Knowing rich coffee terms doesn’t make coffee better, but it makes it easier for you to communicate with other baristas or coffee lovers. (It is recommended to share or collect this article, have time to understand it)
Several important concepts that coffee extraction must understand
Extraction: The word extraction comes from Latin, which means extruding something or taking an extract. In chemistry, extraction refers to the acquisition of valuable substances (flavors) from raw materials (coffee beans). There are many extraction methods, the most common of which is the use of hot water to extract the flavor from the coffee powder. Cooking is also often used to replace the word extraction.
Over-extraction: refers to the contact time between coffee powder and hot water is too long, or the ratio of coffee powder to water is too low. When using a drip coffee machine and brewing espresso, the over-extraction is too fine. When brewing by hand, it may be that the extraction time is too long. Excessive water temperature can also lead to excessive extraction. Excessive extraction will extract too much unwanted chemicals, such as caffeine, and make the coffee taste bitter and uneven.
Insufficient extraction: It means that the contact time between the coffee powder and the hot water is too short, and it is not enough to extract all the flavor from the coffee powder, which makes the coffee taste thin, bitter and uneven. Insufficient extraction may also be caused by excessive grinding or low water temperature. If the ratio of coffee powder to water is too high, you will get an under-extracted espresso. This kind of coffee not only lacks the characteristics of coffee, but also has bitterness.
Extraction time: refers to the time when coffee powder is in contact with water. It is an important cause for good coffee. Other terms such as brewing time or soaking time refer to extraction time.
Powder to water ratio: refers to the ratio of coffee powder to water. For the best flavor balance, every gram of coffee powder is essential for every milliliter of water.
About coffee beans:
* Coffee Cherry: The fruit of the coffee tree, named after the red color of the peel and the shape of the cherry.
* Round Bean: During the growth of the coffee fruit, one of the pair of seeds inside is particularly well developed, and another seed is eaten, so that the oval coffee beans should become round.
* Like beans: The body size is larger than the average coffee beans, and the taste is usually dull.
* Coffee Zone: Usually refers to the middle of the South and North Tropics, because this area is best for growing coffee.
* Drying method: The method of separating coffee pulp from seeds by sun exposure to obtain raw beans.
* Washing method: Use water to treat the way in which coffee pulp is separated from seeds to obtain green beans.
* Semi-washing method: the first half is sun-dried, and the second half is washed with water to separate the coffee pulp from the seeds to obtain raw beans.
* Chennian Bean: The raw beans are kept in good condition for several years to cultivate a deeper flavor.
* Fine coffee: From the planting and harvesting, the coffee is treated with great care. It is different from the coffee produced in general. It can be said to be the top product in the coffee industry. At present, there are fine coffee associations (SCAA and SCAE) in the United States and Europe, specializing in the promotion of fine coffee.
* Arabica: The coffee variety is the only coffee variety with 44 chromosomes. It is of good quality but not easy to care for. It is the most important variety in the current coffee market.
* Robusta: Coffee variety, large yield, easy to care but poor quality, the main purpose is to make instant coffee, Robusta is the second most popular variety in the market after Arabica.
* Silver skin: A film on the surface of raw beans that usually falls off when baked.
* First burst: the bursting reaction produced by the temperature of the coffee beans during the baking process at 190-200 degrees.
* Second explosion: During the baking process of coffee beans, the bursting reaction generated when the temperature is around 230 degrees, the bursting sound is smaller and denser than the first explosion.
* Exhaust reaction: The reaction of carbon dioxide continues to be emitted after the coffee beans are baked.
* Beans: After the coffee beans are dried, they are not immediately consumed. After a few days of storage, the exhaust reaction is completed, and the flavor of the coffee beans is fully ripe.
* Kidney Bean: Raw beans with broken, abnormal or worm-like appearance.
About coffee appliances:
* Propeller grinder: Grinding machine with a knife shaped like a propeller.
* Disc Grinder: Grinding knife is a flat type grinder.
* Cone type grinder: The sharpening machine is a cone type grinder.
* Bean storage tank: The space for storing coffee beans above the grinder.
* Sheng bean trough: The ground coffee machine is filled with ground coffee powder. The business model is usually a bean shaker.
* Component: A tool for quantifying coffee powder, usually combined with a bean-filled bean-filling machine.
* Reduction board: The small parts attached to some Moka pots mainly allow the user to put a little coffee powder.
* Pressure relief valve: The valve for removing pressure in the grinding pot will open when the pressure reaches the set pressure.
* Poly-pressure valve: The valve designed for the accumulation pressure in the grinding pot, the structure is the same as the pressure relief valve, only the function is different.
* Flannel: A material for flannel, which refers to the way in which fluffy is used to filter coffee powder in coffee.
* Metal filter: The filter type uses a very fine metal to filter the brewing method of coffee powder.
* Upper pot: The upper part of the wind pot.
