Qi is a very important category in the history of Chinese philosophy, in Chinese traditional philosophy. Gas usually refers to a very fine substance, which is the origin of all things in the world. The Neijing inherits and develops the pre-Qin qi monism theory and applies it to medicine, gradually forming the gas theory of Chinese medicine.
Traditional Chinese medicine applied the pre-Qin qi theory to medicine, and made various aspects and multi-level regulations and analysis on the meaning of the gas range, forming a gas theory with physiological gas as the core, which not only promoted the theoretical system of Chinese medicine. It has also made important contributions to the formation and development of Chinese traditional philosophical and qi thinking.
The issue of the relationship between man and nature is one of the major issues in the ancient Chinese philosophy, especially the fierce debate in the field of the “Nei Jing” era. From the perspective of the universe and the universe, the heaven and man unified view of the small universe, the theory of heaven and earth is discussed in terms of gas and nature. The law of movement changes. Therefore, in Chinese medicine, the concept of Qi has both philosophical and medical scientific meanings, and its connotation is complex and cannot be a single, one-sided understanding.
Philosophical meaning of Qi
Gas is a subtle substance that is the most basic element that makes up the universe and the universe. Movement is the fundamental attribute of Qi. The victory and recovery of Qi is the unity of yin and yang. It is the root of the change of the material world movement. Gas and shape and their mutual transformation are the basic forms of the existence and movement of the material world. The occurrence, development and change of all things in the heavens and the earth depend on the gasification of gas.
Chinese medicine applies this and the theory of Qi to the medical aspect, and believes that human beings are the products of nature and the human body. The human body is also composed of gas. The human body is a moving organism that constantly undergoes the transformation of gas into the gasification. This explains the law of internal gasification movement in the human body.
Medical meaning of Qi
From the basic point of view that the universe is the origin of the universe and the most basic element of the universe, it is believed that gas is the most basic substance that constitutes the human body and the most basic substance for maintaining human life activities. The basic substance of life, in addition to gas, there are blood, body fluid, fine, etc., but blood, body fluid and fine are all derived from gas. Among these substances, “fine, qi, jin, liquid, blood, veins, and nothing else” (“Classes and Dirty Elephants”). Therefore, Qi is the most basic substance that constitutes the human body and maintains human life activities.
1. Qi is the most basic substance that constitutes the human body: With regard to the origin and essence of human beings, Chinese medicine believes that human beings and all things are the products of heaven and earth. To explore the origin and essence of human beings, we must first study the places where people live in the universe and the environment that is most closely related to people. “Speaking people, seeking for gas exchange…”, “What is qijiao?…Up and down position, gas exchange, people’s residence is also” (“Su Wen·6 micro-purpose”). Gas exchange is a place where people live, and it is a place where falling weather and rising ground meet each other. Here, due to the changes in the movement of yin and yang, there are four seasons, the difference between the cold and the heat, both the influence of the six qi and the role of the five elements of the earth. People live in such places and environments.
Since people live in the air, they must be the same as all things in the universe. They are all composed of gas. They are the products of the yin and yang of the heavens. They are the result of the regular movement of the material nature. Therefore, “People are born with the temperament of heaven and earth, and the law of four o’clock”, “the heavens and the earth are in harmony, and the fate of the people” (“Su Wen·Bao Ming Quan Xing”). However, people can know all things in a timely manner, have highly developed consciousness and thinking, and are the most precious in all things, so they say: “The heavens and the earth are overwritten, everything is ready, and it is more expensive than others” (“Su Wen Bao Ming Full shape theory)). Gas is a substance that is fine to the finest and is the original material that constitutes everything in nature. Like all things in nature, man is also a product of the law of nature and nature. Therefore, gas is also the most basic substance that constitutes human life.
Fine (essential) is the foundation of life. In traditional Chinese medicine, the medical meaning of essence (fine) refers to the formation of the human body and the subtle substances that maintain the life activities of the human body, including the congenital essence and the acquired nature. fine. When discussing the formation of life, essence refers to the essence of reproduction and the innate living matter, which is the foundation of human life. Traditional Chinese medicine emphasizes that Qi is the most basic substance that constitutes the human body. While recognizing the materiality of life, it further points out that life is directly formed by essence. Therefore, “the master of the husband, the body of the body is also” (“Su Wen Jin Zhen Zhen Yan”), “the two gods fight, form and form, often first born, is the fine” (“Lingshu Qi”), “The essence of life is the essence of the two, the two spirits are called the god” (“Lingshu·The God”). The essence is born first, with genetic characteristics. From the innate essence of the parents, the original embryo is formed, which is transformed into the essence of the embryo itself, which becomes the material basis for the growth and reproduction of the human body. The new life activity – “God” begins. “When a person starts, what kind of qi is built as a foundation, why is it a blame… Take the mother as the base, the father as the shackle, the sorcerer who dies, and the sacred person to live” (“Lingshu·Heavenian”). This “mother base” and “father” arguments succinctly and vividly illustrate that human life is formed by the essence of the body, and the shape is gradually developed by the embryo. The specific process is “the beginning of human beings, the first to become fine, the fine and the brain is born, the bones are dry, the veins are camp, the tendons are just, the meat is the wall, the skin is firm and the hair is long, the valley is in the stomach, the pulse is through “Blood gas is a line” (“Lingshu·Meridian”), “Blood gas has been, the camp has been passed, the five internal organs have become, the spirit of heart, the soul is complete, is a person” (“Lingshu·天年”). The essence of male and female reproduction is called the scorpio, the scorpio is full, the essence is overflowing, the moon is nowadays, the men and women are in harmony, the two are fine and smooth, the yin and yang are intercourse, and the pregnancy is a pregnancy. The combination of the parents and the formation of the brain, bones, blood, muscles, skin, hair, and internal organs of the body. With the formation of the body shape, new life activities begin, and human life functions are also produced.
