The biggest difference between people is the way of thinking.
Facing the same world and the same problem, you and I think from different angles, take different reactions, and the final results are quite different.
French sociologist Tory once said:
” Whether a person’s intelligence is superior depends on whether his mind can accommodate two different thoughts at the same time, without prejudice to his life.”
The above is called ” Tolstoy’s Law” by later generations.
In the words of billionaire Charles Munger, the world is like a nail to those who hold hammers in their opponents. Because the brains of smart people all have a compound frame of thinking model, that is, ” diversified thinking”.
The reason why many people are limited in their growth is that they are mostly trapped by their own thinking mode.
For example, people’s thinking mode can be roughly divided into three layers.
The first level: monistic thinking mode
This is the initial stage of cognition and is in a linear mode of thinking.
At this time, our state is ” self – centered” and we can hardly hear other voices. It is incompatible with external thinking and cannot flow. Therefore, it is also called ” baby mode”.
The second level: dual thinking mode
” I don’t agree with you, but I respect you” is the most common sentence used by people with binary mode.
At this stage, we can often accommodate two different viewpoints and accommodate people with different ideas. We have such advanced emotions as rationality and empathy.
The third level: diversified thinking mode
Those who are at the top of the wealth ladder, such as Charles Munger, Buffett and Soros, have a common feature in their thinking – the scanning radius is broad and the scanning depth is boundless.
Their brains are like a drawer. When they encounter different problems, they will extract different thinking tools, such as mathematics, physics, psychology, engineering, economy, etc. To them, the world is an organic component of a pluralistic system.
Returning to the topic itself: how to be a smart person?
In my opinion, the most effective way is to set up a diversified thinking model and further improve my metacognitive ability by learning the thinking methods of experts in different fields.
The following are the 7 most frequently mentioned ways of thinking in my articles over the past year. Let’s review them together:
1. Exponential thinking
Why are the final achievements of two people with the same starting point and conditions so different?
The above questions can be answered in Lei Jun’s words:
” One can accomplish a thing, in fact, it doesn’t depend on how strong you are, but you should take advantage of the situation and push the critical stone over Wan Ren.”
In other words, the growth of some people is ” linear” while that of others is ” exponential”.
How do you understand the meaning of this sentence? For example:
Suppose you are walking on a road, you can take a distance of 1 meter in each step, you walk 6 steps, and then you walk 6 meters, and then you walk 24 steps, then you are 30 meters away from the origin. It is easy to know how far these 30 steps can take you. This is simply linear growth.
But now, if you can double your distance in every step ( whether this is scientifically true or not ), when you walk 6 steps, you have actually walked 32 meters ( 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 ). And when you take the full 30 steps, how far do you guess?
The answer is 1 billion meters, which is equivalent to 26 circles around the earth!
The growth of the former has considerable limitations, because the efforts of an individual or an organization will meet the ceiling sooner or later.
The exponential growth is explosive, because it relies on the trend dividend and will drag you to a distance beyond your imagination.
The reason is very simple, but if one wants to achieve exponential growth, one must first change one’s thinking – to find probability in a certain general direction.
In popular terms, that is, ” take advantage of the situation and act accordingly.”
2. Strategic thinking
Sun Tzu said, ” Those who are good at playing chess seek power, while those who are not good at playing chess seek sons”.
This sentence means that those who can play chess will always consider the overall situation, while those who cannot play chess will only stare at the gain and loss of a child.
What is strategy? How to effectively formulate and implement strategies?
The above problems seem to be nothing, but they actually affect our life choices, large and small.
A person who has not thought about his life strategy is bound to feel confused and disoriented from time to time. If one has no insight into one’s future, then one is mostly blind and reckless.
Like a master chess player, there are usually two strategies:
One is to improve the mobility of the chess pieces so as to improve their selection space and at the same time restrain the freedom of movement of the opponent’s chess pieces.