* Lower pot: The lower half of the plug pot.
* Single: The Espresso term refers to a cup of Espresso brewed from a single serving (about 7g-9g) of coffee beans.
* Double: The Espresso term refers to the brewing of Espresso with double servings (about 14g-18g) of coffee beans.
* Triple: The Espresso term refers to a cup of Espresso brewed with three times the amount (about 21g – 27g) of coffee beans.
* Filter: The parts of the Espresso machine that contain coffee powder will have different capacities depending on the type.
* Brewing head: The place where the Espresso machine is out of the water.
* Filter handle: In the Espresso machine, the handle of the filter is placed, and the filter handle is locked on the brewing head when brewing.
* Non-porous filter: Filter handle without water outlet for cleaning the brewing head and internal lines of the Espresso coffee machine.
* Pump: A device that pressurizes water in an Espresso machine.
* Filler (powder hammer): A tool for compacting coffee powder, preferably made of metal.
* Drum-type bean-drying machine: Another name is the drum type bean-drying machine. The baking chamber is cylindrical and can be rotated to stir the coffee beans during baking.
* Direct-fired bean-drying machine: There is no complete barrier between the pyrogen and the coffee beans, and the baking machine can be directly heated to the coffee beans.
* Airflow Roasting Machine: A roasting machine that roasts coffee beans with hot air.
* Semi-direct fire-type bean-roasting machine: a roasting machine with both airflow and direct-fire heating.
* Cupping: A way to check the quality of coffee. Basically, put the freshly ground coffee beans in the cup, soak them in hot water, then soak them in a small spoon without filtering. .
* Extraction: Dissolve the desired substance through a liquid and precipitate.
* Caffeine: The chemical formula is C8H10N402, the only nitrogen-containing plant alkaloid, which has the effects of refreshing, diuretic, fatigue relief, etc.
* Oxidation: A substance chemically reacts with oxygen to form a new compound.
* Caramelization: The chemical reaction during coffee roasting. Also known as the Mena reaction, the chemical change produced at a high temperature, although there is a “coke” word, but has nothing to do with the burning phenomenon.
* Espresso: A way to brew coffee using high pressure hot water.
* Steaming: When using brewed coffee, first inject water into the coffee powder, then suspend the water, and by extracting the contact time of the coffee powder with water, extract more coffee flavor.
* Mocha: Mocha may represent three meanings, namely 1 coffee name, 2 some coffee pots, and 3 chocolate flavored coffee.
* Atmospheric pressure: The pressure exerted by air on a ground plane object. The atmospheric pressure of one square centimeter on the earth is one kilogram, also known as 1 Bar.
* Crema: A layer of milky substance floating on the surface of Espresso coffee, the essence of Espresso.
* Pull flower: When pouring milk foam into Espresso, it will form a beautiful leaf pattern on the coffee by the shaking of the wrist.
* Barista: Italian name for professional coffee brewers.
Coffee flavor terminology
The Coffee Tasting Flavor Wheel is a professional tool for comparing the aroma, taste and taste of coffee in a single item. This article explains the terminology mentioned in this flavor wheel in detail and is of great value.
Flavor: An overall impression of aroma, acidity, and alcoholity that can be used to describe the overall feel of a particular coffee. For example, this coffee has a unique flavor, or the coffee has a white chocolate flavor.
Acidity: The acidity that is common to all coffee grown in the high places. Strong taste. Unlike bitterness or sour, it has nothing to do with pH.
Body: The taste of boiled coffee after drinking. The change in alcohol content can be divided into light, medium, high, fat, and even some Indonesian coffees such as syrup. Other reference adjectives are bland (light) – coffee grown in the lowlands, the taste is usually light; the amount of coffee powder is insufficient, too much coffee with too much water will also have the same light effect.
Aroma: The scent and aroma of brewed coffee. Adjectives used to describe aroma include caramel, charcoal, chocolate, fruit, grass, malt, rich, rich, spicy, and the like. (see above for details)
Soft (soft): used to describe the mild taste of low acid coffee.
Spicy: A flavor or scent that is reminiscent of a particular fragrance. For example, Indonesian plateau coffee (especially aged coffee) has a cardamom-like smell; while Guatemala Antigua coffee has a peppery flavor, which can be described by the word spicy.
Wild (wild): Describes the extreme taste characteristics of coffee, which will remind you of the vast grasslands of Africa.
Sweet: It is a commonly used adjective that generally describes coffee without biting flavor.
Strong (strong): In terms of popular usage, it is strongly described as the strong flavor of deep roasted coffee.
Tangy (Xin Lie): Similar to the fermented sour taste, the essence is almost like fruit flavor, and it is also related to wine taste. Coffee grown in Costa Rica usually has a strong flavor.
Winy (wine): Describes a fascinating taste of wine, and colleagues have fruit-like acidity and lubricity. Kenyan coffee is the best example of wine flavor.