2. Qi is the most basic substance for maintaining human life activities: gasification is the basic feature of life activities. The vital function of human beings comes from the form of human beings, and the human form depends on the ingestion of certain substances in the natural world to survive. Life activities are the products of the material nature. Human beings must exchange material with the natural world in order to maintain life activities. o: “The heavenly eater has five qi, and the eater eats five flavors. The five qi people nose, hidden in the heart and lungs, make the five colors clear, The sound of the sound can be clarified. The five-flavored population is hidden in the stomach and in the stomach. The taste is hidden. In order to raise the five qi, the qi is born, and the liquid phase is formed. God is self-generated” (“Su Wen·Six-segment Dirty Theory”). Qi and taste (the taste is made by gasification, and the taste is also gas), that is, air, water and food enter the human body through the nose and mouth, and after a series of gasification processes, it is transformed into the living matter of various parts of the body (the internal organs of the internal organs) Gas) and vital function. On the one hand, the human body relies on vital functions to continuously ingest natural substances and transform them into parts of the body, which constitutes the material basis of life activities; on the other hand, in the process of exerting vital functions, it constantly consumes itself, produces waste, and passes through the sweat. , urine, stool and other forms are excreted. Therefore, “the nose is qi, the mouth is affected by the taste of the earth. The gas is changed, the qi, the camp, the wei, and the three are divided. It is the chemical, chemical, chemical, blood, fine Qi, to support the body” (“Jingjing Room Medical Manuscripts”). In short, the human body breathes the air through the internal organs, and receives the various waters and fluids required for human life activities, which are transported to the whole body by the meridians.
The waste and water after metabolism are excreted through sweat, urine and stool. This process is the gasification process of gas conversion. It has the conversion of tangible material to gas. For example, the diet is spleen and stomach, and it is the water valley, and it is transformed into the gas of camping. For example, the camp gas is turned into blood under the action of the heart and lungs. The gasification process of mutual transformation of gas forms the process of mutual transformation of matter and energy.
Mental activity is a more advanced functional activity that is produced on the basis of all vital functions. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that people’s feelings, thoughts and other spiritual and emotional activities are also a kind of qi activity produced by the physical body. “Five visceral people, so the spirit of the soul of the soul is also” (“Lingshu·Weiqi”), “People have five organs and five qi, to live with joy, anger, sadness, worry, fear” (“Su asked yin and yang should be big s”). Feeling is also a kind of spiritual phenomenon. The senses of the body and the essence of the fullness are the material basis for the feelings of sight, hearing, smell and taste. Therefore, “there is blood in the air and it is empty, and its yang is on the eye. It does not breathe in the ear and listens. Its genitals are sniffed by the nose, and its turbidity The gas is out of the stomach, and the tongue and the tongue are tasted” (“Lingshu·Evil viscera”).
The essence of the human body constitutes the human body’s vital function – God, God is the function and function of the human body.
It can be seen that the five internal organs are the material basis of spiritual emotional activities.
According to the qi-shape–the logical structure of God, Chinese medicine discusses the relationship between matter and movement, body and function, and body and spirit, that is, the relationship between physical matter and vital function, that is, the relationship between form and spirit.