The second is to create a relatively stable pattern so as to strike a beautiful combination when you are unprepared.
So you see, a lot of competitions are like chess. On the surface, the competition is calm and even – handed, but in private, it is rough and the outcome is even.
In other words, when you are born with a bad hand, the best way is not to start first, but to plan and then move, and to find the best opportunity to start later.
This way of thinking, which is based on the overall consideration of individuals, plans and moves afterwards, is what we call ” strategic thinking”.
3. Transplant thinking
Some people say that in the age of intelligence, we are facing ” three alternatives”:
Robots replace blue collar, software programs replace white collar, robots and software programs are not suitable for replacement, and are replaced by Asian, African and Latin American brothers. …
Compared with the past, if you don’t want to ” eat low income” or be kept as a pet, you have to consider doing jobs that ” three substitutes” cannot replace.
In other words, in order to avoid being eliminated by sudden changes, you must have a kind of ” transplant thinking”, which you can also call ” transferability”.
What is ” migratable capability”?
For example, it is your reusable ability to move from one job to another, or from one industry to another.
For example, when I first graduated, I worked in a company for design. because the company needed to adjust its business structure, I was forced to make products. then I had to use the ability extracted from the design work to make products well.
Then after another six months, the company needs to promote one person to do the operation, then I need to extract the ability of design and products into the new post and do the operation well.
I often think that 80% of the core competencies in the industries we choose to work in are essentially the same.
In order to cultivate your own ability to migrate, you need to think clearly about three issues:
What is the value chain of your industry?
Where are you on this chain?
What abilities do you need in this value chain?
In addition, in this intelligent era, no matter what kind of work you are engaged in, it will require you to continuously cultivate your other two senses of smell in the future, namely, the ability to grasp needs and the ability to turn needs into products.
4. Idiot Thinking
Transposition thinking, simple four words, why do so few people?
This is because our experience and knowledge accumulated over the years have led us instinctively into our own internal perspective.
In other words, we pay more attention to our feelings than others.
On the contrary, no matter in life or in the workplace, real experts have a kind of ability – to become ” fools” instantly.
For example, Zhang Xiaolong once said in a sharing:
The reason why Jobs is so good is that he can become a fool in one second. Ma Huateng needs 1 minute, while I need 5 ~ 10 minutes of brewing.
” Silliness” here is not really stupidity, but the ability to switch perspectives anytime and anywhere.
For example, an excellent product manager will never pose as an expert when designing products, but will stand in the user’s perspective and think about the user’s motivation and process like a small white.
Another example is real marketers, who never create demand out of thin air, but use the facts already existing in consumers’ brains and match their products and services with them.
Therefore, the so-called ” fool thinking” is not only an empty cup mentality, but also an insight that can jump out of one’s own perspective anytime and anywhere.
5. Cost thinking
Opportunity cost, sunk cost and marginal cost are the three most frequently mentioned cost elements in microeconomics.
And the three have the greatest in common, they are all related to time. For example:
Sunk costs determine how people view the past.
Marginal costs determine how people treat the present.
Opportunity cost determines how people face the future.
We often say that the most expensive thing in life is not money, but time, which is our most precious wealth resource.
Unfortunately, life has been counting down since the first day we came into the world: this resource has been wasting away every minute.
As a result, many people began to pay attention to the ratio of input to output, striving to create more income in the same unit time.
In addition, the fate of life is uncertain and unpredictable. As a result, experts tend to pay more attention to cost and pay more attention to the utility brought by each time investment.
In other words, the future is unpredictable, we cannot decide the amount of our time, but we can grasp the quality of our time input.
If we want to make better use of time and achieve stable and sustained growth, we have to have a ” cost thinking”.
6. Financial Thinking
I remember many years ago I had a question: why is the treatment in the financial industry significantly higher than that in other industries?
Some people say that since the entry threshold for financial services is high, it is always necessary for graduate students to start.
