindus and also with the German-Irish in America, the latter
organization being really headquarters for many Hindus travelling from
Germany to England, then to United States, on their way back to India.
There has been for years a sort of understanding between pro-German
Irish and certain members of an American society interested in India. In
this organization, prior to the war, were men who were plotting a
revolution in India, who were in touch with German agents and who
received German money.

Immediately after the outbreak of the war, von Papen and his agents
poured more money into Hindu pockets, and made arrangements to supply
arms and ammunition to Hindus. For the promotion of this German-Hindu
conspiracy, two other centres were established. One was fathered by
Germans in San Francisco, and another was at Shanghai, China.
Confessions by men, who were active in the enterprise, tell how Hindus
in sympathy with the sedition plots conferred with certain German
officials in Berlin, that they came to New York—this in the course of
the war—where they met certain pro-German-Irishmen and were aided
financially. From New York they journeyed to Chicago, where more money
was handed to them, and then to San Francisco, where they had talks with
Hindu revolutionists—whose openly avowed aim is in rousing the people of
India to celebrate the year 1917, “the diamond jubilee of the mutiny of
1857,” by a general and universal rising against British rule in India.


Many Hindus, who were assembled in the West, also had an opportunity to
study the fine art of explosive and bomb making at a bomb factory up in
the state of Washington. On several occasions groups of Hindus equipped
with money and carrying secretly arms with them sailed from San
Francisco for the Philippines, planning thence to go to India.
Furthermore, ships were chartered by German agencies to carry arms and
ammunition to India and Ceylon. The American schooner _Annie Larsen_ and
the ship _Maverick_, both owned by a man named Fred Jebsen, a German
naval officer, were chartered on the Pacific coast to sail for India in
June, 1915. The _Annie Larsen_ was seized by the United States officials
at Hoquiam, Washington, and on board was found a cargo of rifles and
ammunition. The _Maverick_, however, got away also equipped with rifles
and cartridges, carrying a number of Hindus. The good ship had a most
eventful voyage, the sailors and the passengers suffering many
hardships, and finally reached Batavia, where she was seized by the
Dutch authorities.

In the early stages of his plans, Captain von Papen had an opportunity
to send a rather detailed report of events in India to the secret office
in Berlin. The chance came through Captain Archibald, who was about to
sail from this country, and Captain von Papen, accordingly, prepared in
code a long message. This document, which has been translated, is
illuminating. Here it is:

* * * * *

“Since October, 1914, there have been various local mutinies of
Mohammedan native troops, one practically succeeding the other. From the
last reports, it appears that the Hindu troops are going to join the

“The Afghan army is ready to attack India. The army holds the position
on one side of the Utak River. The British army is reported to hold the
other side of the said river. The three bridges connecting both sides
have been blown up by the British.

“In the garrison located on the Kathiawar Peninsula, Indian mutineers
stormed the arsenal. Railroad and wireless station have been destroyed.
The Sikh troops have been removed from Beluchistan; only English,
Mohammedans and Hindu troops remain there.

“The Twenty-third Cavalry Regiment at Lahore revolted; the police
station and Town House were stormed. The Indian troops in Somaliland in
Labakoran are trying to effect a junction with the Senussi. All Burmah
is ready to revolt.

“In Calcutta, unrest is reported with street fighting; in Lahore, a bank
was robbed; every week at least two Englishmen are killed; in the
north-western district many Englishmen killed, munitions and other
material taken, railroads destroyed; a relief train was repulsed.

“Everywhere great unrest, in Benares a bank has been stormed.

“Revolts in Chitral very serious; barracks and Government buildings
destroyed. The Hurti Mardin Brigade, under General Sir E. Wood, has been
ordered there. Deputy Commissioner of Lahore wounded by a bomb in the
Anakali Bazaar.

“Mohammedan squadron of the cavalry regiment in Nowschera deserted over
Chang, south-west Peshawar. Soldiers threw bombs against the family of
the Maharajah of Mysore. One child and two servants killed, his wife
mortally wounded.

“In Ceylon a state of war has been declared.”

* * * * *


The extensive conspiracy on the part of Germany to start a revolt in
Ireland has been thoroughly set forth in the public prints in connection
with the arrest and trial of Sir Roger Casement as a rebel. Sir Roger
worked openly among the Irish prisoners in Germany, travelling backwards
and forwards between Ireland and Germany by means of a German submarine.
Nevertheless, a very large and important American phase of this whole
revolution occupied von Papen’s attention prior to his recall. German
agents here were in touch with the Irishmen in America, who were
actively co-operating with Patrick H. Pearse.

German funds were poured into Irish hands in America, the money being
used for the purchase of arms and the printing of seditious papers and
leaflets. More than $100,000 was collected in America for Ireland
between September, 1914, and April, 1915. Plans also were worked out
with the aid of Germans in America to ship arms and supplies to the
Irish rebels.

There also have been vague reports of dramatic schemes in America to arm
the Arabs in northern Africa and start an uprising against British rule.
There have been signs of dramatic plottings to stir up trouble in
Afghanistan and in Egypt. It is a fact that various attempts have been
made to ship rifles and cartridges from the United States to South
America and then from South America to Africa. Some of these have proved
successful. In other cases, the shipments have been stopped.


_Throughout all the crises arising between the United States and Germany
over the submarine campaign, German agents constantly kept in view the
possibility of a war between their country and this nation._ They
prepared for it.

“Before I left New York,” confesses von der Goltz, “I had some
conversation with Captain von Papen about the war, and while speaking of
the end of the war Captain von Papen said: ‘_Should things start to look
bad for us, there will be something happen over here._’ In connection
with other statements of his, he speculated on America joining Germany,
or on a possible uprising.” The significance of that remark was shown
two years and a half later when on January 31, 1917, three days before
the break between the United States and Germany, an order went forth
from the German Embassy in Washington. Immediately the machinery of
every German merchantman interned in American ports was wrecked. The
damage was $30,000,000.

Here again Captain von Papen’s and Captain Boy-Ed’s advice and orders
were involved. _It devolved_ upon Captain von Papen not only to keep in
thorough touch with the development of American military affairs, but
also _to study constantly the topography of the United States, the plan
of cities and their surroundings from a military viewpoint. Upon him
fell the task of stationing German reservists in the various cities and
towns where, in case of hostilities, they would be valuable to the
German cause._ German efficiency and foresight came to the front in
connection with these plans. _There were under consideration at one time
when the crisis between the United States and Germany was acute,
military plans to start a reign of terror in America._

First of all, Captain von Papen and Captain Boy-Ed _supervised the
purchase of ground near New York and Boston, which was to be used for
the construction of concrete bases for big guns in the same manner in
which the Germans prepared in Belgium, England and France prior to the
war_. There is absolute proof that German representatives spent money
for this purpose, and that they caused to be built foundations that
could be used for big guns for the purpose of making an attack upon New
York City, for instance. But that was only a part of the scheme.

When von Papen and his colleague Boy-Ed were recalled, it was announced
by the State Department that the reason was “improper activities in
military and naval affairs.” A brief summary of Captain von Papen’s
activities shows that he violated the courtesies extended to him as a
diplomatic agent in secretly sending code messages by couriers; that he
handed out money for fraudulent passports; that he schemed in military
enterprises against Canada; that he plotted with Ambassador Dumba to
start strikes in American factories; that he plotted in connection with
other criminal activities in this country, such as blowing up factories;
that he was a promoter of seditious enterprises; and that he and his
associates schemed to start war between the United States and Mexico.

When he set foot upon the gangway of the steamship _Noordam_, homeward
bound, he said: “I leave my post without any feeling of bitterness,
because I know full well that when history is once written it will
establish our clean record, despite all the misrepresentations spread
broadcast.” But at the moment he handed out that statement he was
carrying under his arm a portfolio which was a veritable diary of his
payments to law-breakers. Again he gave proof of his expression about
“stupid Americans,” because he thought he could make those “stupid
Americans” believe him, and that he could sneak the proofs of his
law-breaking past the British at Falmouth. Again the stupidity was on
his side.

Wolf von Igel, von Papen’s Man Friday and custodian of his secret
documents, was hustling about his private office on the twenty-fifth
floor of 60, Wall Street, on the morning of April 19, 1916. He was
hurried. His full, grey eyes glistened with excitement and he curled his
stubby moustache as he glanced upon heaps of papers carefully arranged
on the long council table and on the floor. Then squaring his stocky
shoulders, he turned again to the big safe, bearing the seal of the
Imperial German Government, and swinging back the heavy doors, extracted
another bundle of papers which he ranged among the other sheets with
military precision.

“It’s eleven o’clock and Koenig should be here now,” he said in German
to another employé of von Papen’s who was with him. “These papers must
be packed up at once.”

He paused and then began a mental inventory of each stack of papers to
make sure none was missing. All these documents—there were hundreds of
them, and their weight, as revealed by a government agent, was seventy
pounds—had belonged to von Papen. They revealed the inner workings of
the German spy system in America and a great part of the world. They
told many of the details. Those papers, connecting the German Government
with violators of law in America, were a vast responsibility for any
officer of von Igel’s age. Naturally, the young man was keyed to a high
pitch of excitement; for hitherto they had come from the safe only
piecemeal, and to permit daylight to reach so many at one time was
almost a little more than von Igel’s nerve could stand.

Perhaps he had a presentiment. In fact, secret agencies had been at work
to instil in him a feeling of uneasiness. Von Igel, stopping again and
again to twirl his moustache, knew that von Papen and Captain Tauscher
had been indicted on a charge of plotting to blow up Welland Canal. Word
also had come to him that still more ominous events were portending and
the idea—by stealthy prearrangement—had been given to him to ship all
the documents to Washington, where they would be absolutely safe.
Therefore von Igel was both busy with his packing and intensely

“A man to see you, Herr von Igel,” announced a stout German attendant.
“He refuses to tell his business except that it is important.”

Von Igel was gruffly directing his agent to make the stranger specify
his name and mission when the door was flung open. In dashed Joseph A.
Baker, of the Department of Justice, in charge of Federal Agents Storck,
Underhill and Grgurevich.

“I have a warrant for your arrest!” shouted Baker, who had a warrant
charging the German with complicity in the Welland Canal enterprise. Von
Igel eyed the intruders for the fraction of a second. With one spring he
reached the safe, and swinging the doors shut, was turning the
combination when Baker leaped upon him bearing him to the floor. Then
followed a battle of four Americans against two Germans, the attendant
having been quieted by the flash of revolvers.

“This means war,” yelled von Igel. “This is a part of the German Embassy
and is German territory. You’ve no right here.”

“You’re under arrest,” said Baker soothingly, as he pulled a revolver.

“You shoot and there’ll be war,” answered von Igel, while Storck and
Underhill grappled with a third. “I’m connected with the Embassy and you
can’t arrest me.” The first skirmish was quickly ended by von Igel,
realizing the importance of the documents entrusted to his care and
straining every resource to outwit his captors, he fought again and
again, facing revolvers and braving fists to reach the telephone to call
for the help of the German Ambassador and prevent the officers from
gathering up the documents. But he was unsuccessful. As the agents led
him from the office, they met Koenig, von Igel’s associate, and von
Papen’s agent in many enterprises just entering. Koenig, who was already
facing three charges growing out of his activities, was rendered
speechless by the sight of von Igel in custody and some of his documents
in possession of the government.

The mass of documents—it makes no difference whether the Secretary of
State, for reasons of State or of law, orders their return—not only set
forth the secrets of Germany’s activities in this country; but they also
told what part von Igel and Koenig played in the invisible war in
America. They show how both men were errand boys, carriers of cash and
of messages for von Papen and Boy-Ed.


Concerning young von Igel there is much mystery. At the outbreak of the
war he was reported to be wandering around looking for a job, willing to
work for any wages. Then von Papen picked him up, paying him a salary of
$238 a month. There is a rumour, too, that he is a grandson of Graf von
Waldersee, one time Germany’s Chief of Staff. That he is a man of
importance is indicated by the manner in which he was trusted by von
Papen, Boy-Ed, and Dr. Albert. When in an automobile ride from Captain
Tauscher’s home on Long Island with von Papen and Dr. Albert, he met
with an injury, he was hurried secretly to a hospital. Every effort was
made to hide his identity; but Dr. Albert and von Papen visited him
frequently. Von Papen paid the hospital bills and charged them up to
“War Intelligence.”

Almost immediately upon beginning service under von Papen, he leased the
offices in Wall Street, putting down in the contract “advertising” as
the purpose to which the rooms were to be devoted and never making any
statement as to his connection with the German Embassy. He quickly gave
von Papen every reason to trust him fully and won the respect of the
reckless attaché. Though he did not begin work for von Papen until
September, 1914, he had, it is charged, a hand in the first Welland
Canal enterprise.


Von Igel also handled money for von Papen. For instance, on March 27,
1915, the latter gave to his secretary a cheque payable to his order for
$1,000 and on the counterfoil of his cheque-book he wrote “for A.
Kaltschmidt, Detroit,” who since has been accused by the Canadian
authorities as an accomplice in the project against Canadian armouries
and munition factories. It was von Igel, furthermore, who cashed many
cheques for von Papen, the proceeds of which were to go to secret agents
starting on missions to the enemy’s country. He carried confidential
messages which von Papen would not put in writing. He handled the code
books in compiling and deciphering messages. He carried orders to
Koenig, conferring with him and directing him when to meet von Papen.

When von Papen was preparing to leave the country at the request of
President Wilson, he began to turn over his documents to von Igel for
safe keeping. He gave him instructions as to the custody of the papers
and the cleaning up of work left undone. In his regard, he undoubtedly
followed Dr. Albert’s instructions put in a letter from San Francisco:
“If you should leave New York before my return, we must try to come to
some agreement about pending questions by writing. Please instruct Mr.
Amanuensis Igel as precisely as possible. You will then receive in
Germany the long-intended report of the expenses paid through my account
on your behalf.”

So von Igel, as a trusted clerk, took unto himself the duties of
confidential man for von Papen and for other big Germans who began but
were obliged to leave unfinished certain projects in this country. There
were many lines of information and activities converging to von Papen,
afterwards to von Igel. After von Rintelen left this country, part of
his schemes were entrusted to von Igel, who saw men with whom von
Rintelen or his assistants had dealt. For instance, he has been indicted
jointly with Dr. Scheele, Captain Gustave Steinberg, von Rintelen’s aid,
for complicity in a plan to ship articles abroad under fraudulent
manifests and thus deceive the Allies. One of these schemes was to
export lubricating oil, much needed in Germany, to Sweden as fertilizer.
Some of the payments for this purpose were made after von Rintelen
sailed for home.