Sour (acid): This taste can be produced on both sides of the tongue and is characteristic of lightly roasted coffee.
Briny (salty): If the coffee is brewed, it will produce a salty taste if it is overheated.
Bitter (bitter): bitterness is a basic taste and a taste that coffee usually has. The bitterness of deep-roasted coffee is deliberately created, but if the coffee is particularly bitter, it may be caused by too much coffee powder.
Exotic: Describes coffee with a unique aroma and special flavor, such as flowers, fruits, spices and special tastes.
Mild: Indicates that a certain coffee has a harmonious, delicate flavor. Latin American premium coffee grown on the plateau is often described as mild texture. In addition, it is also a term used in the coffee industry to refer to all plateau coffee produced in addition to Brazil.
Earthy (aroma of earth): Usually used to describe the spicy coffee of Xinxiang. Sometimes people say that this is a kind of earthy smell. But this adjective is not derogatory. Dry-processed coffee beans usually have this taste, and it is precisely the special taste that many people chase.
Mellow: An adjective used for coffee with low to medium acidity and good balance.
Terms used in coffee cup testing
When measuring cups (cups), we need to distinguish between coffee flavor, alcohol thickness, acidity and wet aroma. Most cup makers use the following criteria to judge coffee.
Acidity: Acidity is an essential feature of coffee. It is the dry feeling of coffee produced on the lower edge of the tongue and the back of the tongue. The effect of coffee acidity is similar to that of red wine, with a strong and exciting texture. Without enough acidity, the coffee tends to be dull. Acidity is different from sourness, which is an unpleasant taste characteristic.
The wet aroma is difficult to separate from the flavor. If there is no sense of smell, our basic taste is just: sweet, sour, salty and bitter. The wet aroma enriches the differentiation of the soft palate. Some subtle, delicate differences, such as the “flowery” or “wine” characteristics, come from the wet aroma of brewed coffee.
Alcohol thickness is the feeling of coffee in the mouth, that is, the feeling of viscosity, thickness and richness of coffee produced by the tongue. Drinking whole milk is not the same as drinking water. It is a good example. Our perception of the mellow thickness of coffee is related to the oily and solids extracted from coffee. Indonesian coffee is significantly more mellow than South American and Central American coffee. If you are unsure of the difference in alcohol thickness between several coffees, try adding the same amount of milk to the coffee. Coffee with a high alcohol thickness will retain more flavor when diluted with milk.
Flavor is the overall feel of coffee in the mouth. Acidity, wet aroma and alcohol thickness are all part of the flavor, and it is their balance and homogenization that gives us a sense of overall flavor.
Here are some typical flavor features:
Rich – refers to the thickness and richness of the alcohol;
Complex – a feeling of multiple flavors;
Balance – all basic taste characteristics are satisfactory, and no one tastes another.
Fresh, bright, dry, brisk or lively – (common to Central American coffee):
Caramelized – like sugar or syrup;
Chocolate-flavored – similar to the aftertaste of unsweetened chocolate or vanilla;
Tasty – the subtle and delicate flavor of the tip of the tongue (washed New Guinean Arabica beans);
Earthy – the aroma of the earth (typical Sumatra coffee);
Fragrant – an aromatic trait that ranges from floral to multi-fragrance;
Fruity – an aromatic trait that is reminiscent of berries or oranges;
Ganmeifang – the taste is round, smooth and lacks acidity;
Nutty – similar to the aftertaste of fried nuts;
Spice-flavoring – reminiscent of the flavor and aroma of various spices;
Sweet – no mouthfuls;
Wild – a wild flavor that is generally not considered to be pleasant; common in Ethiopian coffee;
The scent of wine – a reminiscent of wines that are reminiscent of fully cooked wines (common in Kenya and Yemen).
Unpleasant flavor features:
Bitter – the taste produced by the base of the tongue, mostly due to excessive baking;
Boring, non-irritating – flavor neutral;
Charcoal – with charred carbon;
Inanimate – with “Flat”;
It has a bitter taste – it has a musty taste, which makes people think of the taste of eating soil;
The taste of the earth – the same as “taste”;
Plain – no sour, lack of moisture and aftertaste;
Grassy – reminiscent of the scent of freshly cut grass;
Rough – a caustic, caught, rough trait;
Turbid – sticky and not strong;
Stiff – starchy texture, similar to the water that has cooked pasta;
Rough – the feeling on the tongue, similar to eating salt;
Rubbery smell – similar to the smell of burnt rubber (usually found in the dry processing of Robusta beans);
Soft – same as “boring, non-irritating”;
Sour – similar to the sour taste of unripe fruit;
Thin – acid-free, usually due to insufficient extraction;
Turpentine-flavored – tastes like turpentine;
Clear water – lacks alcohol thickness and viscosity in the mouth;
Rough – wild traits.