Hero of a thousand and one battles, Prince of Peace, the Superman of Oaxaca, Cincinato de la Noria, Savior and builder of modern Mexico, Grand Lama of Chapultepec, General Porfirio Díaz, unconstitutional President of Mexico, today Emperor by Divine Law, the day of settling accounts is approaching.
On that day history will judge of his work declaring it good or bad, not with the help of salaried agents of the press, the schemers, the parasites and the lackeys of that man; not only taking into consideration the miles of railroads and telegraphs, the seaports, the public buildings and the asphalt roads built in their domains; not for the battles won or lost, or for the multiple decorations agglomerated in his proud chest; neither by the army and the army that he has created, nor by the myriads of concessions he has sold to foreigners; nor for the fictitious prosperity of Mexico and the peace of the tombs, the peace of Warsaw.
He will be judged by taking into account all the freedoms that he has torn apart, one after another, in a deliberate way, the political ideals that he has trampled under the pretext of a peace that has only been profitable for the political mafia he has created.
It will be judged taking into account the Justice that has co-opted, entrusting its administration to puppets and helots that belong to it in property; the thousands of individuals he has thrown into the dungeons, to rot there; for the thousands of individuals killed in cold blood, without even prior process formal accusation, as the cattle are sent to the slaughterhouse, to serve as pasture to his ambition as a vulture, to satisfy his purposes of terrorizing, in his despair of affection and esteem; his constant fear, his perpetual fear of revolt, which would come to prove that he is not loved, and, at the same time, that his empire is ephemeral.
He will be judged by the butcher shop in Veracruz, for the murder of General Corona, General García de la Cadena and General Ángel Martínez; for the murder of all his great rivals, for the red day of Orizaba, for the multitude of journalists sacrificed for the sake of his Great Fear, for his terror towards Freedom, Justice and Righteousness of Conduct.
It was a great sacrifice, and the holocaust raised its flames to the clouds, and the smoke and ashes of a gray red took the shape of Porfirio Díaz, the hero of a thousand and one battles.
But History will judge and throw to the four winds the great Shadow.
Synopsis of the Life of Porfirio Díaz.
The life of Porfirio Díaz can be divided into four well-determined periods. The first period includes from birth to the age of 24; the second begins when he fled to join those who made the opposition to Santa Ana, and concludes in 1867, with the death of the Emperor Maximilian; the third comprises from 1867 to 1876, a period of storms and violence, which ended with the escalation of the Presidency of the Republic; the fourth from 1876 to the present time, and that is the period of his continuous power, with the exception of the interregnum of General González. (1880-1884.)
This is the incubation period, the outbreak of the wildflower, the evolution of the theological disciple towards the student of jurisprudence.
This predestined man was born in the humblest cradle, in Oaxaca, the year of 1830, the scion of a father of Spanish origin, and of an Indian mother, and ascended to the highest peak of power ever achieved in his country, by the path of war, revolution and anarchy. But his first steps were peaceful, almost vulgar: he was a good son, an industrious disciple and a good boy.
In the year of 1846 the city of Oaxaca had apprehensions of war. It was believed that the American forces advancing on the capital of the Republic would attack Oaxaca. With this motive all the students were affiliated in the militias, forming a battalion that the local chronicles designate seriously with the comic name of “Peor es nada”. The young man Porfirio joined him too, but, unfortunately, the comic battalion never went on campaign.
There is nothing in those early years that augured the tragic events of his future existence, in which the most unrealizable ambitions of his dreams would be realized; existence dotted with romantic adventures, worthy of a novel of which are divided by installments.
No decider of fortune, no prophet foretold anything, and, as he himself confesses, his highest ambition, as a boy, was to become colonel of a battalion.
Those who have studied their life from the psychological point of view, have tried to explain the success achieved by Díaz, attributing it to the qualities inherited from the two races that concur in it: the Spanish and the Mixteca.
Atavism does not explain the phenomenon, since there are many thousands of boys with Mixtec mothers and Spanish parents who never become anything, not even good porters.
The explanation is in himself; it consists of the perfect balance between the brain and the will; it is the logical explanation of the success achieved by the conquerors, statesmen and leaders of men. With a little more intelligence, he would have become a good lawyer; with a little more imagination, he could have been a militant journalist or a business promoter; With an excess of will he could have surpassed the line of the revolutionary leader, to become a captain of bandits.
In every man must be the Don Quixote balanced by the Sancho Panza, in order to have good practical success.
A vulgar being, attentive and prudent at all times in his life, often enjoys the pleasure of triumphing over men of imagination, as Stendhal says.
The Second Period.
This is the Quixotic era of his life. He battled for several ideals. He rebelled against the despotism of Santa Ana; against the power of the Church, the arbitrariness of the powerful governors, the autocratic political bosses; for “Mexico for the Mexicans”, for justice and individual liberty, until their desperate struggles and their temerities came to the knowledge of their former master of jurisprudence, Benito Juárez.
One beautiful day, on December 2, 1854, Porfirio Diaz escaped to meet a bandit named Esteban Aragón, because he refused to vote in favor of the arch-comedian and despotic Santa Ana, which led the police to follow him track.