With von Papen gone and Koenig arrested, von Igel became a somewhat
important person, taking upon himself the attaché’s prestige and a lot
of Koenig’s work after the latter’s arrest. Many, many cheques were
cashed by von Igel in the four months intervening between the attaché’s
departure and the former’s arrest. He carried on von Papen’s work in a
miniature way, conferring with many secret agents, giving orders and
preparing reports in code for despatching to Germany.

While von Igel, in point of family, education and confidential
association with the big German agents in America, is an important link
in the Teutonic spy chain, Paul Koenig (“P. K.”), is more striking
because of his rough activities, his underground connections and his
associations with law-breakers. He was a sort of business manager of
Germany’s secret service in the eastern part of America.


“P. K.,” as his hirelings called him, was a sort of boss, an unmerciful
autocrat in the lower world, physically fearless, trusting no man and
driving every man to work by the use of violent abusive language,
boastful of his skill, physical prowess and his craft. In appearance, he
gives this impression. A tall, broad-shouldered man, he has bony fingers
and arms long and powerful reaching almost to his knees. His dark, sharp
eyes dart suspiciously at you from beneath black, arching eyebrows,
showing defiance and yet a certain caution. A truly typical person he is
for the work for which he was selected, and though perhaps a little too
boastful, such supreme confidence undoubtedly is a necessary attribute
of any man who would acquire any degree of success in such undertakings.

Koenig is another product of the Hamburg-American Steamship Line—the
Kaiser’s very own. Prior to the war he was superintendent of the
company’s police, having a half-score men under him and keeping watch on
the pier workers or investigating complaints received by the management.
He had grown to that task from similar training in the Atlas Service, a
subsidiary corporation. He had spent years among longshoremen, bossing
them and cursing them. He knew wharf rats, water-front crooks, and was
thoroughly acquainted with their schemes—as naturally such a man would
be. He understood thoroughly how to handle men of the rough type.

When the war started and von Papen was searching for an assistant
organizer, he found in Koenig’s little police force a splendid nucleus
of just what he needed. At his request the _Hamburg-American Line_
quickly put Koenig at von Papen’s disposal and straightway von Papen
began to link up to Koenig’s police a number of channels of information,
to supply him with reservists for special assignments, to suggest to him
how to spread out and instal spies in various places to gather important
facts. Koenig accordingly became the business manager of a part of
Germany’s secret service, not only gathering information, but acting as
a link in the labyrinth system employed by von Papen in communicating
with the reservist or agent selected to do certain work in behalf of the

How varied and steady was his work for von Papen is revealed by the
latter’s cheques. Here are a few excerpts: “March 29, 1915, Paul Koenig
(Secret Service bill), $509.11; … April 18, Paul Koenig (Secret
Service bill), $90.94; … May 11, Paul Koenig (Secret Service), $66.71;
… July 16, Paul Koenig (compensation for F. J. Busse), $150; …
August 4, Paul Koenig (5 bills Secret Service), $118.92,” and so on.
Remember also that von Papen only paid from his cheque account for a
part of Koenig’s expenses, other German officials who employed him
receiving a bill for the special work.


“P. K.” also kept a most carefully prepared note-book of his spies and
of persons in New York, Boston and other cities who were useful in
furnishing him information. In another book he kept a complete record of
the assignments on which he sent his men, the purpose and the cost. In
this book of names were several hundred persons—German reservists,
German-Americans and American clerks, scientists and city and Federal
employés—showing that his district was very large and that his range for
picking facts and for supervising other pro-German propaganda was broad.
For his own hirelings or reservists, over whom he domineered, he had
specially worked out a system of numbers and initials to be used in
communicating with them. These numbers were changed at regular intervals
and a system of progression was devised by which the agent would know
when his number changed. He also employed suitable aliases for his
workers. These men likewise had codes for writing letters and for
telephone communication, and they knew that _on fixed days these codes

Always alert for a listening ear or a watchful eye—because playing the
eavesdropper was his job—he looked for spies on himself. He believed
that his telephone wire was tapped and that he was overheard when he
spoke over the telephone. Accordingly, he instructed his men in various
code words. For instance, if he told an agent to meet him at five
o’clock at South Ferry that meant: “Meet me at seven o’clock at
Forty-second Street and Broadway.”

His wire was not tapped, but P. K. kept the men who were spying on him
exceeding busy and worried. He would receive a call on the telephone and
would direct the man at the other end of the wire to meet him in fifteen
minutes at Pabst’s, Harlem. Now from Koenig’s office in the
Hamburg-American Building to 125th Street, it is practically impossible
to make the journey in a quarter of an hour; but his watchers learned
that Pabst’s, Harlem, meant Borough Hall, Brooklyn. Just as he eluded
espionage for days and months, this man, skilled in shadowing others and
in doing the vanishing act whenever necessary, boasted that the Federal
authorities or the police never would get him. “They did get Dr.
Albert’s portfolio,” he said one day, “but they never will get mine, for
I won’t carry one.”


He sought likewise to elude Americans trailing him. He never went out in
the daytime that he did not have one or two of his agents trailing him
to see whether he was being shadowed. He used to turn a corner suddenly
and stand still so that a detective following came unexpectedly face to
face with him and betrayed his identity. Koenig would laugh heartily and
pass on. He loved to jibe the American authorities and ofttimes he would
dodge around a corner and then reappear to confront the detective with a
merry jest and pass on. By that means he came to know many agents of the
Department of Justice and many New York detectives. When he started out
at night he used to have three of his own men follow him, and by a
prearranged system of signals inform him if any strangers were following

The task, consequently, of keeping watch of Koenig’s movements was most
difficult and required clever guessing and keen-headed work on the part
of the New York police. So elusive did Koenig become that it was
necessary for Captain Tunney to evolve a new system for shadowing Koenig
and yet not betray to him the fact that he was under surveillance. One
detective, accordingly, would be stationed several blocks away and would
start out ahead of Koenig. The “front shadow” was kept informed by a
series of signals whenever Koenig turned a corner so that the man in
front might dart down the street beyond and by a series of manœuvres
again get ahead of him. If Koenig boarded a street car, the man ahead
would hail the car several blocks beyond, thus avoiding any suspicion
from Koenig. In other instances, detectives, guessing that he was about
to take a car would board it several blocks before it got abreast of
Koenig. Because of his alertness, he kept Detectives Barnitz, Coy, Terra
and Corell always on the edge; but they finally ran him down.

It was never possible to overhear any conversation between Koenig and
any man to whom he was giving instructions. Koenig always made it a
point to meet his agents—some of his workers he never permitted to meet
him at all—in the open, in parks in broad daylight, in the Pennsylvania
Station, or the Grand Central Station. There, as he talked to them, he
could make sure that nobody was eavesdropping. In the open he met many a
man for the first time, talked with him and then said:

“Be at Third Avenue and Fifty-ninth Street at 2.30 to-morrow afternoon
beside a public telephone booth there. When the telephone rings, you
answer it.”

The man would obey the request. Promptly at the minute named, the
telephone rang and the man answered the telephone. A strange voice spoke
to him and told him to do certain things, perhaps to be at a similar
place on the following day and receive a message, or he would receive
instructions as to what he should do and where he should go to meet
another man, who would give him money and instructions as to what he
should do. The voice at the other end of the wire was speaking from a
public telephone booth and was thus reasonably sure also that the wire
was not tapped.

Koenig trusted no man. _He never sent an agent out on a job without
detailing another man to follow that man and report back to him the
movements of the agent and the person whom that man met._ He was severe
with his men when they made their reports to him, and always insisted
that they do exactly what he told them and never permitted them to use
their own initiative. So stubborn was he in sticking to his own ideas
that some of his men used to call him “the Westphalian, bull-headed

As to the outline of Koenig’s activities, his book of spies, the great
mass of information gained by trailing him, and by study of the
documents seized in his office, show that _he had spies along the water
front on every big steamship pier. He had eavesdroppers in hotels,
telephone switchboards, among porters, window-cleaners, among bank
clerks, corporation employés and in the Police Department._

To Roger B. Wood, formerly assistant United States District-Attorney in
New York, is due the credit for the unfolding of the intricate and
varied schemes charged against Koenig. He studied the evidence for
months as it was developed by Federal agents under Superintendent Offley
of the New York office and Captain Tunney, and prepared for trial the
cases against the German agent.

One of Koenig’s spies was listed in his book as “Special Agent A. S.,”
namely Otto F. Mottola, a detective in the warrant squad of the New York
police force whom he paid for special work. The note-book revealed
Mottola as Antonio Marino, afterwards changed to Antonio Salvatore.
Evidence was produced at Mottola’s trial at Police Headquarters that
Koenig paid him for investigating a passenger who sailed on the
_Bergensfjord_; that he often called up Mottola, asked questions and
received answers which Koenig’s stenographer took down in shorthand. In
other words, Koenig sought to keep closely informed as to the
developments at Police Headquarters, and to be advised, perhaps, of the
inquiry being made by the police into the activities of the Germans.
Mottola was dismissed from the force because of false statements made to
his superiors when asked about Koenig.


“P. K.” also despatched men to Canada to gain information concerning the
Canadian preparations for war, and facts that could be used by the
Germans here in planning attacks upon munition factories, railroads and
transportation facilities in the Dominion. An Irish employé of the
_Atlas Line_ has been arrested on a charge of planning with Koenig to
start a “military enterprise” against the Dominion. The employé, named
Justice, is accused of going to Quebec to ascertain the number of troops
which were being transported by the Dominion of Canada to ports in
France and Great Britain; the names of the steamships on which said
troops were being transported; the kind and quantity of supplies which
were being shipped from the Dominion to France and Great Britain, and
other information which would or might be of value to the German
Government, and which would assist the military operations of the German

_The complaint stated that the undertaking was one of hazard, and came
within the purview of the statute forbidding the undertaking of any
military venture with this country as a basis of operation._ It says,
further, that Justice and Metzler, Koenig’s secretary, left New York on
September 15, 1914, and went to Quebec; that Koenig left New York on
September 18 and met Metzler in Portland, Me., and that he went to
Burlington, Vt., where on September 25 he conferred with Justice. The
authorities also say that Metzler and Justice gained a varied assortment
of information in Quebec; that they inspected the fortifications there,
went to the training camps, observed the number of men, the condition of
the men and estimated the time when they would be sent to the front.


In his meetings with various persons who had been picked for some daring
enterprise, Koenig is accused of having employed various names. The
Federal authorities give him at least thirteen, among which are
Wegenkamp, Wegener, Kelly, Winter, Perkins, Stemler, Rectorberg, Boehm,
Kennedy, James, Smith, Murphy and W. T. Munday.

After indictments had been returned against some of the Hamburg-American
officials for conspiring to defraud the United States of legal clearance
papers, Koenig, assisted by a private detective in the pay of Captain
Boy-Ed, developed a scheme to get affidavits from tugboat captains to
the effect that they had supplied English war vessels patrolling off
Sandy Hook with provisions.

_The plan was to turn sentiment against the British by proving that the
British were doing the same thing that had been charged to the Germans._
Accordingly, Koenig called a number of tugboat captains to a room in the
Great Eastern Hotel, New York, and offered them a contract to haul
provisions to the English cruisers. He told them that the captains were
extremely suspicious of boats approaching the war vessels, and the
affidavits were necessary to allay their fears that the tugboats might
have a few Germans with bombs on board. So, in return for sworn
statements from them to the effect that they already had been carrying
supplies out to other English cruisers, he, Koenig, was to give them a
monthly contract to do the work. Many of the tugboat captains signed the
affidavits; but the scheme was exposed before the Germans really made
any use of the documents. So carefully did Koenig work that he made the
stenographers who took the statements transcribe the notes in his
presence, give him the shorthand notes and he immediately destroyed


Through the arrest of Koenig and the facts obtained thereby, one of the
mysteries concerning the Germans’ method of getting information about
the shipment of munitions of war to the Allies was cleared. _They knew
the number of the freight car rushing to the Atlantic seaboard and its
exact contents._ They knew the ship’s hold into which that product was
to be placed; but how they got this data was a mystery until Koenig was
caught. Then Metzler, Koenig’s secretary, made a confession that cleared
the mystery. Agent Adams got the confession.

Besides having spies in some of the factories throughout the country,
the Germans had one great fountain of information in the foreign
department of the National City Bank, an institution that has carried
hundreds of millions of dollars in financing the purchase of supplies
for the Entente Powers. That source was Frederick Schleindl, a German
who has since been convicted of selling stolen information and sentenced
to three years in a New York State prison.

Schleindl, only twenty-three years old, came to this country from
Germany several years ago, obtained work with a private banking firm,
and after the war started was shifted to the National City Bank. He had
influence to get the position, and, incidentally, it may be said, that
for years prior to the war German agents, trained financiers, have been
stationed in New York, making friends and learning conditions, so that
at the critical time they could, by underground means, succeed in
getting positions for such men as Schleindl who would betray their


When the war started Schleindl registered with the German Consul, giving
his address and his place of business. One day word reached him that a
German wished to see him, and going to the Hotel Manhattan he was
approached by a man who introduced himself as Koenig. The latter sounded
him thoroughly as to his sentiments on the war, and then outlined the
scheme by which Schleindl was to help Germany and make $25 a week.
Schleindl was to keep his eyes open for all letters and cable messages
bearing on the deposits of the Allies with the bank, the payments of
orders and other facts bearing on the war.

The bank clerk succumbed, either through patriotism or love of money.
And Koenig had placed his finger on exactly the right spot; so accurate
was he that there seems no doubt that he received guidance from a master
spy higher up, who knew banking operations thoroughly, and where to go
for information. It quickly developed that Schleindl could obtain
information of two very important kinds.

First, he received in his department cable messages bearing on war
orders and deposits by the Allies. The day he was arrested he had in his
pocket certain messages and letters addressed to the National City Bank.
One had come from the Banque Belge pour Etrangers in regard to a
shipment of two million rifles that was being handled through the Hudson
Trust Company. Another message that he picked up and handed over to
Koenig had come from the Russian Government, directing the bank to place
at the disposal of Colonel Golejewski, a Russian naval attaché, a large
amount of money for the purchase of war materials.

Secondly, the bank paid for orders of goods as soon as they had been
inspected and delivered on board ships at the seaboard. The
manufacturers sent their bills of lading to the bank, showing the
carload shipments and the vessel to which they were consigned. _Thus
accurate information was obtained as to every item, the railroad route
of shipment and the name of the vessel._ All this information was turned
over to Koenig, who passed it along for dissemination to the proper
persons. Consequently, _the Germans knew exactly what ships to attack;
in what vessels to place their fire bombs or other explosives_.