Traditional Chinese medicine believes that Qi is the original material of the world, and Qi has the attribute of eternal movement, so the material world is in the eternal movement. The whole world is a cycle of infinite processes from gas to shape, from shape to gas, that is, shape gas transformation. The same is true of human life activities. The perfect combination of parents constitutes the form of human beings, which is a kind of life material–a kind of gas, “the son of fineness and gas” (“Spleen and Stomach Theory, Provincial Speech”), gasification into fine. “The essence of the person, the body of the body is also” (“Su Wen Jin Yuzheng”), it is the essence of the body. The body is the shape, the gasification is the shape, the shape is filled with gas, the gas is the essence of the form, and the shape is the root of life. “Which is the only way to shape the ear, but the invisible is without the sorrow” (“Jing Yue Quan Shu · Governance Theory”). Heaven and Earth are the great biochemical, the human body is a small biochemical device. Human life exists on the form of the body. If the form disperses, the life activities will also end. Therefore, 曰: · “The biochemical of the device, the device is scattered, the biochemical interest rate” (“Su Wen · Six Micro Purposes”). Gas is always in the gasification of gas conversion, and the human body is a body that continuously undergoes gasification. This gasification is manifested in human life. The function of life comes from the form of human beings, and the form depends on the natural materials of the heavens and the earth. Therefore, life activities are the products of the material and natural world, and are a natural phenomenon between heaven and earth. Traditional Chinese medicine refers to the changing law of material movement in nature, all life activities and physiological functions of the human body as God. As far as the human body and life functions are concerned, God is the title of all life activities and physiological functions (including mental consciousness thinking activities) of the human body. The shape and the gods, the material of life exists in the body, and the human body reveals the function of life. The mentally conscious thinking activity is a higher-level functional activity that is produced on the basis of all vital functions. It is also a product of living matter and a manifestation of gasification. If the god is rooted in shape, the root is in the air, the instant energy is in the form, and the form is derived from the living matter-qi. Chinese medicine further demonstrates that Qi is the basic point of view of human life from the aspect of relationship between form and spirit.
Man is the product of nature, born of the heavens and the earth, and formed according to the four-time method. The qi and yang of the heavens and the earth is internalized in the human body and constitutes the qi of the human body. Physiological gas is the material basis for maintaining human life activities, and its law of movement changes is also the activity law of human life. People and the world correspond to each other. The human body and the natural world are not only constrained by the law of the movement of the yin and yang, but also many specific laws of motion. The qi and yang of the heavens and the earth are divided into yin and yang. The qi of the human body also has the distinction between yin and yang. Therefore, “Life is tangible, not yin and yang” (“Su Wen, Bao Ming Quan Xing”), “Yin Pingyang secret, spirit is rule”, “Yin and Yang are separated, and the spirit is absolutely perfect” (“Su Wen·Yin Yang should be like a big theory”). The movement of the human body and the natural gas obey the law of unity, and the “constant of human beings” is also the “constant of the sky” (“Su Wen, blood gas shape”), “the age of heaven and earth, the universality of human beings “. (“Su Wen, really want to talk about”)
In summary, gas is a living material that exists in real life and is subtle. It is the material basis of life activities and carries the phenomenon of life. Life depends, but only gas. “Only the formation of gas, the accumulation of gas is in the shape, the dispersion of gas is dead,” “the gas gathers when the life is born, the air is then died” (“Medical law, the law of the atmosphere in the chest”). Therefore, Qi is the most basic substance that constitutes the human body and maintains human life activities.
It is true that when Chinese medicine discusses the life activities of the human body, the concept of Qi often has both the meaning of life material and physiological function, but it does not mean that in addition to the material gas, there is also a non-material pure function. . Because gas is a very fine substance, its shape is small, and its eyesight is difficult to see. At most, it can detect the chaotic cloud state (such as water vapor). Only through its movement can the existence of gas be expressed. Therefore, “There is a good voice, and it must be revealed to the object” (“Su Wen Qiu Da Bu Da Bu Tan”). Any physiological function of the human body must be based on substances existing in a certain way, and cannot be separated from a certain material structure. The gas of human life matter is expressed through the functional activities of the human body’s organs. In other words, the physiological function of the human body’s organs is the function of the gas of the living substance. Because Chinese medicine regards the human body as a moving behavior process, it mainly reveals the essence of the visceral meridians from the functional aspect, and perceives the existence of living substances through physiological functions and pathological phenomena. Therefore, the gas in Chinese medicine not only has the meaning of living matter, but also often has functional meaning. But this does not mean that the Chinese medicine can be both physical and functional.
Movement is the fundamental attribute of matter, “qi is the master of movement” (“Six Medicines”). Structure is the foundation and function is performance. Therefore, in Chinese medicine, Qi is the dialectical unity of matter and movement, structure and function. The basic meaning, in the universe, is the basic element that constitutes everything in the world; in the human body, it is the most basic substance that constitutes the human body and maintains human life activities.
When Chinese medicine answers the origins of all things in heaven and earth from the height of philosophy, it is synonymous with essence, spirit and qi. When discussing the changes in the movement of living matter from the perspective of medical science, the essence, the essence and the gas are related, and they are the basic substances that constitute the human body and maintain the life activities of the human body, but their meanings are not the same. Compared with fine and fine gas, gas is invisible (when gas exists in the form of scattered motion), and tiny particles of matter that cannot be seen by the meat. The words must be reflected in the matter. Only through the phenomenon of life movement, the physiological functions of the organs and meridians can grasp the existence of gas and its movement changes. Fine and fine gas are tangible, mostly liquid, and are extremely fine and subtle substances accessible to the naked eye. It can also be considered that fine and fine gas is a form in which gas is formed by being gathered and formed in a moving form. Qi is yang, active, expensive and orderly without chaos; fine, refined gas is yin, the main static, Guining 谧 secret secrets and not venting.