December 1st is the 31st World AIDS Day, and this year’s theme was identified as “knowing your HIV status.”
Since 1988, significant progress has been made in the global AIDS response. By the end of 2017, 3/4 of HIV-infected people are aware of their HIV status.
In the late 1970s, the National Center for Disease Control found a strange disease in Los Angeles: the patient’s systemic immune system collapsed and infected with other unusual diseases. Even more frightening is that all medical treatments are useless and the cure rate is zero!
Subsequently, people found that more and more people were sick, and patients had one thing in common – all gay men. Therefore, some researchers directly refer to the disease as “male homosexual immunodeficiency.”
However, over time, some women, heterosexual men, hemophiliacs, Addicts and even children who use drugs with a syringe have also got the disease.
In 1982, the disease was named “Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome” or AIDS by the Centers for Disease Control.
To cure the ills, you must start from its source. As a result, the US Centers for Disease Control organized a strong lineup of cancer experts, parasitic diseases experts, virologists, and sociologists. They use a variety of sampling, analysis and research to derive an “HIV-like”. The virus first appeared in monkeys and orangutans in 1908. Around 1930, it was transmitted to humans by orangutans.
Orangutans and monkeys have strong immunity. About 30% to 70% of monkeys are infected with HIV-like drugs, but they carry viruses and are not ill.
Once the virus enters the human body, it will unscrupulously attack the city in the human body.
Gradually evolved into human HIV. In the age of medical underdevelopment, once infected, it is equivalent to being sentenced to “death penalty.”
So, how quickly did AIDS spread widely? “Needle contamination” is one of the important reasons. Although inexpensive, non-sterile disposable plastic syringes have been used in the medical and health fields since the 1950s.
However, in an economically underdeveloped Africa, a syringe may be used thousands of times.
Causes the rapid spread of the virus among the population.
In the 1960s, HIV gradually spread to the eastern and southeastern parts of the United States through the Caribbean, and then to Europe and Asia. Now, the whole world is deeply immersed.
02 How terrible this virus is!
In 2002, the authoritative journal AIDS, which researched AIDS, reported that in the absence of antiretroviral treatment, an infected person counted from the official entry into the “AIDS episode” and the median survival time was only 9.2 months.
The asymptomatic period of the infected person can last for a short period of time, ranging from 2 years to as much as 20 years. The length of this time is closely related to the route of infection. Under normal circumstances,
Menstrual blood infections (mainly illegal blood collection and sharing syringes) are 4-5 years, and sexual intercourse infections are generally 11-13 years. If an asymptomatic period of an infected person can reach 13 years, it can be called “long-term survivor”. It is.
At present, there is still a lack of effective drugs for eradicating HIV infection worldwide.
The current treatment goals are:
*Maximize and lasting reduction of viral load;
* Get immune function reconstruction and maintain immune function;
*improve the quality of life;
* Reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality.
In other words, with the current medical level, AIDS can only be controlled and cannot be cured.
There is a problem to be aware of:
HIV (English abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus) is not the same as AIDS (English abbreviation for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
HIV is a virus. AIDS is a condition.
A person infected with HIV does not necessarily have an immediate onset. After the onset of illness, it can be said that this person is suffering from AIDS.
At present, HIV infection in humans can be roughly divided into 1/2 two types. In terms of gene composition,
HIV-1 is very close to the chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz), which is very close to the immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm) of the black-breasted monkey.
This also confirms the results of the study of HIV originally derived from primates.
The main difference between the two types is that HIV-1 is more common. Most of the current infections are type 1 and HIV-2 is mainly concentrated in the West African region. In addition, the development of type 2 disease is much slower than type 1.
When the immune cells in the infected person are unable to compete with HIV, it marks the final stage of HIV infection, called “symptomatic period.”
At this time, the infected people become AIDS patients, their immune system is eroded to near collapse, at this time, some common diseases may have the life of AIDS patients.
In February 2011, a middle-aged man was admitted to hospital with sore throat, hemoptysis, fever, and difficulty breathing. The clinical consideration was pulmonary infection, but it was eventually confirmed as HIV-negative HIV-associated KS. The man died two weeks after his diagnosis because the condition had progressed to the end of the AIDS epidemic.
03 Miracle: The “Berlin patient” who was cured
However, one AIDS patient has indeed been cured, and this is the only case in the world!
This lucky one is Timothy Brown of the United States, because living in Berlin,
He is known as the “Berlin patient.”