Schleindl was accustomed to meet Koenig almost every night and hand him
papers. Sometimes he would go to Koenig’s office, where “P. K.,” Metzler
and Schleindl would spend many hours copying the documents. Other times
Schleindl would give the papers to Koenig and receive them on his way to
work, so that they would be in their proper place the moment any bank
official desired them. _Koenig pleaded guilty in the Court of Special
Sessions to an information charging him with having corrupted the boy to
sell such information. Koenig was set free on a suspended sentence._

The National City Bank leak is only one of a hundred channels through
which Koenig and his agents received information. Koenig compiled it
with the aid of his secretary, conferred with von Papen or Boy-Ed. He
would spend a few weeks gathering facts, and then he would pack hundreds
of papers into a trunk and run down to Washington. Arriving there, he
would take a taxi to a rooming house, where he would unpack his trunk,
and put the contents into another trunk in an adjoining room.

As weeks went by and Koenig believed he was escaping police and Federal
espionage, he grew bolder, more defiant of the authorities, and louder
in his talk. He treated his employés with less consideration. He always
followed a principle of never hiring the same reservist for a second
job. Then he quarrelled with George Fuchs, a relative whom he had
employed to go to Buffalo with him. The police heard of that quarrel,
and quickly got into the confidence of Fuchs, obtained his confession,
and enough information on which to arrest Koenig. He has been indicted
by the Federal authorities twice on charges that may get him six years,
if convicted.

The two men were active workers for a time. Koenig continues in New
York, but von Igel sailed with Count Bernstorff when the latter was
dismissed from this country.

Continue Reading

Superintendent of the New York

America has been the great background of the European War. Though far
removed from the trenches with the play of artillery and the heroic
charges, this country has been the scene of an equally dramatic, though
silent struggle—a battle not visible to the eye. It has been a conflict
of wits, of statesman pitted against statesman, of secret agent striving
to outdo his opponent of a belligerent nation; for in America, agents of
Germany have been striving for a two-fold aim. They have sought to
enmesh the United States in an international conspiracy and to use this
country as the means of a rear attack on the Entente Allies.

And New York has been the centre of it all. In several of the huge
office buildings that make the thoroughfares of the city seem like
canyons, Germany had, and still has, the headquarters of a vast
nerve-like system radiating throughout the country. The nerve coils are
composed of thousands of secret agents located in every city and town.
These men have worked under orders from Berlin in the execution of a
series of campaigns designed to be of service to the Teutonic Allies.
Against these men have been pitted agents of the American government,
all aiming to detect the schemes and frustrate any plans for the
violation of our neutrality laws.

A diplomat, famed for his finesse and grace of manner, was at a
reception given to distinguished statesmen, talented business men and
attractive women. The conversation was turned to the topic of spies. One
woman wished to know if the diplomat had encountered any spies.

“Well,” remarked the diplomat, “I used to stop at the Hotel Grandeur,
but Count ——” (mentioning the name of a diplomat of a nation with which
his country was at war) “persisted in having my baggage searched every
day. So I moved to the Hotel Excellency; but I found things no better

“Didn’t you complain to the management?”

“Ah, no,” answered he gravely, “but every time the Count stops at the
Hotel Elaborate, I have his baggage searched, too.”

Perhaps the diplomat was not serious, but in days when the destiny of
nations was at stake, it was likely that he was speaking none too
lightly of a game that had doubtless cost him many an hour of the
keenest anxiety.

Of all the secret service systems, the German is the most elaborate and
machine-like. It has been organized not merely to gather information,
but to trample upon the laws of the United States, in order to hinder
any project of the Entente Allies. Constructed in the hours of peace
with the utmost care and foresight, it was easily expanded in the United
States at the outbreak of the war into such a vast network that if a
representative of the Allies suddenly retraced his steps or halted
suddenly when around a corner, he was almost sure to bump the shins of a
German spy. Germany, always methodical and thorough, possessing a genius
for moulding a multitude of details into an effective whole, had
prepared her secret service system with the same efficiency with which
through scores of years she had equipped her military forces for battle;
indeed, her secret service was a part of her military forces.

The system is based on the principle of “Lass die linke Hand nicht
wissen was die rechte tut”—“let not the left hand know what the right is
doing.” _So thoroughly is this maxim followed that two German spies may
be working side by side and not be aware of the fact._ Though groups of
Germans may engage in some activity with a thorough understanding of the
aims of another, still the order of silence is rigorously enforced. The
agents hand their information to a superior, who in turn transmits it to
somebody higher up. _One spy knows only the person or group of persons
with whom he directly deals, sending information along devious and
hidden routes up to the final assembling point._

Germany’s spy system has been the sword hand of her statesmen and her
diplomats. When this war is over and the world learns of the moves,
counter-moves, and Machiavellian methods of German diplomats, with their
intrigues, secret understandings, and their daring attempts to force
this country into dangerous situations, people will realize more clearly
than to-day what a marvellous system has been behind many seemingly
casual developments in this country. It will be shown how German agents
have violated our laws in order to gain secret information for the
benefit of Germany; how her secret agents have committed crimes in order
to coerce diplomatic negotiations.


So perfectly organized and so responsive to the slightest suggestion
from Berlin is the American branch of the Kaiser’s secret service that
vast undertakings—some legitimate, many in violation of American
laws—were carried out.

The magician, who invented the wireless, enabled the German General War
Staff to move to New York. The splash and splutter of electricity over
oceans and continents virtually transported Germany’s leading statesmen,
tacticians, and scientists at will to hold sessions in Manhattan on
matters arising in America and bearing on the battle-front in the many
theatres of actual warfare. For instance, how many people know that the
secretary to one of the generals on the Western Line was a brother to
one of the most notorious woman plotters in America? Germany had
foreseen the possibilities of the wireless in war and had developed
secret methods of sending code messages by radiogram, when apparently
only ordinary messages were being transmitted, and she had also, some
way or other, got possession of the code ciphers of other nations. Every
night messages have been sent out from Germany, apparently blindly,
addressed to no one and have been picked up by hidden receiving stations
in America and other countries.

While Germany calls her spy system “a bureau of intelligence,” its
purpose is confined not merely to the gathering of information, but to
the carrying out of any campaign that will be harmful to her enemies. In
the United States, Germans—reservists, army officers, representatives of
the German Government—have been indicted for crimes against Federal
laws. These violations were committed without doubt in a
self-sacrificing spirit with the aim of helping the Fatherland. Germans,
or German influences, have been behind schemes in violation of
neutrality laws and restraint of trade. _They have attempted arson,
bribery, forgery, engaged in military enterprises, caused explosions in
ships and factories, resulting in many deaths, and have set fires in
ships and factories._

They have participated in plots against Canada, Ireland and India, all
developed in the United States under the supervision of the German
representatives of Berlin, though often ostensibly carried out by
anarchist tools. _The activities of the German agents_, multitudinous in
detail and variety, _all have been designed to hinder the Allies_ in
their prosecution of the war, _to cause a breach between the Allies and
the United States, to embroil this country in a war and to accomplish
other secret aims of the General War Staff_. In all the propaganda,
German secret agents and official representatives of the German
Government have not only worked with utter disregard to American laws,
but have endeavoured to place the United States in a position of being
secretly unneutral.

But the German Government has officially denied that she ordered any of
her subjects to undertake any act in violation of American laws. Shortly
after President Wilson in his message to Congress bitterly attacked the
activities of Germans and German-Americans in America, accusing the
latter of treason, the German Government authorized the statement that

* * * * *

“_Naturally has never knowingly accepted the support of any person,
group of persons, society or organization seeking to promote the cause
of Germany in the United States by illegal acts, by counsels of
violence, by contravention of law, or by any means whatever that could
offend the American people in the pride of their own authority. If it
should be alleged that improper acts have been committed by
representatives of the German Government they could be easily dealt
with. To any complaints upon proof as may be submitted by the American
Government suitable response will be duly made…. Apparently the
enemies of Germany have succeeded in creating the impression that the
German Government is in some way, morally or otherwise, responsible for
what Mr. Wilson has characterized as anti-American activities,
comprehending attacks upon property in violation of the rules which the
American Government has seen fit to impose upon the course of neutral
trade. This the German Government absolutely denies. It cannot
specifically repudiate acts committed by individuals over whom it has no
control, and of whose movements and intentions it is neither officially
or unofficially informed._”[1]

* * * * *
Footnote 1:

Berlin despatch in the New York _Sun_, Dec. 19, 1915.

To this official disavowal of German propaganda in America, there are
two answers that stand out with dramatic force. First, the extent to
which the subjects of Germany are expected to go in war time is shown by
excerpts from Germany’s War Book of instructions to officers, which says
in part:

* * * * *

“_Bribery of the enemy’s subjects with the object of obtaining military
advantages, acceptances of offers of treachery, reception of deserters,
utilization of the discontented elements in the population, support of
the pretenders and the like are permissible; indeed, international law
is in no way opposed to the exploitation of the crimes of third parties
(assassination, incendiarism, robbery and the like) to the prejudice of
the enemy. Considerations of chivalry, generosity and honour may
denounce in such cases a hasty and unsparing exploitation of such
advantages as indecent and dishonourable, but law, which is less touchy,
allows it. The ugly and inherently immoral aspect of such methods cannot
affect the recognition of their lawfulness. The necessary aims of war
give the belligerent the right and imposes upon him, according to
circumstances, the duty not to let slip the important, it may be
decisive, advantages to be gained by such means._”[2]

* * * * *
Footnote 2:

The War Book of the German General Staff, translated by J. H. Morgan,
M.A., pp. 113–114.

Secondly, since Germany sent out that semi-official proclamation from
Berlin concerning propagandists, many steps have been taken by the
American Government, both administrative and judicial. Captains von
Papen and Boy-Ed, military and naval attachés respectively, have been
dismissed from this country for “improper activities in military and
naval affairs.”

There was no favouritism in the German secret service. Every German,
high or low, was open to assignment, disagreeable and dishonourable, in
getting information, and to orders to commit crimes—for Germany stops at
no crime—that may be necessary to circumvent the enemy.

Captain von Papen showed his feeling keenly one night at a dinner of a
few men where the wine flowed freely.

“My God, I would give everything in the world,” he exclaimed, “to be in
the trenches where I could do the work of a gentleman.” In his work,
there was no public reward for work well performed according to the war
code. That man’s sentiments were echoed by von Rintelen, who, when among
friends, fairly shook with emotion at the thought of the work in which
he was engaged.

“How loathsome I feel,” he said. “How this dirty work sticks to me! When
this war ends, I shall take a bath in carbolic acid.”


Over all the thousands of reservists, trained agents, and other spies
were the men in charge of the centres of information to whom they made
their report; and the three or four chief lieutenants in charge of the
various and distinct line of activities into which these matters of war,
finance and commerce automatically were divided. There were practically,
outside of the Chief Spy, three important executives in this country,
supervising respectively the commercial, military and naval lines of
information and activity. Each one of these men was surrounded by a
group of experts who had charge of a sub-division of the work. All had
their legal advisers, their bankers, and every sort of an expert that
their special work required. Upon them fell the task of sifting and
analysing the mass of facts gathered by the spies and making reports to
Berlin. Upon each one of them also fell the duty of carrying out any
orders that might come from the General War Staff in Germany.

First and foremost of the three lieutenants was Dr. Heinrich F. Albert,
Privy Councillor to the German Embassy in America and Fiscal Agent of
the German Empire. He directed the gathering of a huge mass of
information of value to Germany concerning the financial, industrial and
commercial activities of this country, and was the chief instrument
through whom money reached the army of spies. Though he was the director
of many activities, nothing criminal, it must be asserted in justice to
him, has been traced to him.

The military agent was Captain Franz von Papen, the attaché of the
German Embassy. His work was confined specifically to the procuring of
information that would be of aid to the Imperial German army and to the
military tasks that might be peculiarly helpful to the army.

The naval expert was Captain Karl Boy-Ed, another attaché of the German
Embassy. He had under him experts who made a speciality of various lines
of naval matters, fortifications, coast defences and explosives.

The headquarters of the entire system were and are yet in New York. Dr.
Albert had his offices in the Hamburg-American Steamship Company’s
building, and he utilized at times a good part of the Hamburg-American
Company’s staff—a concern in which the Kaiser himself owns a large
percentage of the stock. In the same building was the office of Paul
Koenig, the business manager of part of Germany’s spy system in America,
though nominally the Superintendent of Police for the Hamburg-American
line. Captain Boy-Ed had his headquarters in Room 801 of 11, Broadway,
and Captain von Papen had his on the twenty-fifth floor of 60, Wall

This narrative seeks to show as definitely as possible the work of these
three agents of Germany in America and of others co-operating with them.
It sets forth the enterprises that they plotted and the ramifications of
their organization. It reveals how countless agents, unaware that they
were parts of a vast system and often innocent of any intentional
wrongdoing, acted their parts. It shows how that part of the machinery
engaged in legitimate propaganda was linked at places with the machinery
executing illegal acts.

While the conspiracy has been manipulated, the American Government has
been very active. To the skill of the United States secret service,
headed by Chief William J. Flynn, always alert and apparently unruffled
in the most trying crises, and to A. Bruce Bielaski, head of the special
agents of the Department of Justice, and William M. Offley,
Superintendent of the New York Bureau of the special agents, has fallen
the task of seeing that the representatives of the different countries
followed the American maxim, “Play fair; play according to the rules of
international law and the laws of this country.” Upon Police
Commissioner Woods, his deputy, Guy Scull, of New York, and his
enthusiastic and clever aid, Police Captain Thomas J. Tunney, has
devolved also the hazardous and difficult task of combating the schemes
of those spies. Those men, by courageous and skilful detective work have
unearthed and foiled some of the most daring bomb plots of the Germans.

To Messrs. Flynn and Bielaski, at times, have come secrets of intrigue
and conspiracy that must have made them, even as it has the President,
almost tremble with the import of impending events that had to be

“I always say to these idiotic Yankees they had better hold their

So wrote Captain Franz von Papen, German military attaché in America, to
his wife in Germany—a letter which he entrusted to Captain James F. J.
Archibald, American newspaper correspondent and bearer of secret and
confidential messages from Teutonic representatives. The German word
which the Captain used was “bloedsinnig,” meaning silly, stupid,
idiotic. It has a sneering ring, truly typical of the Prussian warrior’s
contempt for Americans. It suggests the disdainful feeling which the
military attaché had for the loyalty of Americans. One can imagine his
sly laugh as he handed to an American that letter and code messages to
the War Staff. With a similar feeling of contempt for the British, when
dismissed from this country and assured of safe conduct as to person, he
carried on board the steamer _Noordam_ a portfolio of papers from
friends reflecting the same disgust for America and outlining his own
unlawful and criminal acts in America. But in both instances his
arrogant self-confidence brought exposure.