On that day of predestination, Díaz found his true vocation.
Since then and for about 22 years he fought almost without truce, for 13 years in favor of a political ideal; in the next 9 years, to get the presidency.
Thus he was acquiring practical lessons in the art of war, in the creation and organization of troops and revolutions.
In the midst of these skirmishes broke out the Reformation Revolution, and the Liberal Party, which Diaz had joined, emerged victorious over the Church, bringing the Indian President, Benito Juarez, out of the darkness, to make him the highest personality in history. mexican
Next came the French Intervention. Porfirio Díaz and the other generals of the Liberal Party fought against the disciplined French troops, following the guerrilla system, or in pitched battles, almost naked, hungry and badly armed, without receiving help from the United States, until, at last, they threw the French to the sea and dragged Maximilian to the gallows. With the death of the Emperor the cause of the Church was buried.
The Third Period.
The young general who had fought for so many political ideals, felt disappointed to see the poor reward he got.
The thorn of envy began to pierce him, and the patriot sacrificed everything in his unbridled stampede to reach supreme power. That was a tantalizing struggle against the impassive and unbreakable Juarez.
On one occasion they seized him and made him appear before Juarez, who told him: “You deserve five bullets per rebel; But the country takes into consideration the services you rendered during the Intervention War. You are very ambitious and will surely be president someday; but not while I live. ”
The first proof of the ambition of P. Diaz for the presidency was manifested in 1867: “Queretaro besieged General Escobedo when he was presented with a commission that was going to propose the formation of a military party whose leadership would be raffled among the Generals Escobedo, Corona and Diaz, to take to the presidency the one designated by chance, because it was not fair, added the commissioners, that Don Benito Juarez would continue as president and pick up the advantages of the triumph, when they were the ones who had achieved it at of his blood and with danger of his life. Gen. Escobedo replied saying that he was a soldier, not a politician; that fought for patriotism, not ambition; and that it was enough that the French had declared that they would never deal with Mr. Juarez, so that he would believe that, at the time of the triumph,
This little lesson in patriotism and loyalty made the conspiracy abort.
From 1867 and for more than nine years, General Diaz conspired and resisted the admi legal and constitutional administrations of President Juarez and President Lerdo de Tejada.
This Prince of Peace at all costs today, then broke the peace of the country with his proclamations, which today are read as political pamphlets against his own government.
With persistence he antagonized the legal authority and promoted rebellions in the south, in the east, in the west, and from the United States he brought the revolution to Mexico. When Gen. Escobedo left in pursuit, at the head of the government troops, Gen. Diaz cowered, dispersed his accomplices in the rebellion, and fled across the American frontier, exactly the same as they did in the small revolt that broke out a few months ago started on this side of the border by the Flores Magón brothers. At that time the company name was Díaz, Brother and C.
He failed repeatedly, rose again, frantic, as if stung by the tarantula of ambition, sowing disorder, anxiety, disgust and anarchy all over the country.
His discredit reached such a point that the serious and straight-up people compared him to the famous bandit and cacique of Tepic, Manuel Lozada, a remarkable Indian, savage and cruel, whose strong character is interesting. Lozada organized a perfect dictatorship; his police and his system of espionage were admirably organized, and he obtained his revenues from the customs of Tepic, which he drove at will. In his ambition Lozada also made his Plan, the so-called “Liberator Plan of Lozada”. In a short time he organized 8,000 Indians in order to assault the city of Guadalajara and the Presidency of the Republic. But he was defeated in the battle of “La Mojonera”, by Gen. Corona.
The general impression of the moment was condensed in a sentence pronounced by distinguished lawyer and journalist, who from the top of a tower of Guadala jara telescoped the dust raised by the Teotian hordes approaching to attack that square: “Only this was missing … A third empire with Lozada I.!”
“Man overboard!” Such was the popular phrase that ridiculed the failure of Gen. Diaz, as political leader and revolutionary leader, when, on his trip from New Orleans to Veracruz, (1876) in order to take front of the rebels of Oaxaca, jumped over the side of the ship that was driving, to prevent the capture of the troops of the legitimate government.
That same Prince of Peace who today hypocritically exhibits himself as the protector of the Constitution and of Legality, at that time, in the face of the popular defeat suffered in three successive presidential elections, persisted in subverting public order, compromising prosperity of his homeland with his constant revolts, only to satisfy his insatiable greed and his ambition for power.
In 1867, Benito Juárez obtained 7,422 votes for the presidency.
In 1867, Porfirio Diaz obtained 2,709 votes for the presidency.
In 1871 Benito Juárez obtained 5,837 votes for the presidency.
In 1871 Porfirio Díaz obtained 3,555 votes for the presidency.
After the death of Juarez there was another election and Diaz was defeated again. (1872)
Lerdo de Tejada received 9,520 votes for the presidency.
Porfirio Díaz received 604 votes for the presidency.