Brown was unlucky, he had AIDS and leukemia, and his body went from bad to worse, almost to the brink of death. However, just as life was about to bottom out, he met the savior, Dr. Hutt. Under the advice of a doctor specializing in blood diseases, Brown decided to treat leukemia first.
In February 2007, he underwent a bone marrow transplant. As a result, the bone marrow transplant not only cured his leukemia, but his AIDS was also cured! Moreover, after more than three years of clinical observation, he could not find HIV in his body.
It turns out that the CCR5 variant gene in the donor’s bone marrow can fight HIV!
According to previous studies, this variant gene exists only in a few Nordic people.
Since then, the hospital has found six patients with both AIDS and leukemia, and transplanted the bone marrow with the variant gene according to the same procedure. However, they have not succeeded.
These patients either died of leukemia or died of complications from stem cell transplantation, the same thing is that HIV remains in the body.
Therefore, Brown is still the first in the world and the only AIDS patient to be cured.
In July 2012, at the World AIDS Conference in Washington, DC, Brown announced the establishment of a foundation named after it to explore the ultimate cure for HIV with scientists, research institutions, and universities around the world.
04 Once sick, lifelong treatment
Although AIDS cannot be cured, it can be quickly taken to block HIV at the beginning of the infection. After a high-risk behavior (no sleeves or shared needles, etc.),
“HIV blockers” are used to prevent the spread of HIV. Taking 72 hours as the tipping point, the sooner the better.
After the onset, most AIDS patients need medication.
According to the latest report in 2017, the current clinical practice of AIDS is “antiretroviral therapy” (ART), which can treat patients with viruses.
Reduced to the same level as ordinary people, but can not be completely removed.
Once the patient stops receiving treatment, the virus will be copied again, that is, AIDS patients must be treated for life, taking medication on time and in volume.
As of the first half of 2017, 20.9 million HIV-infected patients worldwide received antiretroviral treatment. Statistics from the past six years show that the number of new HIV infections worldwide has fallen by 16%, and the number of deaths in the same period has dropped by 32%.
05 What are the transmission routes of AIDS?
There are three main ways to spread AIDS:
1. Sexual transmission
If a person and a person living with HIV have sex without using a condom, he may be infected with HIV.
2. Blood transmission
Sharing syringes with HIV-infected people, entering HIV-infected blood, and even using scalpels, blood transfusion equipment, etc., may be a means of transmitting HIV if not properly disinfected.
3. Mother-to-child transmission
If the mother is infected, the virus may be transmitted to the child through pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. However, AIDS mothers may also give birth to healthy babies. In 2000, Shenzhen took the lead in launching a pilot program to prevent HIV transmission. From 2012 to 2016,
A total of more than 300 HIV-positive mothers have been born to give birth to healthy babies.
A 39-year-old AIDS mother decided to leave her child in the stomach despite her family’s opposition.
From the early stages of pregnancy, she began to receive antiviral drugs, try to block mother-to-child transmission, and eventually gave birth to a healthy baby. For such mothers, doctors do not recommend giving birth, and do not breastfeed after childbirth.
General contact, such as eating together, shaking hands, etc., will not spread AIDS.
In life, we should treat AIDS patients correctly.
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06 How to prevent AIDS?
1. Safe sex:
Strengthen moral education and prohibit promiscuity;
Avoid sexual contact with HIV-infected people, AIDS patients and high-risk groups;
Use condoms in all sexual behaviors.
2. Do not share needles:
If you need an anesthetic such as heroin, don’t share the needle with others.
Also don’t use needles that have already been used.
Health care workers follow certain safety measures to avoid the spread of AIDS between patients and staff, and between patients.
3. Avoid unnecessary blood exposure:
Such as beauty, tattoos, ear-eyes, pedicure and other operational behaviors, these have blood exposure, if you must do the above operations, do not map the low-cost operation room,
Or institutions that do not have a health certificate to perform such high-risk operations. Because if these utensils are not strictly disinfected, it is easy to cause HIV infection.
4. Do not share daily necessities:
Avoid sharing toothbrushes, razors, etc.
Women should pay attention to hygiene during menstruation.
5. Pay attention to trauma protection:
If there is trauma caused by trauma, sports injuries, etc., you must pay attention to protect yourself. When ambulance the wounded and sick, avoid the damaged skin from contacting the wounded’s blood.
More awareness of AIDS will bring more warmth to AIDS patients.