This attitude of arrogance was Captain von Papen’s chief characteristic.
Joined to it was the brother trait, bluntness. He believed that the
American people were not only stupid but also weak-sighted and that he
could do anything he wanted without detection. So he put his heart and
soul into military and criminal enterprises upon American soil. The
Captain apparently thought that the American authorities would not
suspect his machinations, for, unlike Captain Boy-Ed, he made
comparatively few efforts to cover up the trails of his activities. That
carelessness proved his scorn for American detective methods, for with
all his haughtiness and bravado he had been trained in a school of
craft. He had been drilled under instructors who placed a prize on
cunning, deceit, intrigue, reckless disregard of the rights of others,
and the destiny of Prussia as a conqueror. The Captain presumably
believed that craft and cunning were not necessary in America.


Confident that he was eluding the watchful eye of the United States
authorities with more skill than his associates, he sent a telegram one
day to Captain Boy-Ed, warning him to be more careful. Whereupon the
latter, smiling cheerfully to himself, wrote this letter: “Dear Papen: A
secret agent who returned from Washington this evening, made the
following statement: ‘The Washington people are very much excited about
von Papen and are having a constant watch kept on him. They are in
possession of a whole heap of incriminating evidence against him. They
have no evidence against Count B. and Captain B.-E. (!)’” Boy-Ed, a
little too optimistically, added: “In this connection I would suggest
with due diffidence that perhaps the first part of your telegram is
worded rather too emphatically.”

Wrapped in that sense of contempt the military attaché began immediately
upon the outbreak of war, even as he had planned before it, to make the
United States “the hinterland” of the European battlefield. In the
Embassy at Washington, the German consulate in New York, the
Hamburg-American Building, an office in 60, Wall Street—which he
secretly leased—and on board German merchantmen tied up in New York
Harbour, he gathered about him German officials and German reservists,
outlining plots in violation of American law, all designed to injure the
Allies and help the cause of Germany. In those conferences, _his
arrogant disregard of America_ and his determination _overruled the
hesitating dissenters_. His was the Prussian spirit of aggression. In
those gatherings, he was both the dominating and the domineering factor:
tall and broad-shouldered, with a commanding attitude, energetic in
speech, and lightning-like in the development of bold plans. He has the
strong forehead, the long, firm nose, and the heavy underjaw of a
commander, but the large ears that denote recklessness and eyes blue and
hard as steel.


He had been selected in his youth for secret work because of an aptness
which he early displayed. He had been trained especially for the work
which he undertook in other countries under direction of the German
General Staff and for the tasks that devolved upon him in America both
before and after the war. As a young officer he was sent out from
Germany, travelling as a civilian, making special studies of the
sentiment of the people, the topography of the country, and getting in
touch with other secret workers. One of the countries which he studied
with remarkable care was Ireland. He tramped and rode every foot of the
land and knew it thoroughly. He displayed something of the knowledge he
had acquired when riding in Central Park, one day after the war started,
he stopped to chat with an acquaintance who had bought a mare. Waxing
enthusiastic over the animal he quickly showed his acquaintance with
Ireland by giving the breed of the mare and telling exactly the counties
in Ireland where that breed could be found.

How well he disguised himself in those various expeditions when he rode
horseback simply as a sightseer, is indicated by his horsemanship.
Though he was trained in a riding school at Hanover, where ostensibly
they teach the French method, nevertheless in Central Park, where many a
morning he could be observed, he displayed perfect English form. They
say that when one learns the French style, one invariably clings to it
above all others. Naturally, a horseman travelling through Ireland
revealing every characteristic of the French school would attract

As the military attaché of the German Embassy, Captain von Papen was
under orders, not of Count von Bernstorff, but of the military head in
Germany. Appointed personally by the Kaiser as the representative of the
German Army in America and Mexico, he had the commission that falls to
every military attaché of a foreign government, namely, to make a study
of the army of the nation to which he is accredited.

Captain von Papen, always striving for praise and preferment from the
Kaiser, was a most enthusiastic gatherer of military information.
Knowing that no phase of military activity throughout the world escapes
the watchful eye of the Chief Spy or the German General Staff, von Papen
was always on the alert for any invention, new method of warfare, or
germ of an idea that might be developed into an important advantage for
Germany; just as the War Staff got their suggestion for the modern
trench warfare from the Indians and later from the Civil War. For
instance, shortly before the great war started, Captain von Papen,
addressed as “Royal Prussian Captain on the General Staff of the Army,”
was directed by R. von Wild, of the Ministry of War’s office, to proceed
to Mexico and there investigate the attacks on railroad trains by means
of mines and explosives. He made a thorough investigation and though he
reported: “I consider it out of the question that explosions prepared in
this way would have to be reckoned with in a European war,” he
nevertheless sought to utilize that method in blowing up tunnels and
railroads in Canada.


How well von Papen, as an organizer and military investigator, acquitted
himself in the interest of the Kaiser is set forth in Rear Admiral von
Hintze’s own language in a report which he made from Mexico to the
Imperial Chancellor recommending von Papen for a decoration. That letter
is striking; for it suggests the work which von Papen afterwards did in
America, if he had not already made the arrangements for it prior to the
outbreak of the European conflict. The admiral wrote that von Papen
“showed special industry in organizing the German colony for purposes of
self-defence and out of this shy and factious material, unwilling to
undertake any military activity, he obtained what there was to be got.”

While von Papen had a staff of experts and of secret agents prior to the
war, he did not then have the perfectly developed system at his command
which he used afterwards. That he had his plans well mapped out for any
contingency and that he knew the situation thoroughly is vividly
illustrated in a draft of a cable message which he sent to Captain
Boy-Ed from Mexico City on July 29, 1914, saying:

“If necessary, arrange business for me too with Pavenstedt. Then inform
Lersner. The Russian attaché ordered back to Washington by telegraph. On
outbreak of war have intermediaries located by detective where Russian
and French intelligence office.” The latter part of the message,
referring to intermediaries, is open to two interpretations: first, that
Boy-Ed was to have detectives locate the Russian and French intelligence
offices; second, Boy-Ed was to place spies in the Russian and French
intelligence bureaus.

Hurrying to Washington, the military attaché immediately took charge of
the military part of Germany’s spy system. He began to weld together
into a vast organization scientists, experts, secret agents and German
reservists who would gather information for him and who would be ready
at the command of the General War Staff, to undertake any military
enterprise. The entire organization of German consuls and
representatives in America work in unity in war as in peace. How quickly
von Papen got his staff together is shown in a statement made by Franz
Wachendorf, alias Horst von der Goltz, alias Bridgeman Taylor, who
became one of Papen’s aids in spy work and military enterprises.
Wachendorf, who was a major in the Mexican army at the outbreak of war,
said under oath: “The 3rd of August, 1914; licence was given me by my
commanding officer to separate myself from the service of the brigade
for the term of six months. I left directly for El Paso, Texas, where I
was told by Mr. Kuck, German consul at Chihuahua, Mexico, who stayed
there, to put myself at the disposition of Captain von Papen.”


The military attaché also had help from Germany and from German
reservists coming from other countries. The War Office in Berlin sent
him men. Captain Hans Tauscher, the husband of Mme. Gadski, was in
Germany when war was declared. A reserve officer of the German Army, he
immediately offered himself for duty. His order was to return to America
at once and report to Captain von Papen. Likewise, soldiers and secret
agents with special equipment, who were in different parts of the world
and who had no definite work, were ordered by wireless or through secret
channels to hasten to Captain von Papen’s assistance. After a time, the
Chief Spy in Germany detailed some of his aids to America to help in the
upbuilding of a still more effective system of espionage.

Though remarkably skilled and trained to a high degree in a number of
different lines, Captain von Papen made it his business to gather around
him experts on every phase of military affairs, giving definite
assignments to each and thus dividing the work so that greater speed and
efficiency were obtained. He chose Captain Tauscher, agent of the Krupps
and other big and small gun manufacturers in Germany and Austria, as one
of his aids in gathering information. Captain Tauscher is an expert on
ordnance and as such he was of invaluable assistance to Captain von
Papen in obtaining facts regarding the manufacture of heavy ordnance and
explosives for the Allies. _Tauscher was on most friendly terms with
U.S. Ordnance officers._

Von Papen selected George von Skal, a German journalist and former
Commissioner of Accounts of New York, as a paid assistant in his office;
and as a matter of fact every one of the big German agents in America
had on his staff at least one trained newspaper man. He took as his
secretary Wolf von Igel, a young man of distinguished appearance, and
through him secretly rented a suite of offices in Wall Street “for
advertising purposes.”

Another man upon whom he could call for help was Paul Koenig, lent by
the Hamburg-American Steamship Company. Through Koenig, von Papen could
reach out to countless Germans and select men for any sort of task.
Sometimes, however, von Papen met with a refusal. He asked Captain
Tauscher to perform a certain piece of work of questionable character
and received in substance this answer: “I am ready to do anything within
the law but I will not attempt this task.” Experts in the chemistry of
explosives, scientists of various sorts, lawyers and other advisers were
on the military attaché’s staff, all having special tasks and all
working for the Kaiser with or without pay.


Von Papen sought to protect his Wall Street suite of offices from public
investigation by installing therein a safe bearing the seal of the
Imperial German Government. That safe, protected by time-locks and by
electrical devices against the curiosity of other secret agents or the
prying eyes of policemen, is said to have contained the plans of the
military phases of German propaganda. When the Federal agents suddenly
descended upon the office one day to arrest von Igel, they found the
safe open and the documents neatly laid out on the table preparatory to
shipment to Washington. From those papers the State Department and the
Attorney-General have learned much of the history of von Papen’s
activities—the inner workings of the German spy system. In that office
von Papen kept the full list of his various secret agents, German and
American, working for him, their addresses and telephone numbers;
various code books for the deciphering of messages sent to him and for
sending word to agents in this country or making reports.

Accordingly, when von Papen’s plan for espionage was perfected, he had
not only a staff of experts at his elbow, but thousands of reservists
and the help of German and Austro-Hungarian consuls and channels of
information. He had men at his disposal for dangerous and delicate
missions to other countries. The ramifications of the system, the
collecting agency and activities which he supervised for the good of the
Fatherland were so finely organized and so comprehensive that von Papen
in reality was the head of the military division of the German spy
system of the entire world, outside of the countries belted by the
Allies with a ring of steel.

Facts to prove the details of von Papen’s organization and deeds were
obtained from the von Igel papers, from the letters and secret documents
taken from Captain Archibald; from documents and check stubs found in
von Papen’s possession when searched at Falmouth, England; from von der
Goltz’s confession; from scores of witnesses and from facts dug up by
the Secret Service and the Department of Justice. The trials of various
offenders against neutrality laws have given the public more evidence.
United States District-Attorney H. Snowden Marshall, in New York, his
assistants, Roger B. Wood, in charge of the criminal division; Raymond
H. Sarfaty, John C. Knox, and Harold A. Content, all set forth before
the public many phases of the ingenious underground methods of spying
and violating the law. Upon the evidence found by those officials and by
United States District-Attorney Preston, of San Francisco, the following
facts are presented:

Once the spies were selected and assigned to their duties, von Papen
sought first, to glean information bearing on the great war. He was
interested, naturally, in the amount of shrapnel shells and high
explosives which the Allies were purchasing. He was eager to ascertain
what American Army officers were learning about the military operations
on the Continent and what the American Government was doing to develop
its army to cope with the new problems arising from the war. He was
watching the officers of the Allies in this country. He was seeking
lines of communication with the racial elements in America that were
allied with the insurrection forces in the colonies of the Entente
Powers. The varied results of his investigations are shown by extracts
from reports which he sent to Berlin by Captain Archibald. One letter
told, for instance, that the Norwegian and Dutch governments were in the
market for war materials. Von Papen asked if there were any objection by
Germany to the sale to those governments of war products purchased by
him in America, adding:

“I could probably dump on the Norwegian Government a great part of the
Lehigh Coke Company’s toluol which is lying around useless.”

In a cipher despatch to the chief of the General Staff in Berlin, he
noted a conversation overheard in Philadelphia between two Englishmen.
One British army officer, he said, was explaining a method for conveying
military information by photographs. Likewise he gathered news of the
Spanish Government seeking supplies, and sifted the facts assembled from
factories, banking houses, diplomatic sources and transportation offices
about the Allied war orders.


Captain von Papen’s cheque counterfoils are a veritable diary of some of
his criminal—or if you please, military—activities in America. They give
the names and the aliases of his secret agents; and day after day are
recorded therein the payments made by von Papen to the persons working
for or with him. The counterfoils tell the story of the purpose of the
payment and by means of the endorsements on the cheques one can gather
in skeleton form the story of a part—but not all—of the propaganda which
the military attaché supervised. The stubs show the receipt of money,
almost immediately after the beginning of the war marked for “War
Intelligence Office.” The interesting thing is that money for war
intelligence work came from von Bernstorff and that funds for salary and
expenses came from Dr. Fr. Adler, the Ambassador’s secretary. To the
fact that Captain von Papen kept such an accurate diary—an instance of
German efficiency—is due in part the exposure of his varied activities
in this country.

To Anton Kuepferle, another German spy captured in England and suspected
after a confession to have shot himself, he gave $100. To Wachendorf he
gave funds that the latter might go both to Berlin and England in the
service of the Kaiser. To Paul Koenig, he handed many accounts for
secret service work, paying also the expenses of Koenig’s agents on
trips to Montreal and Quebec in hunting information about enlistments of
soldiers in Canada and the shipments of supplies from Canadian ports.
The stub book also shows that he sent agents to investigate ammunition
factories in different parts of the country, and that he paid the
expenses of von Skal in getting “photographs for the War Intelligence
Office.” He constantly was sending cheques to consuls in various parts
of the country to pay the expenses of reservists and agents.