Some people say that because there are too many overtime jobs in finance, for example, those in investment banks earn millions of dollars a year, but they also exchange money there.
Others say that because the bubble is big now, those who engage in finance have made money from the asset price bubble.
The above statements may be true, but they do not touch on the essence of the problem.
As a matter of fact, finance is a business in Qian Shengqian. In the past, the fundamental reason for the financial industry to make money was that it could carry out highly leveraged operations on a sustainable basis.
Therefore, some people say that the essence of finance is value – added, credit, leverage and risk. These four words interact to form a huge operation system.
However, how does knowing this help us?
Mastering ” financial thinking” can help us to know more about the operating principle behind value, thus prompting you to correctly enhance your self – value.
For example, two people with equal ability will enjoy different treatment in different companies, and some may even be paid several times less. Why?
Obviously, this is because their environment evaluates their value differently, rather than depending on the extent of their efforts.
Therefore, from the perspective of making money, if you want to continuously raise your selling price, you need to use ” financial thinking” to continuously accumulate your own sellable capital so as to realize accurate efforts.
7. Human nature thinking
It is not human nature to plan for a situation but human heart, and to conduct oneself in the world.
When we think and accomplish things in this world, we are dealing with strange human nature.
What exactly is human nature? From Buddhism with a long history to Christianity, and then to all the great psychologists in modern times, they have made in-depth exploration of human nature. For example:
Buddhism believes that people have five poison hearts, namely ” greed, anger, delusion, slowness and doubt”;
Christianity believes that people have ” seven deadly sins”, namely ” greed, lust, gluttony, jealousy, laziness, arrogance and rage”;
Maslow divided human needs into five levels from low to high, namely, ” physiological needs, safety needs, emotional needs, respect needs and self-realization needs”.
This shows that the times are changing, but human nature remains unchanged.
Human nature is the most similar place between us. It not only crosses national borders, nationalities and languages, but also crosses history and remains unchanged.
Therefore, understanding human nature can help us resolve our confusion and release our career.
So how can one cultivate one’s own insight into human nature? In my opinion, the most direct and effective way is to learn some psychological knowledge.
Psychology can ” visualize” your thinking process, and your brain will produce error correction mechanisms.
For example, when you feel angry for an act of another person, you will immediately recognize your emotion and understand why you are angry, thus effectively feeding back to the action to control.
On the other hand, when you want to influence other people’s behavior, such as marketing in daily business, you can find other people’s pain points, itching points and excitement points more scientifically, so that you can successfully seize the user’s mind and stand out from the market.
In short, psychology is closely related to our daily life. It can not only let us know ourselves, but also let us know others better.
As Charles Munger said, ” Psychology is a knowledge that has been seriously underestimated.”
In this era, we have both luck and misfortune.
As Chinese people in particular, we have completed the development process that developed countries have gone through for hundreds of years in decades.
Fortunately, we can keep pace with the world and enjoy the dividends of the latest civilization achievements. You know, until a few decades ago, we were still a country dominated by the small-scale peasant economy. Our thinking, as a whole, is still the original thinking matching the small-scale peasant economy.
Unfortunately, however, the development of this era is so fast that we are all a little behind. Made in China 2025 and structural reform on the supply side are all reflections under this background.
Artificial intelligence and innovation are two completely different concepts compared with the 30 years before the reform and opening up.
The way of thinking that used to be unrestrained, simple and rough had good adaptability in the period of racing and enclosure, but now it is difficult to adapt to the new requirements of the times.
If ordinary people want to break through the cocoon in the new era wave, there is only one shortcut, that is, upgrading their thinking.
In other words, the thinking mode of each of us plays the role of ” source code”.
Whether your thinking is fragmented or structured, static or fluid, single or diversified will directly affect your understanding of the world and even the world’s feedback to you.
Therefore, learning diversified thinking modes is not only to face the future directly, but also to create the future.
Finally, I wish you success in the coming year.