General Diaz appears responsible for the “Mutiny” of Mexico, the Plan de la Noria, the Tuxtepec Plan, and the Palo Blanco Plan in which the previous one was reformed. The latter overthrew Pres. Lerdo. Low the title of “Mutiny”, The 19th Century, opposition newspaper, published these lines: “As we are informed, the Plan consisted in assassinating Gen. Alatorre on leaving the theater, proclaiming President Gen. Porfirio Diaz and imposing the population a loan of $ 300,000.00 under penalty of looting. The leader of the mutiny was an Urrutia officer who had served the Empire and went over to Gen. Alatorre’s camp when he laid siege to Jalapa. This officer had seduced the troops, but an hour before the plot broke out, a corporal denounced him. ”
When the revolutionaries ostensibly invited Gen. Diaz to lead another revolt, he replied: “I resign myself to the sacrifice of my honor and my life, and, if success crowns our efforts, I will be able to give new and evident proofs that I do not aspire by ostentation to power and I prefer the obscurity of the domestic home . ”
This is one of his customary and innumerable political lies, because his personal ambition for power was so vehement and terrible that Gen. Luis Mier y Terán had admirably synthesized the mental state of the men of the sword in a phrase of nice virility:
– ” Porfirio Diaz or death … !!”
The “Plan de la Noria” was so named, because it was written in the Hacienda de la Noria, owned by Gen. Díaz, who signed it in Nov. 1871. This plan was considered so absurd and impracticable, that “The 19th Century “Opposition newspaper to the government, declared in its number of 16 Nov. 1871:” ‘The Plan of the Noria’. This name has been given to the manifesto recently read in Congress by the Minister of the Interior, as issued by Gen. Díaz. To many people we have heard that it is an apocryphal document and certainly wanting to give a strong blow in the public opinion to Gen. Diaz and the revolution that he leads, it was more appropriate to attribute a plan SO FULL OF POLITICAL ABSURD like what is now called the Plan de la Noria . ”
On the death of Juarez, Lerdo de Tejada occupied the presidency of the republic, by virtue of his character as Constitutional Vice President.
By one of his first decrees (July 27, 1872) he granted a general amnesty to all revolutionaries who had arms in hand.
Gen. Díaz considered that demeaning amnesty for him and his henchmen, as he stated in a circular dated September 13. 1872, in Chihuahua: “I thought purposely to propose that the revolution accredit two people of their trust close to the Government to enter with him in frank negotiations that could result in peace and the substitution of the degrading law that has been called amnesty by another that does not lower our military dignity and confuse us with the infiders at the time of the Intervention, as it seems that it was intentionally done. ”
On this occasion, the rebel leader was outwitted by the diplomatic President, who succeeded in exhibiting him as a traitor to the fatherland.
It was natural, then, for peace-loving people to show their displeasure at the unpatriotic behavior of Gen. Díaz, defeating him in the elections for the presidential elections, in 1872.
But just as a leopard can not change the spots on its skin, Porfirio Díaz, in spite of what his numerous flatterers and his false admirers say, is today the same traitor to the country we have seen in the nine years of almost uninterrupted rebellions and seditions.
We always see it appear as perjury against the Constitution, against the Republic, the Reform Laws and the Non-re-election. He has broken with the dogmas of his party, with all the liberal principles that professed in another time, with all the aspirations of his homeland.
He aspired to be a Washington, and has degenerated into a Hispano-American Sylla; he wanted to establish a liberal paternalism, and managed to create only a creeping “Diazpotism”; he ambitioned to be an emule of Napoleon I, and followed in the footsteps of Cesare Borgia; He hoped to govern, and has only terrified; he came to imagine that he could deceive history, and he has only disappointed himself.
In his private conversations with friends and strangers, he tries to convince himself and others that his constant purpose has been that of honesty and sacrifice, but that circumstances have forced him to follow another path.
A year ago, in an audience that granted ET Simondetti, president of the “El Diario”, he told him:
“In 1879, when I declared that I opposed re-election for the presidency, I was sincere ; but then my friends begged me to remain in power for the good of the nation. ”
From the above it logically follows that now is not sincere , because the same friends continue to beg him, in each new electoral farce, to continue in power for the good of the nation.
In the first lines of the Plan de la Noria (1871), which was the proclamation against the Juarez government, I find the following:
To the Mexican People.
“The indefinite, forced, and violent re-election of the Federal Executive has endangered national institutions.”
This comical appeal to the Mexican people, made by the incipient satrap, recalls that of another Mexican mandarin, the traitor Santa Ana, who used to put at the bottom of all his bombastic proclamations and letters: “Homeland and Freedom!” In the famous Plan of Tuxtepec reformed in Palo Blanco, (March 21, 1876) proclaims Porfirio Díaz, under his signature: “Art. 20. The NON-RE-ELECTION of the President of the Republic and Governors of the States shall have the same character as the supreme law , while this principle is raised to the rank of constitutional reform, by the legal means established by the Constitution. ”
On Sept. 16 of 1879 President Diaz made the following statement before Congress:
“It is not the opportunity for the executive to express his judgment on that matter; but I must do before the Congress the solemn protest that I will never admit a candidacy for re-election even if it is not prohibited by our code, since we will always abide by the principle from which the Revolution started in Tuxtepec emanated. ”