The diary, too, tells us of Captain von Papen’s plan to invade Canada.
Scarcely had he arrived in this country from Mexico, a few days after
the Germans had invaded Belgium, than, as general-in-chief of the German
reservists, he began to mobilize his forces for a military enterprise in
Canada. If you look at the Captain’s diary you see these entries:
“September 1, 1914, Mr. Bridgeman Taylor, $200;” “September 16, for
Buffalo, Taylor, Ryan, $200;” “September 22, for Ryan, Buffalo, $200;”
“October 14, for Fritzen and Busse, Buffalo, $40,00.”

These are the earmarks of an unsuccessful military enterprise; for just
as soon as Captain von Papen saw reservists gather in New York and
assembling in other points he laid his plans for a concerted move on
Canada. He discussed the details with his majors, captains and
lieutenants assembling in New York. He met them in secret at night in
the German Club and with maps and other detailed plans he set forth his
mode of attack.

_Captain von Papen’s scheme—as they talked it over at the German
Club—was to create such a reign of terror among Canadians that the
provincial governments would deem it absolutely necessary to keep all
the troops in Canada for defence rather than hurry them to the European
battle-front._ The plan, while it entailed explosions and fighting, was
largely for psychological effect. One part of the scheme was to send an
expedition to blow up the Welland Canal, a waterway that runs around
Niagara Falls on the Canadian side and is a most important avenue of
transportation for freight and passengers. _The second part was to have
an invasion by German reservists upon various parts of the Canadian

Captain von Papen aimed to create a panic among the Canadians, to put
such fear into them that they would say to England, “We need our troops
for self-protection against the Germans in the United States”—thereby
putting the United States in a position of being unable to preserve its
neutrality. The destruction of the canal by a tremendous explosion, or
the detonation of a carload of dynamite on some railroad, or any sort of
explosion in the Dominion, believed to have been supervised by Germans,
would have had a tremendous effect upon the people. Doubtless this was
what Captain von Papen sought; for that was the way he outlined the
scheme to his assistants.

It has been stated that Wachendorf was one of the men whom von Papen
gathered for secret conference in the German Club. “Von der Goltz” in a
confession made to the Federal authorities said that he was asked to
give his opinion about a proposal made to the German Embassy, the writer
of which, a certain Schumacher, had asked for financial support in order
to carry out a scheme by which _he would be able to make raids on towns
situated on the coast of the Great Lakes. He proposed to use motor-boats
armed with machine-guns._ Though the proposal was rejected on account of
the Embassy receiving unfavourable information about the writer, “von
der Goltz” next was requested to aid in a scheme of invasion of Canada
with a small armed force recruited from the reservists in the United
States. The scheme, which was proposed by von Papen and Boy-Ed, was
abandoned as objections to it were made by Count von Bernstorff. “Von
der Goltz” says he was told so by Captain von Papen.


Captain von Papen next asked “von der Goltz” to see at his hotel two
Irishmen, prominent members of Irish associations, both of whom had
fought in the Irish rebellion and who had proposed to Captain von Papen
to blow up the locks of the canals connecting the Great Lakes, main
railway junctions and grain elevators. “Von der Goltz” says he received
the gentlemen at his hotel, the men bringing with them a letter of
introduction written by Captain von Papen. After having taken them to
his room he got further details of the matter, maps and diagrams
evidently cut out of books.

“Von der Goltz” also tells of going to Baltimore to enlist a number of
German reservists who were staying on a German vessel there. In that
scheme, he says, he had the aid of Karl A. Luederitz, German consul. He
brought them to New York, but believing that his movements were being
watched by Federal agents, he sent them back. Continuing his story of
the conspiracy, von der Goltz writes:

“I saw Mr. Tauscher and he gave me a letter of introduction to the
Dupont Powder Company, recommending B. H. Taylor, and the company
supplied me with an order to the bargeman in charge of the dynamite
barges lying on the New Jersey side near the Statue of Liberty. Captain
Tauscher told me he would send the automatic pistols by messenger to
Hoboken, to be delivered there to one of my agents at a certain
restaurant, as he would be liable to punishment if he delivered them in
New York without having seen my permit. The reasons why I did not apply
to the police for a permit are obvious.”


“In order to get the dynamite it was necessary for me to hire a
motor-boat at a place near 146th Street, Harlem, and to put the dynamite
on board in suit-cases. After returning to the dock, where I had hired
the boat, I went in a taxicab, having two suit-cases with me, to the
German Club to see von Papen, who told me to call for the generators and
then wire again at the club. I took the dynamite to my rooms, where I
kept also a portion of the arms packed in small portmanteaus ready to be
moved, the rest of the dynamite and arms being in the keeping of two of
my agents, one of whom was Mr. Fritzen, discharged from a Russian
steamer, where he had acted in the capacity of purser; the other one
being Mr. Busse, a commercial agent, who had lived for some time in
England. The only other agent I employed was C. Covani, who attended to
me personally, Tucker not being entrusted with any of those things.”

Going to Buffalo with his men and equipment, “von der Goltz” was unable
for some reason to receive definite instructions from von Papen, who was
supposed to communicate with him under the name of “Steffens.” He says:

“Being thrown on my own discretion, I determined to reconnoitre the
terrain where I wanted to act first, but to do nothing further till I
should receive orders.

“On 25th September received notice from Ryan to come to Buffalo. Having
meantime received private information that the 1st Canadian Contingent
had left Valcartier Camp, I knew that I should be recalled, the object
of the enterprise being removed. I received from Ryan the telegram
agreed upon in that case, but as I had spent most of the money furnished
to me I asked whether Ryan had not received money to enable me to pay
off the men. Ryan said he had not, but gave me some of his own
initiative, and said he would wire ‘Steffens.’ On the 26th September I
received telegram from ‘Steffens’ telling me to do what I thought best,
and asking whether I had received the $200. Thinking it best to return
to New York, all the more as funds were insufficient, I discharged Busse
and Fritzen, who went to Buffalo, left dynamite and other materials in
the keeping of an aviator who was manager of a restaurant at Niagara
Falls, to be used again when necessary, and left with Covani for New
York by way of Buffalo.”

The trial of Captain Tauscher on the indictment charging him with
conspiring with von Papen, von Igel and others to blow up the Welland
Canal resulted in the acquittal of the German reservist; but it was
admitted that von Papen and von der Goltz had developed a plot to
destroy the Canal.

The evidence presented by Prosecutor Wood made a case, corroborated by
details of testimony and documents, that delighted legal experts. The
jurors, several of whom were of foreign birth, acquitted the captain
apparently on the theory that, though he had furnished the dynamite,
fuses and automatic revolvers to von der Goltz, he knew nothing about
the plot, but simply had followed the orders given him by his superior
officer, Captain von Papen.


Captain Tauscher, in the witness-box, testified that he was in Germany
at the outbreak of the war; that he had proffered his services as a
reservist officer and that he had been directed to return to America and
report to Captain von Papen. He said he knew von Papen as the head of
the German secret service and that he was compelled to obey him. He
protested, however, that he had exacted a promise from von Papen to the
effect that he would not be asked to do anything contrary to American
laws. He said he was an ordnance expert under von Papen.

Many documents, revealing the manner in which von Papen and his
assistants worked, had been taken from von Igel’s office, formerly von
Papen’s New York headquarters, and were presented as evidence by
Prosecutor Wood. One document was a piece of paper in von Papen’s own
handwriting directing that a cheque in payment of the ammunition,
pistols and dynamite, be drawn in favour of Captain Tauscher and that
the same be charged to the account of William G. Sichols. Still another
document was a copy of a letter written to a preacher in March, 1916,
saying that Tucker, one of the witnesses in the Canal expedition, must
be sent away for a time and remain quiet. The amount, $100, was enclosed
for that purpose. Tucker was arrested in Texas. Although Captain
Tauscher was freed, practically every charge of the prosecution was
admitted except that Captain Tauscher had any knowledge of von Papen’s
criminal intentions.


Without doubt, according to facts gathered by the Federal authorities
and developed in Canada, Captain von Papen and reservist German army
officers in the country did plan a mobilization of German reservists to
attack Canadian points. Hundreds of thousands of rifles and hundreds of
thousands of rounds of ammunition that were to be available for German
reservists were stored in New York, in Chicago, and different places
along the border. While the Canadian and the American officials
developed evidence concerning this plan of invasion, Max Lynar Louden,
known to the Federal authorities as “Count Louden,” a man of nondescript
reputation, who had secret communications with the Germans in the early
part of the war, has confessed that he was party to the scheme for quick
mobilization and equipment of an army of German reservists. Many persons
insist that Louden is a fabricator, nevertheless his secret activities
were of such a character that he was under suspicion by the Federal
authorities. At one time, he succeeded in getting himself invited to a
Government House Ball, when the Duke of Connaught was the host. His
bizarre costume attracted attention. The moment it was rumoured that he
was supposed to have two or three wives, a State investigation was
commenced, which resulted in the imprisonment of Louden. His story,
therefore, is interesting.

Through German-American interests the plans were made in 1914, he said,
and a fund of $10,000,000 was subscribed to carry out the details.
Secret meetings were held in New York, Buffalo, Philadelphia, Detroit,
Milwaukee, and other large cities, and at these meetings, Louden
asserted, it was agreed that _a force of 150,000 men, German reservists,
was available to seize and hold the Welland Canal_, other strategic
points and munitions centres.

“We had it arranged,” said Louden, “to send our men from large cities
following announcements of feasts and conventions; and I think we could
have obtained enough to carry out our plans had it not been for my
arrest on the charge of bigamy. _The troops were to have been divided
into four divisions, with six sections. The first two sections were to
have assembled at Silvercreek, Michigan. The first was to have seized
the Welland Canal. The second was to have taken Wind Mill Point. The
third was to have gone from Wilson, N.Y., to Port Hope, Canada. The
fourth was to have proceeded from Watertown, N.Y., to Kingston, Canada.
The fifth was to have assembled near Detroit and land near Windsor. The
sixth section was to leave Cornwall and take possession of Ottawa._”

After the enterprise on the Welland Canal failed and Count von
Bernstorff, according to von der Goltz, disapproved of the Canadian
invasion, there was a lull in any concerted move upon Canada.

By referring again to Captain von Papen’s diary it is evident that he
had other matters to absorb his attention. The counterfoils of the
cheque-book record payments such as the following payment dated July 10,
1915, “H. Tauscher (Preleuther’s bill for ‘Res. Picric Acid’) $68.” The
busy attaché, fighting here in the interests of the Fatherland had other


Captain von Papen was keenly alive to the production of explosives in
America for sale to the Allies. He was watching closely the product of
the different ammunition factories. He was locating the source of the
ingredients for such explosives, and he was naturally concerned in any
method for preventing the export of arms and ammunition to the Allies.
He possessed an unusual mind for economic data—a quality which aroused
the admiration of Dr. Albert. The two men were much in conference over
industrial matters that might be managed in the interest of the Teutonic
Allies. Under Dr Albert’s guidance he took up the project of acquiring a
monopoly in toluol, a constituent of the deadly explosive T. N. T., and
for buying picric acid, and liquid chlorine.

How he made recommendations on these things to Dr. Albert was shown in
connection with the fiscal agent’s activities. Other secret letters and
reports prove that he and his associates had control of the Lehigh Coke
Company, which turned out a large amount of toluol, and that he was
studying to control the supply of picric acid in this country. Still
further, he devoted much time to the Bridgeport Projectile Company in
Bridgeport, Connecticut. This company was organized shortly after the
outbreak of the war, and its promoters were prevailed upon to sell out
to German buyers who, after an exposé of their activities, disposed of
their holdings to still another group. Carl Heynen, an able German
organizer and expert in Mexican affairs, had charge of the plant and
supervised construction work and the placing of contracts for steel,
ammunition and presses. The money was furnished by Hugo Schmidt and Dr.

Von Papen, Heynen, Dr. Albert, frequently in conference, planned, as
excerpts from memorandum prepared by them prove, to utilize the company
in several ways: (1) _to turn out supplies that could be used by Germany
and her Allies, or by countries planning to make trouble for the United
States_; (2) to take the Allies’ orders and fail to fill them; (3) to
use the company as a means of getting information from the War

One of Captain von Papen’s own letters reveals the importance of these
enterprises. Writing to his wife about the so-called Albert papers, he

“Unfortunately they stole a fat portfolio from our good friend, Dr.
Albert, in the elevated. The English secret service, of course.
Unfortunately, there were some very important things from my report,
among them such as buying up liquid chlorine and about the Bridgeport
Projectile Company, as well as documents regarding the buying up of
phenol and the acquisition of Wright’s aeroplane patent. But things like
that must occur. I send you Albert’s reply, for you to see how we
protect ourselves. We composed the document to-day.”


This search for information of military value and these plans for
acquiring monopolies on certain ingredients for high explosives, carried
on during the winter and spring of 1914–15, were but preliminary to a
much more extensive campaign in which, as will be shown later on, Dr. C.
T. Dumba, the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, assisted by von Papen and
Boy-Ed, worked with the idea, first, of controlling the arms and
ammunition factories in this country, and next, of preventing the
shipment of such products from America.

Naturally, during the winter and spring, Captain von Papen, Captain
Boy-Ed, Dr. Albert and Count von Bernstorff, all along various lines,
had been struggling to help the Fatherland, each eagerly hoping for
success and some preferment extended by the Kaiser as a reward for tasks
well performed.

Attacks were planned upon the Canadian Pacific Railway in the east, the
Welland Canal, the St. Clair tunnel, running under the Detroit River
from Port Huron, Michigan, to Sarnia, Ontario, and tunnels of the
Canadian Pacific Railroad in the Selkirk mountains. It is also stated in
indictments handed down by a Federal Grand Jury in San Francisco that
_the conspirators in the West planned also to blow up trains carrying
munitions of war, horses, arms and the like, and also to attack trains
carrying soldiers_. By a study on the map of the points thus mentioned
it will be observed that these enterprises were planned with the utmost
care to break into sections of the Canadian transcontinental railway
system and to paralyse it absolutely. It can be seen at a glance that
such plots, if carried out, would have prevented soldiers and munitions
of war from travelling East to ship for the Western front, or from going
West to cross the Pacific, thence through Siberia to the Eastern front.
_To this land scheme was added the additional plots of destroying docks
by incendiarism, ships by explosions and fire._ Furthermore, _agents_ on
land under the direction of other men _were studying the munition
factories in the western part of the United States preparatory to
causing explosions and fires_.

