What is protein?
Protein is an important component that makes up all the cells and tissues of the human body. Protein is involved in all important components of the body. In general, protein accounts for about 18% of the total body mass, and the most important thing is that it is related to life phenomena. Protein is the material basis of life, the basic organic matter that constitutes cells, and the main bearer of life activities.
Summarize a sentence: “protein is very important”
No life without protein
When it comes to proteins, you have to mention amino acids; amino acids are the basic building blocks of proteins. Amino acid is a protein
They are substances that are closely linked to life and to various forms of life. Protein is involved in every cell and all important components in the body. Protein accounts for 16% to 20% of the body’s weight, that is, a 60kg adult has about 9.6~12kg of protein in the body. There are many kinds of proteins in the human body, and their properties and functions are different. However, they are composed of more than 20 kinds of amino acids in different proportions, and are continuously metabolized and renewed in the body.
2 the difference between proteins
Here are the amino acids mentioned at the beginning:
Amino acid is the small molecular structure of a protein; protein is composed of different amino acids.
There are more than twenty amino acids in the human body.
Essential and non-essential amino acids
Essential amino acids: The human body needs to rely on exogenous or supplementary food to obtain
Non-essential amino acids: the human body can synthesize itself
Essential amino acid
In the diet, our focus is on essential amino acids because it depends on food supplements.
There are eight kinds of essential amino acids: lysine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, valine.
There are nine essential amino acids in infants.
If the above amino acids are often absent from the diet, it will seriously affect health and even life-threatening.
And they are also the cornerstone of our muscles.
These eight kinds of amino acids make up the protein that our body can use. Just like the Dragon Ball, these eight kinds of Dragon Balls can be used to summon the dragon, which lacks one of the amino acids;
High quality protein
Is there a poor protein with good quality protein? How to distinguish? Mainly to see
Two of the proteins: the amino acid composition and the digestibility of the protein
The so-called protein component is its content and type; that is, we have just said that it contains essential amino acids.
Whether the protein can be used by the body is very interesting; it does not depend on the most abundant amino acid, often depends on the least amino acid and whether the ratio is comprehensive; for example, this food contains seven of the eight essential amino acids, the content reaches 10000g
But it still cannot be absorbed by the human body; because it lacks one
So to talk about the quality of a food protein, first of all, look at its “restricted amino acid”, that is, the minimum amount of essential amino acids; more amino acids, the ratio should be fully in line with the needs of the human body. Among them: the amino acid combination of cooked eggs and the body is up to 98%
So cooked eggs are more suitable for our daily intake.
The recommended daily protein intake is that it is rich in animal protein with high protein content.
Protein digestibility is also an important indicator of whether food is a good quality protein.
Protein digestibility refers to the percentage of protein absorbed in the digestive tract as a percentage of protein intake, the extent to which the food is decomposed by digestive enzymes, and the extent to which the digested amino acids and peptides are absorbed. It is generally determined by animal or human test. The higher the protein digestibility, the more the body is absorbed, and the higher its nutritional value.
Factors affecting protein digestibility in food
In general, the digestibility of animal proteins is higher than that of plant proteins because plant proteins are surrounded by cellulose and are inferior to digestive enzymes, so the digestibility is low. However, when the vegetable food is processed and cooked, and the cellulose is broken, softened or removed, the vegetable protein digestibility can be appropriately increased. For example, when soybeans are eaten, the protein digestibility is only 60%. For example, when soybeans are processed into soy milk or tofu, the protein digestibility can be increased to 90%. Some plant foods have anti-trypsin factors, which can reduce the protein digestibility, such as in soybeans, but can be destroyed by cooking and heating.
High digestibility: animal protein, low-gluten flour, peanuts and soybeans (94-99% digestibility) are less digestible: other beans (72-84%)
Life is not perfect
Most foods contain amino acids in life; they all lack “restricted amino acids”, that is, amino acids are incomplete.
For example, the limiting amino acid of rice is lysine, and the lack of tryptophan in corn. All foods contain more or less amino acids, even fruits, but they are not enough to be used by the human body.
Many girls love to eat pig’s trotters; in fact, from the amino acid point of view, pig’s trotters are a kind of inferior protein, which can’t be absorbed by the body. Its fat and cholesterol are high.
At this time, we can use our wisdom, for example, a person is vegetarian; can not eat animal protein, this time you can use the ratio in food
There are fewer lysines in cereals and more in beans, and less methionine in cereals.
If you eat it alone, their protein is not well absorbed, but when combined, it has a complementary effect, greatly improving the absorption of protein.
Cereals with beans are also a common staple of Indians, which indirectly illustrates the importance of diversification of diet.
The intake of protein is set according to the different exercise intensity of different people. Aerobic exercise and anaerobic exercise have different requirements for protein intake.
“Sports increase the rate and probability of protein hydrolysis into amino acids oxidation of lean muscles”
Simply put, the exercise will make the meat you eat as muscles as possible. Because the protein will be used to repair the damaged tissue in exercise.
Therefore, the greater the amount of exercise, the more protein intake should be increased.
Ordinary people who recommend daily exercise-free habits are only daily protein intake of 1.0 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight per day.
Example: For example, a person with a weight of 60kg is 20 years old. His job is a clerk. He only uses a computer to go to work. He drives home after work. He eats at least 60g of protein per day without any physical activity. You can
Of course, this standard is extremely low, and it can even be said that it is definitely insufficient.
Protein is safe from 1.5g to 1.8g per kilogram of body weight per day.
If you maintain regular high-intensity training, you can even 2.0g per day per kilogram a bodybuilder or even 2.5g to 4.0g per kilogram per day.
In the case of protein intake, it is recommended to take a protein intake of about 20 to 35 g per meal.
Studies have shown that beef with 30g protein per meal can better trigger the body’s synthesis of muscles.
The higher 80g of beef does not have a protein that stimulates the body and stimulates the bottom.
“Protein is your good partner for weight loss. It will lower your craving for other bad food desserts, white bread, sugar cravings, increase and decrease of satiety, increase your muscle disguise and increase your basal metabolism.”
When designing a diet, you can properly reduce the intake of carbon water in order to lose weight and open a calorie gap.
Some people take very low carbon water or do not eat carbon water; this is not advisable
Because what the human body needs most is the glucose that is decomposed by carbohydrates. Your brain has no energy storage material, almost all use sugar to supply energy, and the brain’s energy consumption is huge.
Sugar is transported to the brain via GLUT1 (glucose transporter 1)
When there are not enough carbohydrates, the body will take the protein to convert sugar to the body to supply energy. This is “sweet sugar to get glucose” so that we are wasting the protein we eat.
“Diet Guide: Eat meat in moderation, eat and eat…. Good to remember….”
“The most important thing about diet is that: grasp the general direction.”
Common food guide
In every 100 grams of food commonly used, meat contains 10-20 grams of protein, fish contains 15-20 grams, whole eggs contain 13-15 grams, beans contain 20-30 grams, cereals contain 8-12 grams, vegetables The digestibility of fruit containing 1-2 grams of whole soybeans is 60%, which can be increased to 90% after making tofu and soy milk. The absorption rate of other proteins can also be increased after cooking, such as 98% of milk, meat. 93%, eggs are 98%, rice is 82% common food protein physiological value is: eggs 94%, milk 85%, fish 83%, shrimp 77%, beef 76%, rice 77%, cabbage 76%, Wheat is 67%.