For the execution of these campaigns against munition industries and
railroads in the West and North-west, Captain von Papen had special
lieutenants. The persons who have been convicted in San Francisco on the
charge of conspiring to blow up railroads and to wreck the
transcontinental railway system in Canada are: Franz Bopp, German consul
in San Francisco; Baron Eckhart H. von Schack, German vice-consul;
Lieutenant Wilhelm von Brincken, attaché of German consulate; Charles C.
Crowley, detective for German consul; and Mrs. Margaret W. Cornell,
secretary to Crowley. They were sentenced to two years’ imprisonment

The question may justly be asked: “Why is it asserted that von Papen was
behind and directed all these enterprises?” The Federal authorities have
established a connection between von Papen’s headquarters in 60, Wall
Street, and the German Consulate in San Francisco, whence, according to
United States District-Attorney Preston of that city, ramifications led
out to the different angles of the conspiracy in the West. So strong is
the evidence that the San Francisco officials have accused the
defendants of using the mails to incite murder, arson and assassination.
It is stated that the defendants planned to destroy munition works at
Aenta, Indiana, at Ishpeming, Michigan, and at Gary and other places in
the West. Among the evidence is one letter among several which has to do
with the question of the price which would be paid for the destruction
of a powder plant at Pinole, California, and in it reference was made to
“P.” The letter follows:

* * * * *

“DEAR S.,—Your last letter with clipping to-day, and note what you have
to say. I have taken it up with them and ‘B.’ (which the Federal
officials say stands for Franz Bopp, German Consul) is awaiting decision
of ‘P.’ in New York, so cannot advise you yet, and will do so as soon as
I get word from you. You might size up the situation in the meantime.”

* * * * *

While this and other letters show, in the opinion of the Government
officials, that von Papen was concerned with the defendants mentioned in
the western indictment, still other facts have been gathered against von
Papen. He has been traced from Washington and New York to a number of
points in the United States, his visits coinciding with remarkable
closeness to the time that meetings of the alleged conspirators were
being held. Captain von Papen sauntered from the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in
New York one afternoon about 3.30, down Madison Avenue to 42nd Street,
where he wavered for a moment as if deciding whether he would turn over
for a jaunt on Fifth Avenue or drop into the Grand Central Station to
buy a magazine.

After a moment he walked slowly into the station, glancing casually at
his watch, and moving just before the gate closed toward the entrance to
the track where stood the Twentieth Century Limited, was soon safely on
board. The next day he was observed in Chicago, where he announced that
he was on his way to Yellowstone National Park—and he disappeared. For
several weeks he was lost to the sight of the zealous agents who were
hunting him; but one day he was observed sauntering through the lobby of
the Palace Hotel, San Francisco. In the course of his absence, he is
said to have swung down along the Mexican border, where he caught up
with Captain Boy-Ed, conferred with a number of secret agents from
Mexico, with spies scattered throughout the country, and then hurried up
to San Francisco, where he was busy before the agents of the Department
of Justice picked him up again.


_One indictment_ against the five defendants, phrased in legal terms, is
vivid and forcible though barren of details. _It accuses the German
representatives and their hirelings of plotting to blow up railway
tunnels, railroads, railroad trains, and bridges, already mentioned._
Over this vast system of transportation, the indictment explains,
supplies were being shipped westward for transportation on the ships
_Talthybius_ and _Hazel Dollar_. The defendants, it is stated, hired
Smith to help them gain information about the sailings and the cargoes
of ships leaving Tacoma bound for Vladivostok; that after Smith went to
Tacoma, Crowley sent him money. Crowley and Smith came to New York,
where they had conference with Germans who were in touch with von Papen.
They next went to Detroit, where they were working out plans for the
blowing up of the tunnel when they were arrested. Smith, who was working
on the shipping and the tunnel end of the scheme, confessed, while van
Koolbergen also has made a statement to the authorities which is of
great interest, showing the workings of the defendants.

“On different occasions in his room,” says van Koolbergen, “von Brincken
showed me maps and information about Canada, and pointed out to me where
he wanted the act to be done. This was to be between Revelstoke and
Vancouver on the Canadian Pacific Railway, and I was to get $3,000 in
case of a successful blowing up of a military train, or bridge, or

“There are many tunnels and bridges there, and military trains pass
every three or four days; he also knew when a cargo of dynamite would
pass. He then informed me how I could get hold of dynamite, and
explained to me that on the other side of the river on which the
Canadian Pacific ran (I believe it was the Fraser River) the Canadian
Northern Railway was in course of construction, and they had at
intervals powder and dynamite magazines and that it would be very easy
to steal some of the dynamite.”

Several ships were blown up on the Pacific; others were disabled under
circumstances that suggested conspiracies. There were schemes also to
destroy docks on the Pacific coast. In view of these plots, it is
striking to observe in von Papen’s cheque counterfoils this entry: “May
11, 1915, German Consulate, Seattle (for Schulenberg), $500.” An
explosion in Seattle Harbour occurred on May 30, 1915.

Another excerpt from the counterfoil is dated February 2nd, 1915,
recording the payment of $1,300 to the Seattle, Washington, German
Consulate marked “C. Angelegenheit,” a very vague word for “affair.” He
also paid to A. Kalschmidt, of Detroit, who is accused by the Canadian
authorities of plotting to blow up armouries and factories in Canada,
$1,000 on March 27, 1915, and $1,976 on July 10, 1915.

While this enterprise was being mapped out in the West, a second project
against the Welland Canal was in the making in New York. Paul Koenig,
the intermediary between von Papen and reservists and others, had
charge, it is alleged, of selecting assistants who would carry dynamite,
fuses, and other equipment to the Canadian waterway. Koenig selected as
his assistants Richard Emil Leyendecker, retailer of art woods, a
naturalized German-American, Fred Metzler, Koenig’s stenographer, George
Fuchs, a German, who after a quarrel with Koenig turned State’s
evidence; as also did Metzler, and one or two other men. The party went
to Buffalo and to Niagara Falls, being trailed all the time by agents
under direction by William M. Offley, chief of the Federal investigators
of New York.


While these plots in the West were developed in vain and some of the
culprits have been convicted, still other enterprises were conceived and
set in motion in the East. A great number of explosions and fires have
occurred in factories in the eastern part of the country. Though many of
them were due to natural causes, yet suspicions seem to show that bombs
were manufactured and placed in various plants and that incendiary bombs
were hidden in other factories. The men believed to have committed the
crime have been traced. They invariably proved to be Germans who, under
assumed names, had obtained work in the factory; and then, shortly after
the fire or explosion, had disappeared. But Federal agents following
them learned that they had hurried back to Germany or skipped away to
Mexico or South America. Bombs for their purposes were manufactured in
various places in New York and Brooklyn; and in fact the authorities
have obtained statements from men who made the bombs, but thus far they
have not located the chief man. A German officer skilled in the
manufacture of explosives spent a number of months in New York, living
on board one of the German merchantmen and conferring frequently with
Germans. He disappeared one day and was not heard of until a wireless
message announced his arrival in Berlin.

Into this general scheme for preventing supplies from going to the
Allies fits the conspiracy of Robert Fay and his associates. Fay, a
tall, military-looking man, who has told many stories, some of which are
true, some of which are lies, fought in the trenches for Germany and
then obtained leave of absence and a passport to come to America. He had
an inventive bent, and _he conceived the idea of manufacturing high
explosive mines which could be attached to the rudder posts of ships,
and which would be so regulated by a detonating device that explosions
would occur far out at sea_. Fay says that he sought to blow off the
rudder, disable the ship, but not to sink the vessel or injure her

His aim was to frighten steamship owners, and insurance underwriters, so
that the insurance on munition ships would be raised to an almost
prohibitive rate. Experts, however, have testified that so great was the
amount of high explosive in the mines, that it would have blown off the
stern of the ship, and detonated the cargo of explosives. In other
words, had Fay’s scheme worked, nothing of the cargo and ship would have
remained but a few chips floating upon the waves. But through the
vigilance of Chief Flynn, of the secret service, and Captain Tunney, of
the bomb squad of the New York Police Department, Fay’s plan was
detected and John C. Knox, Assistant United States District Attorney,
presented the evidence so thoroughly that Fay and his brother-in-law,
Walter Scholz, and Paul Daeche, a German reservist, were found guilty.
They were sentenced respectively to eight, four and two years in the
penitentiary. Fay admitted on the witness stand that he laid his plan
before Captain von Papen and Captain Boy-Ed, that he had more than one
conference with Captain von Papen; but he asserted that both men warned
him not to undertake the scheme. It will be remembered that Fay escaped
from the Atlanta Penitentiary within a short time after his sentence,
and he is believed to be either in Mexico or back in the trenches. He
undoubtedly secured aid from German sympathizers.


Another part of this vast conspiracy against the export of arms and
ammunition was the scheme to manufacture the so-called fire bombs, which
could be placed in the holds of ships and which, exploding after a
certain time, would set fire to the cargoes. _By this means,
thirty-three ships were stealthily attacked, with New York as a basis of
operation, and damage of $10,000,000 was done._ Vessels sailing not only
from New York, but from Boston, Galveston, and even from Pacific ports,
carried these bombs stowed away in their holds. Sugar ships especially
were an object of attack, for sugar forms an ingredient of a certain
explosive. These ships especially were adapted to this method, because
once a fire started, the bomb itself would be destroyed, and as water
had to be poured into the hold, the sugar would be destroyed.

Several bombs would be placed in the same hold, as has been shown by the
fact that one fire was started in a vessel before she had left port. The
fire was extinguished and more sugar loaded on the boat. Scarcely had
the boat got out of port when another fire started. Among the ships
attacked by bombs were _La Touraine_, of the French line, the
_Minnehaha_, of the Atlantic Transport Line, the _Rochambeau_, the
_Euterpe_, _Strathtay_, _Devon City_, _Lord Erne_, _Lord Ormonde_,
_Tennyson_ and many others.

The man accused of having charge of these bombs is a chemist, named Dr.
Walter T. Scheele, formerly of Brooklyn, later of Hoboken, and still
later a resident of some foreign country, whither he fled. He
developed—or it was suggested to him by German officers—a scheme for
taking a small metal container divided into two parts. Into one part
would be put sulphuric acid; into another part, chlorate of potash. The
sulphuric acid eating through the partition between the two sections
made of aluminium, would unite with the chlorate of potash, causing
combustion. Thus started, a fire so intense would be created that the
container made of lead would be destroyed, and the cargo would be set on
fire. Dr. Scheele, it is charged, made hundreds of these bombs, and
received a large amount of money from German sources. One story is that
von Rintelen paid him $10,000. Another story is that Wolf von Igel, von
Papen’s assistant, paid him money after von Papen left the country.
Still further, Captain Otto Wolpert, Pier Superintendent of the Atlas
Line, is charged with having received some of these bombs. The metal
containers were manufactured on board the steamship _Friedrich der
Grosse_, tied up in the North German Lloyd pier in Hoboken. The chief
engineer, Carl Schmidt, who spent some time in collecting money for a
monument to commemorate the part Germans have taken in the present war,
is said to have been directed by a German officer to turn over the
workshop of the ship as a bomb factory. At any rate, Ernst Becker, chief
electrician, who has turned State’s evidence, and three assistant
engineers have been arrested as co-conspirators in this ship plot. Dr.
Scheele’s assistant, Captain Charles von Kleist, also has been arrested.
It was through information unwittingly supplied by him that Captain
Tunney and Detective George Barnitz, assisted by extremely keen members
of the bomb squad, unearthed the whole conspiracy.

Captain von Papen, as an organizer of a part of Germany’s secret service
in America, as the schemer who sought to control a monopoly in certain
high explosives and as a director of military enterprises—has been
revealed by the Federal authorities as an extremely able servant of the
Kaiser. These activities, however, were only a part of the task assigned
to him by the German General Staff. He had still other plans which will
be set forth in the following chapter.

Continue Reading

Over fallen twigs

Tiny never forgot the pleasant half hour that followed his graduation.
Although he felt happy, he was sorry to leave dear old Beaver Creek
with its many delightful associations. After waving a friendly farewell
to Mr. Opossum, Jolly Gopher, and his other chance acquaintances, he
turned to bid his classmates goodby. The bird choir was still singing
its sweetest airs.

“Your poem was very good for a beginner,” said Miss Hare, with a smile.
“I suspect that you spent much time in its preparation.”

“I expect to write a better one in a year from now,” replied Tiny.

“You did not get frightened at all,” said timid Katie Goose, who had
been unable to read her composition loud enough for her audience to

“One is never afraid of an audience unless he is afraid of himself,”
said Tiny. “I hope your future life will be happy, Katie.”

“Thank you,” replied Katie. “I want to be a lovely character like my
aunt, dear old Mother Goose.”

“I want to thank you for your kindness to me, Mr. Owl,” continued
the squirrel, running to where the wise trustee of the school sat
listening to the merry chorus of voices. “I have done nothing to pay
for my board and tuition. In fact, I never knew there was such a thing
as money, and that animals should pay for what they get from others,
instead of trying to steal it.”

“Do not worry about that,” said the owl, kindly. “Miss Hare’s school is
free to pupils that cannot pay. It is kept up by taxes paid by the good
citizens of Joy County. In this day of free schools, it is a terrible
crime for animals to neglect their education.”

“I shall organize a school in Squirreltown as soon as I return,” said
Tiny. “The little ones would be more benefitted if they would exercise
their brains as well as their legs.”

“I wish you success,” said the owl prophet, kindly. “Your education has
just begun. Even if you should live as many years as a turtle does, you
would never learn all there is to know. Most squirrels observe closely,
but almost every squirrel does not think as much as he should.”

“I am going now,” said Tiny. “Please also accept my thanks for your
kindness to my mother during my absence from home. I hope you will come
to Squirreltown and give me a chance to entertain you.”

“Thank you,” replied the owl. “I should be glad to carry you home, but
I believe you are old enough to find your own way. There are many other
lessons for you to learn, and there are other dreadful battles that you
must fight alone. Always be brave and hopeful, no matter what befalls

Tiny bade Miss Hare goodby, and she wished him success. He tried to
find Billy Beaver, but the good janitor had already started up creek to
his work. One by one the graduates left the school for their various
homes, and, when Tiny started forth on his journey, Beaver Creek was
quiet and deserted. With a sigh of regret he gazed back at the domes of
the buildings, and in his heart wished that he might return.

As he turned into the narrow path that led to the north, he heard the
noise of pattering feet. In a few moments Winkie Weasel was beside him,
panting heavily.

“I am going with you as far as Deertown,” said he. “What a pleasant
visit we shall have on the way! You were always kind to help me with my
lessons, and I thank you.”

“I suppose you are anxious to get back home,” said Tiny, as they
hurried along.

“Not very,” replied Winkie, seriously. “My home is not pleasant.
However, I am going to try to exert a good influence over those with
whom I live. Weasels fight most of the time, you know. I shall try to
teach them that vegetables are as wholesome as meat, and that weasels
would be just as healthy if they did not eat every little animal that
crossed their path.”

For a long time they chatted concerning their classmates and the
graduating exercises. They praised their teacher’s elegant manners,
Mrs. Goose’s excellent morals and grand air, the pretty faces of the
Otter sisters, the beautiful bower that Billy Beaver and his friends
had made, and the neat schoolroom. Winkie congratulated Tiny again and
again upon his splendid victory.

When it grew dark, they stopped to rest. Tiny, with the quill Mother
Goose had given him securely tied to his body, carefully climbed a
tree. He found a cozy spot sheltered by broad leaves. In the meantime,
Winkie found comfortable quarters in a hollow log. Soon they fell

In the middle of the night an awful storm arose. The lightning flashed
and the thunder roared. The trees bent and swayed in the angry winds.
It seemed to Tiny that the world was coming to an end; but he was brave
and hopeful, for he knew that the sunshine would be bright on the

When the storm had abated somewhat, he fell asleep again. However, he
slept badly. He thought some cruel animal was about to spring upon him
and swallow him in one gulp. He was a really brave little creature, but
such dreams are prone to disturb even the boldest animal.

He shuddered and opened his eyes with a start. Not six feet away two
terrible eyes of fire were fixed upon him. He then knew that his dream
was real. In the flash of lightning that followed, he could see a large
animal about to spring at him. Its legs were powerful, its feet were
heavy, and its claws glistened. Another flash of lightning revealed the
pointed ears of the terrible beast.

Tiny tried to escape, but the branch of the tree was slippery with
rain. In a twinkling he received a terrific blow from an enormous paw.
Then followed a crash of thunder, an angry roar, and the frightened
shriek of a poor helpless squirrel.

“Oh, save me from the lynx–the lynx!” he cried.

Both he and the bloodthirsty creature had fallen to the ground. Tiny
knew that in another moment he might meet with a tragic fate. Another
flash of lightning showed the lynx, with his fur standing straight and
his back curled, ready to pounce upon him.


Darkness came again. Tiny was so badly stunned for a while that he
could hardly move. He stood dumbly awaiting the final blow. Then a loud
roar of pain resounded through the forest. It was evident to Tiny that
some creature was attacking the lynx. The little squirrel unloosened
the pen that had been given him. When the lightning flashed again, he
dashed forward and thrust it into the delicate nostril of the lynx.
There was another cry, more of surprise than of pain, and the ferocious
animal disappeared in the blackness of night.

“We are safe now,” said Winkie Weasel’s welcome voice. “It is fortunate
that I came with you. Just as the lynx was about to destroy you, I
rushed out of the stump and gave his tail a bite that he will not soon
forget. I think, judging by the way he yelled, he must have thought he
was struck by lightning.”

Tiny was too weak to reply. He stood shivering in the rain, yet he
was grateful that he had learned the value of friendship. Winkie, who
enjoyed dreadful encounters, pushed him back into the stump that he
might protect him through the night. There they remained until daybreak.

“Now, forget about the lynx and don’t be so cast down,” were the first
words that Winkie said on the following morning. “Don’t hold any
ill-will towards him. He was only thinking what a fine meal you would
make. All animals are looking out for themselves.”

A turn in the long path brought them into Deertown. A number of red
deer were lying together upon the grassy turf. They had slept well, for
the branches of the trees had formed a thick canopy over their heads.
A stag with a reddish-brown coat and big branching antlers was guarding
them. Several pretty fawns with brown eyes and white coats were playing
hide-and-seek in the bushes. Although deer are quick to hear the
footsteps of larger animals, they paid no heed to the little newcomers.


“Isn’t the stag noble-looking!” cried Tiny. “What a big creature he is!”

“He is very proud,” said Winkie, less admiringly. “He is also selfish,
for he becomes angry if any other stag comes inside his family circle.”

“Isn’t it fortunate that we don’t have to wear antlers?” laughed Tiny.
“How funny you would look, Winkie, with horns or antlers!”

“It is said that one can tell the age of a stag by looking at his
antlers,” replied Winkie, with the sprightliness that Tiny enjoyed.
“Perhaps Mother Goose is thankful, too, that she doesn’t have them.”

Not far beyond Deertown, the two associates separated. Tiny was to go
directly north, while Winkie was to pass through several winding paths
to Weasel Bog.

“Goodby, Tiny. Carry your prize safely home, and tell your mother that
you well deserved it,” said Winkie. “Some day I will bring my family to
see you.”

“I am afraid you wouldn’t be very welcome in Squirreltown,” said Tiny.
“However, I will meet you alone at any time you suggest. I will fetch
you something good to eat.”

“Squirrels are all right in their bad opinions of weasels,” said
Winkie, regretfully. “I never thought how scandalous my family would
act, if I took them to Squirreltown. I do not wish to visit your
village, but I will meet you at any place you may suggest. I want to
see you only. Let me hear from you often.”

“All right,” replied Tiny, cheerily.

With another farewell he turned north and ran as fast as he could. Two
or three times he stopped to eat some delicious acorns and other food
he found by the wayside, for Nature has bountifully provided for the
squirrel race.

He might have reached home without any more dreadful encounters, had
it not been for his curiosity. While resting on the lower branch of a
beech tree, he saw an animal with soft, silky fur, fast asleep on the
bough above his head. He did not know that the pretty, innocent-looking
creature was a wild cat, one of the most terrible beasts of the wood.
The thoughtless squirrel stole noiselessly to the side of the sleeping
animal and made a shrill, screeching noise.


The wild cat awoke. Instantly it changed to a ferocious monster, with
ruffled fur and eyes that seemed to shoot forth flames. With a snarl of
rage, it dashed at its disturber. Tiny, whose heart beat wildly, dashed
down the tree. Instead of seeking refuge in some knothole, he ran with
all his might along the path. He expected to be killed at any moment.
Horror made him run all the faster, for he knew that the wild cat was
the most dreadful animal he could possibly arouse.

Over fallen twigs and branches the frightened squirrel leapt, little
thinking of other dangers that might befall him. At last his strength
began to fail. He knew that he could hold out but a few minutes longer.
Torn by brush and briers, he ascended an oak tree. A little door stood
ajar. He rushed through the tiny opening and fell prostrate.

When he regained his senses, a little gray animal with liquid dark eyes
was bending over him.

“Bushy Graysquirrel!” he cried in delight.

“I am very glad to receive you in my new home,” was Bushy’s welcome

“I am so glad to see you!” exclaimed Tiny. “I was running away from a
wild cat, and met you by accident.”

“I saw you running,” answered Bushy. “However, I did not see a wild
cat. Squirrels run faster than wild cats, so I suppose he gave up the

“I am not a coward,” declared the red squirrel, somewhat embarrassed,
“but I think it is best to run when a wild cat comes into one’s life.”

“In this forest are few wild cats,” asserted Bushy. “They seldom
disturb us, unless they are provoked.”

“What are you doing here?” asked Tiny, when he had fully recovered from
his shock.

“I live here in the country now,” was the reply. “Perhaps you do not
know that I have a mate. He is out getting acorns for our luncheon. Of
acorns there is a great plenty in this part of the woods. They cover
the ground.”

“Has Squirreltown changed much?” he inquired.

“You would hardly know the place,” answered the gray squirrel. “All
our playmates have grown up. Peggy and her mate live in the city, and
Polly Blacksquirrel and her mate own the big beech by the brook. Dr.
Flyingsquirrel has retired from business on account of his great age.
He must be nearly five years old. Your mother, however, is well and
happy. Many citizens has Squirreltown. Not one in a hundred leaves it
for the country. I–”

“Do you ever visit there?” interrupted Tiny.

“Neither of us has been back for some time,” said Bushy. “We will go
over to-night to attend the celebration.”

“What celebration?”

“One which is to be given upon your return home,” laughed Bushy.

Tiny then remembered that Mr. Owl had promised the winner of the prize
a still greater reward. He felt very grateful and happy, but did not
think it polite to question Bushy any further.

After a short visit with his old friend, Tiny bade her goodby, and
resumed his journey. He hurried along almost as fast as he did when he
thought the wild cat was after him, for he was anxious to see his dear
old home once more, and to receive his mother’s welcome greeting.

While he was drinking at a small stream, he heard a shrill cry. Before
he could turn round, he was pushed off his feet. Over and over he
rolled, until he almost fell into the water.

“Tiny, Tiny, I am so glad to see you!” cried a well known voice.

“Chatty Chipmunk!” exclaimed Tiny, equally delighted; for there was his
earliest playmate dancing about like a wild creature. “Never before
have I received such an unexpected greeting.”

“I learned that you would be home to-day, and have come to meet you,”
continued Chatty. “Near the city wait a number of your old friends. I
couldn’t stand still, so here I am.”

“Are you still fond of playing?” asked Tiny, somewhat amused at his gay

“Yes. I don’t suppose that I ever shall take life seriously,” was the
laughing reply. “Nature never intended that I should work or study.
However, I have a thrifty mate, and she makes a very comfortable living
for me. Every one of those animals at Squirreltown avoids me, but I do
not care.”

“If I were mayor of Squirreltown, I would make you work or let you
starve,” said Tiny, severely.

“Your education has not improved your appearance,” said Chatty, quickly
changing the subject. “You look old and all mussed up.”

“Animals who spend all their time in study are apt to become careless
of their personal appearance,” explained Tiny. “You forget, however,
that I have had a long journey, and that animals of good taste do not
try to look too sleek when they travel. They do not wish to attract

“Of what use are books and study?” inquired Chatty.

“They are of no use to such as you,” replied the squirrel impatiently.

“And what are you doing with that old goose quill strapped to your

“That is the prize I won for good scholarship,” said Tiny, rather

“How funny!” cried the chipmunk, laughing until his sides ached. “How
could an animal spend so much time studying, just to win a goose quill?”

“You and I do not see things alike, Chatty,” said Tiny, with an air of
superiority. “It is not possible for an uneducated animal like you to
feel the noble sentiment that makes this goose quill dear to me.”

“You are as queer as some human beings,” declared Chatty. “I have heard
of a silly man that studied for many years to win an old piece of

Tiny wisely forbore further argument. After a few minutes’ rest was
taken, he arose, and together they hastened to Squirreltown.

When the grand old trees of the city appeared to view, Tiny shouted for
joy. There is nothing in life so dear as home and its associations,
and the country in which one lives, and the individuals with whom one

Although sentinels had been stationed at the entrances of the highways
to meet Tiny, he stole up a back street; for he wished to see his
mother first of all.

Mrs. Redsquirrel was preparing the last meal of the day. Although
somewhat older in appearance than when he left her, she seemed as
beautiful as ever to Tiny.

“Mother!” he cried, as he rushed into the house.

With shrieks of joy, the good creature bounded over the table and to
and fro until she was exhausted.

“Welcome! welcome home!” she cried, her little heart fairly bursting
with motherly love and joy.

They chatted until dusk began to steal over Squirreltown. At last they
were interrupted by Chatty Chipmunk.

“You are under arrest, Tiny,” he said, gravely. “I am bidden by the
mayor to take you to the park which faces the city hall.”

Tiny and his mother good-naturedly followed Chatty, thinking that
perhaps he was, as of old, playing some joke upon them.

“Be merciful to me, Tiny,” pleaded Chatty, on their way to the park.
“Remember that I am your oldest friend. I promise you that I will lead
a useful life in the future. My greatest regret now is that I trifled
all my time away when I was young.”

Tiny did not reply. They had entered the green park, facing which was a
decayed log with many doors and windows. It was used as a city hall.


What was Tiny’s surprise to find all the citizens of Squirreltown
gathered there to meet him. There were the aged mayor at the door of
the city hall, the militia, the policemen, and all the aldermen and
other dignitaries of the city. Every one was dignified and silent. Tiny
and his mother were led by two policemen to the little balcony over the
entrance to the building. They were unable to speak, from surprise and

“Hoot! hoot! hoot!” rang out from a bough over their heads. This cry
was evidently another signal to enforce perfect order. Tiny gazed up
timidly, and saw the yellow eyes of the owl prophet staring down upon

“Citizens of Squirreltown,” cried Mr. Owl, “I, the wisest of all living
creatures, take pleasure in presenting to you, Mr. Tiny Redsquirrel,
the new mayor of Squirreltown!”

Flapping his wings in approbation, he flew away, never to return again.

Then wild cheers rent the air. Never since that time has Squirreltown
been so riotous. Before Tiny could realize his exalted position, he was
surrounded by his old friends. There were Dr. Flyingsquirrel and his
family, Chatty Chipmunk and his mate, Peggy and Bushy Graysquirrel,
Polly Blacksquirrel, and many others, cheering and wishing him success
and happiness.

Hundreds of lightning bugs circled above their heads, throwing out
green and orange-colored rays. Billy Foxsquirrel and his band whistled
gay airs; a frog orchestra close by joined them; and a chorus of
friendly mosquitoes, and other insects, completed the grand refrain.
Until far into the night, laughter and rejoicing reigned triumphant.
What Tiny did for Squirreltown in after years is more than any boy or
girl could imagine.

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This advice was a golden

Tiny’s last ramble through the copse near Beaver Creek was one that
he never forgot. He was beginning to realize how much more pleasing
are the works of Nature when one really takes an interest in them. He
had learned to study even the snail in his shell house and the Venus’
fly-trap that catches insects.

“Aren’t the skies blue, and the trees and grasses green, and the music
of the birds sweet, and the busy hum of the insects inspiring?” he
asked himself again and again.

Once he stopped to admire the graceful foliage of the alder tree.

“That tree has some secrets hidden away that I mean to find out,” said
he, as he scurried up its smooth trunk. He gazed through the branches.
At last he espied a nest. It was built of coarse sticks.

“What an odd place for a jay bird’s home!” he exclaimed. “I never could
understand why the jay does not build a comfortable nest like that of
the robin. Perhaps he fears he might spoil his little ones by making
them too comfortable.”

Next he saw a queer object that held his attention for a long time. A
caterpillar was hanging from a leaf. Tiny thought that it was about
to fall, but the little worm held fast with all its might. It was
attaching a fine thread to the point of a leaf, but it worked harder
than the man who fells a tree.

“Do not molest that caterpillar,” said a voice from a limb overhead.

Tiny looked up and saw a peculiar animal with a long, pointed face
and sharp teeth, hanging head downward from a limb overhead. With a
startled cry, the squirrel hid in a thick branch.

“You need not fear me, for I do not eat squirrels,” said the odd
creature. “I am looking for birds. I should think you would be ashamed
to attack a poor little caterpillar.”

“Never in my life have I molested a caterpillar,” declared Tiny. “I
should think you would be ashamed to attack birds.”

“Well, everything depends upon the point of view,” replied the larger
animal. “I am not responsible if my views do not agree with your own,
for I see things upside down.”


“Why do you hang by your tail?” asked Tiny. From his hiding place he
peeped at the curious animal.

“Because I am an opossum, and I am wise enough to know that tails were
made to hang by. I couldn’t hang by my neck, could I?”

“I suppose not,” replied Tiny, with a laugh. “Reynard, Snowball, and
Rover have strong tails. I will tell them that they should cultivate
the use of them, as the opossum does.”

“I’ll be glad to teach them how,” said the opossum, not in the least
offended at the squirrel’s amusement. Tiny drew closer to get a better
view of his new acquaintance. He could look into his eyes.

“Reynard, Snowball, or Rover is going with me to-morrow. I should like
you to teach some of your amusing tricks to the one who comes.”

The opossum laughed so hard that Tiny feared he would lose his hold and
fall upon him.

“Neither Reynard, Rover, nor Snowball is likely to be benefited by
anything that I may teach him,” said the opossum, evidently much
pleased by Tiny’s suggestion. “Neither the birds nor the animals admire

“I do not dislike you,” said Tiny, truthfully.

“I am not so dull as one might think. I can sit up and I can hang by my

“I can sit up, but I cannot hang by my tail,” said Tiny. “Some
squirrels can fly, but I am sure I can beat any flying squirrel in
a race. A red, a gray, and a black squirrel live close together at
Squirreltown. The mayor sends them with messages to other neighboring
towns. They are as swift as lightning.”

“Perhaps you wonder why I am looking so closely at that caterpillar,”
said the opossum, without stopping to argue concerning the fleetness of
squirrels. “All morning long I have watched with anxious eyes.”

“Perhaps you want to see what he is trying to do,” suggested Tiny.

“The caterpillar does not interest me at all,” said the opossum
rather brusquely. “I am waiting for a bird to come along to catch the
caterpillar. Before the bird catches the worm, I shall catch the bird–”

“And perhaps some hunter will catch you before you can catch the bird,”
interrupted Tiny.

“You are right,” said the opossum. “Every animal always seems to be
ready to catch another one. I like pretty birds as you like plump
acorns. A yellow, brown, and blue bird is a very attractive creature.
An ugly sparrow is not half so pleasing to me as a golden oriole.”

“I am sorry that you like to destroy birds,” said Tiny, who had
learned to love the little feathered songsters of the forest. “You are
cowardly. You attack birds. They are smaller than you.”

“I am cowardly but cautious,” returned the opossum. “I should be
foolish to try to capture an eagle. I have caught six little birds this
morning. The first, second, and third birds were sparrows. The fourth,
the fifth, and the sixth birds were robins.”

“The poor things surely did not suffer long. Your mouth is so large and
your teeth are so sharp,” said the red squirrel.

“Where do you live?” inquired the opossum, still gazing at the

“I came from Beaver Creek,” answered Tiny. “I am out to-day to study

“Then you needn’t spend any more of your time here. There are other
things to see,” snapped the opossum. “Your incessant chatter is keeping
the birds away.”

“Where do you live?” asked Tiny, wishing to save as many birds as

“Close by,” replied the opossum indifferently. “I live in a dead tree.”

“What has become of the caterpillar?”

“It is still working away. It is a remarkable toiler. Now it has
succeeded in bending back the point of the leaf and has fastened it
down with bits of thread.”

“It has curled the leaf until it looks like a little tube with a very
round hole at each end,” said Tiny, much interested.

“Caterpillars make houses of leaves,” explained the opossum.

“How very odd!” exclaimed the squirrel.

“That depends upon the point of view,” repeated the opossum. “Insects
breathe through holes along their sides. You have lungs. Through these
lungs you breathe. Both of these methods of breathing might seem very
odd to the fish, who breathes through his gills.”

“How can the caterpillar turn around in such a small house?” asked Tiny.

“It doesn’t wish to turn around,” said the opossum. “The caterpillar
does not wiggle so much as the squirrel. It knows that big houses are
seldom half as cozy as smaller ones. As soon as it gets settled down to
housekeeping, it begins to eat its little green house.”

“How funny!” chuckled Tiny.

“Before very long it eats itself out of house and home,” said the

“What would you do if a hunter were to steal up and club you?” asked
Tiny, more interested in the quadruped than in the worm.

“If a hunter should attack me, I would drop down and play that I was
dead,” was the answer.

“Once Snowball pretended to be asleep when Billy Beaver called him,”
said Tiny. “Billy said that Snowball was ‘playing ’possum.’ Now I know
what he meant.”

“I suppose that the opossum is not the only animal that tries to
deceive,” said the opossum, with a yawn.

“I see that you are sleepy,” said the squirrel. “I must go to my
home. I wonder why animals are so impolite as to yawn when they are
entertaining company.”

“Perhaps it would be better for you to say goodby before your
entertainers tire of you,” retorted the opossum.

This advice was a golden gift to Tiny. He never forgot it. With a
courteous farewell, he hastened down the trunk of the tree. When he
reached the ground, he stopped a moment to gaze overhead. The opossum
was asleep among the branches.

“He had better be sleeping than killing birds,” said Tiny, gratefully.
“I shall visit the opossum often and keep him out of mischief. This
afternoon has been well spent. I have stood between the birds and their

The last day of school rolled round. The pupils of the Beaver Creek
School were in a state of pleasant excitement. They smoothed their
feathers or brushed their fur until they were as sleek as could be. All
the civilized animals for miles around were present. Mr. Owl, looking
wiser and more serious than ever, was the first visitor to arrive. Miss
Hare, with earrings hanging from her long ears and a wreath of white
blossoms on her head, greeted him warmly. Soon after, Mother Goose, the
most beloved fowl in Animal Kingdom, waddled into the main building in
good time. Sammy Rabbit’s relatives followed her, also Puss Snowball’s
mother and aunt.

Billy Beaver and his friends had erected a platform in the creek, and
upon its smooth surface had built a green bower. The messenger pigeons
had adorned this bower with beautiful flowers, and the pupils had
filled in the rough places of the floor with pretty shells and pebbles.

On the shady bank across the way, the larger animals of the wood had
gathered. Tiny could see them plainly as he sat in his room, brushing
out his long tail. There were Mr. Goat, of the great department
store, and his daughter, Miss Nannie; the Otter family in their best
garments; Miss Mink, a close friend of Miss Hare; several from the
Badger family; and, in the background, as modest as could be, Mr.
Opossum, Jolly Gopher, and the Ferret brothers.

While awaiting the signal of Billy Beaver, Tiny was visited by Shifty
Woodchuck, who carried a soiled composition.

“Won’t you please help me?” whined Shifty, as he thrust the composition
between Tiny’s forepaws. “You know I was to graduate with your class,
but Miss Hare will not let me.”


“Pupils that fail should not blame their teachers. It is entirely your
own fault,” said Tiny, looking over the careless manuscript.

“I wish I hadn’t slept so much last winter,” continued Shifty,
ruefully. “However, I believe that if Miss Hare will let me read my
composition, I will get the prize. Miss Hare says I cannot read it
properly, because it is carelessly written. Please tell me what is the
matter with it. To me it looks very well. I have spent nearly an hour
in writing it.”

“If you ever intend to write a good composition, you will have to work
longer than an hour,” said Tiny. “You will have to read things that
will help you, and you must exercise great care. Moreover, you must not
postpone your work until the last minute.”

Tiny, with great difficulty, read Shifty’s composition, which was as

one saturday Afternoon in may

“the first may Holiday was beautiful! the sun shined bright. birds
twittered and sung sweetly the flowers were in bloom. nature was
happy. warm weather had came. mister beaver and me went for a stroll.
how our hearts thrilled with Joy? We stopped by the Creek. us animals
like the water

the clear sparkling waves passed by us. hark sweet music comes from
the brook and the forest they cried.

come into the woods mister beaver i said, are you afraid of the tall

i will set here says he. a Beaver don’t wander into the Thicket, he
prefers the Creek. daisys and violets may be pretty but spatter-docks
is prettier, you can go if you wish, and I will stay here.

i replied that Woodchucks squirrels rabbits and many other animals
preferred the wild flowers. i ran to the bushes. o how cool they
seemed. they were green and fragrant with blossoms, the leaves of
the trees were bigger than their’s but they wasn’t more beautiful. i
wandered for a hour through the woods. i seen a birds’ nest and many
interesting things, a active guinea hen was hiding among the Ferns
with her brood

a few deers were laying behind a pile of brush, they run when i
approached. i could heer wild geeses’ cries. every animal of the
forest were moving about. in each glade was a hundred live creatures.
i went back to the brook, mister beaver was waiting for me.

“did you have a pleasant time he asked lazily?”

the forest is grand i cried joyously. the animals of the forest are
rejoicing while you are setting by this brook with a long face.

“What is wrong with it?” inquired Shifty, when the red squirrel had
finished reading. “I am sure that it is as well written as the others,
for I am a good speller and have learned not to use bad grammar.”

“Everything is wrong with it,” said Tiny, frankly, although he was too
polite to make fun of Shifty’s ignorance.

At that moment Billy Beaver began thumping with his long tail.

“Read it over very carefully many times, and perhaps you may be able to
find your mistakes,” said Tiny, as he hastened out into the sunlit air.

From the top of the bower over the platform a chorus of goldfinches,
swallows, robins, and wrens began singing “Hail to Spring.” At the
same time Miss Hare, followed by the graduating class, came out of the
schoolroom, and, with great dignity, made her way to the platform. Miss
Hare seated herself upon a mossy cushion, while the graduating class
sat near her, forming a semicircle. The graduates were Susie Goose,
Sammy Rabbit, Winkie Weasel, Puss Snowball, Rover Canine, Reynard
Redfox, and Tiny Redsquirrel.

At the close of the song, which was followed by loud cries of applause,
Mr. Owl, who sat upon a branch in front of the platform, said that the
class would proceed to deliver their compositions. He added that a
prize would be given to the one who had the best theme, and that Miss
Hare, Mother Goose, and he would be judges.

When this announcement was made, Mother Goose rose from her comfortable
seat by the side of the Misses Pea Fowl and Guinea, and flew to a seat
beside Mr. Owl. The audience cheered again more loudly than before.


Sammy Rabbit was the first of the class to speak. Leaping to the front
of the platform, he faced his audience, and, with a profound bow, read
as follows:


One day our teacher sent us out to study Nature. She said that we
should observe the simplest things, for often they were the most

My friend, Puss Snowball, went with me. Both of us were anxious to
improve our time. We animals are fast friends.

Three merry little ferrets darted across our pathway. We followed
them, but finally gave up the chase. Snowball’s fur was filled with
briers and thistles; I was covered with mud, and had to bathe in the
brook. How we laughed! At last we decided that we would study the
smallest and simplest things, as our teacher had told us to do.

We found some earthworms in the soft loam. These little creatures
burrow into the soil when the first frost comes. They spend the
winter deep in the ground, where the cold cannot reach them. They do
not mind if it blows and snows.

We saw a katydid. He was of a pale green color. His gauzy wings had
little covers that looked like drums. He rubbed the drums briskly,
and the music that he made was very cheerful. Did you ever hear the
katydid’s shrilling? The katydid, however, is very small.

We saw two interesting spiders in the brook. Spiders have eight legs,
while true insects have only six. One of these little creatures
had made a silken diving-bell that resembled a tiny silver globe.
The other had made a raft of weeds, fastened together with silken
threads. Then they went slowly downstream to catch insects that might
fall into the water. Spiders, although quite tiny, are very clever.
When spiders sleep, they sleep soundly; when they work, they work
industriously; when they fight, they fight fiercely.

Ants, bees, and wasps are interesting. The fly, too, is worthy of
study. It has four thousand small eyes. Observe it carefully.

Nature is full of wonderful, beautiful things–but I shall not have
time to tell any more about the queer creatures I have seen.

Sammy’s composition was much appreciated. He had chosen a simple,
familiar subject and kept it plainly in mind.

Winkie Weasel met with less favor, for he had undertaken to write
about something that was beyond his understanding. One can imagine
how much a little weasel would know about “The Growth of Intellectual
Perspicuity.” He stumbled over the long words in a way that made all
the little prairie dogs in the front row titter in a very impolite
manner. Weenie Mouse became so much frightened that he scampered away,
long before it was time for him to recite, and caused quite a panic
amongst the members of the Hen family.

The other compositions were well written, although Puss Snowball’s was
spoiled by a singsong delivery.

Occasionally, the frog orchestra, from their green lily pads close by,
would play a spirited air; and Jenny Wren, a nervous little body, who
twitched every time she reached a high note, sang “Happy Woodlands.”


Tiny Redsquirrel was the last of his class to appear before the
audience. With becoming modesty, he rose, saluted the judges and his
hearers, and recited in a loud, clear voice:


There is a spell in every flower,
A sweetness in each spray;
And every single bird has power
To please us with its lay.

And there is music on the breeze
That sports along the glade;
The crystal dewdrops on the trees
Are gems by fancy made.

Oh, there is joy and happiness
In everything we see!
But greatest joys we shall possess
Through truth and purity.

When he had finished, all the animals near and far gave vent to
tremendous applause, for animal audiences are not so hard to please as
those composed of human beings. Mr. Opossum became so enthusiastic that
he shouted at the top of his voice:

“Hurrah for Mr. Redsquirrel! One cannot judge by the size of a
creature how much he can say.”

Miss Hare joined the other two judges, and for a few moments they held
an earnest conversation among themselves, while the audience sat in
breathless expectation.

Finally, Mother Goose descended from her perch and waddled to the front
of the platform, where she faced the eager listeners and said in a
shrill, but kindly voice:

“Animals of the forest, the judges have decided that the prize should
go to Mr. Tiny Redsquirrel of Squirreltown!”

Turning to the embarrassed but happy little squirrel, she pulled from
her wing a quill, which she gave him with a low bow, saying:

“This quill was taken from my wing. No creature is more respected by
the human race and all other animals than I am. Anyone who receives
a quill pen made from one of my feathers will be famous ever after.
Accept this reward for your excellent poem and your good scholarship;
but bear in mind that every achievement is but a camping place for the

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