Teach you a way to learn any new knowledge

Jay Chou has a song called ” Waiting for You to Quit Class.” One of the lyrics is: ” In the three years of high school, why, why didn’t I study well and didn’t get into the same university as you …” Is it really heart – breaking?

The most important ability of a person is learning ability, which is the meta-ability of all abilities. We learn to walk and talk from birth, to go to school and study, to enter the workplace, and study accompanies us all our lives.

It can be said that learning ability is the most important factor to open the gap between people.

A lot of people will say, ” why do you learn so much when you don’t need to work anymore?”

In fact, the fundamental purpose of learning is to change one’s way of thinking about a fact or idea. Take chestnuts for example. The purpose of learning economics is to learn how to think as an ” economist”. If you have not learned economics, you may still only have a concept of how much money the word ” economy” is. But the Economic Society teaches you sunk costs, marginal effects, assets and liabilities ( accounting ) … these are also very important concepts in daily life. For example, if you have not studied physics, you may think that ” heavy objects fall faster”, but if you have studied physics, you do not think so. Philosophy will teach you dialectical thinking, game theory will help you make decisions, mathematics will let you see the underlying laws of all changes, and programming will allow you to make small changes in the world with your own strength … Learning knowledge and skills is to be able to understand our own experiences and explain the world we live in.

Systematic learning method has five important elements: sense of value, goal, promotion, practice and integration. Next, I will talk about how to ” learn effectively” from these five aspects.

1. Sense of Value
If you do not want to learn a skill, you are unlikely to learn it. This is not difficult to understand, when we were students, we always learned ” the courses we like” or ” the courses taught by the teachers we like” better, but if you don’t like a certain course or learn the major you don’t like at all, it is very difficult to learn it well.

My friends who are familiar with me all know that the best subject I learned in high school was Chinese, but I studied electrical engineering in university, so I did not have any interest in this major for a long time. Later, I gradually focused on the learning process instead of the major itself, and began to enjoy the process of ” from not knowing to understanding”, the sense of control in building the knowledge system, and the thorough understanding in solving difficult problems. As a result, the major classes were not so annoying.

We must realize that the knowledge we intend to learn is valuable and we can discover its significance, so that we can learn it better. If you have to read a book in order to learn a course, don’t always think about coping with exams, which will make your learning experience painful and heavy. You can choose the content in the book that is of practical significance to you and can arouse your interest to learn, so that your grades will be better and the learning process will be more pleasant.

2. Objectives
The learning goal for a small stage can be how many topics are completed in one day and what percentage of the correct rate is reached. In the long run, no matter which major has a very important and common learning goal: to understand the basic logic of a particular major, and to find out how professional knowledge is combined according to the basic logic. Any major has the most basic underlying theories. They are like the foundation for the construction of high-rise buildings. Other knowledge is like interlaced steel bars, which are linked together to form the whole discipline system. For example, if you want to learn Signals and Systems well, you must learn all kinds of transformations well. If you want to learn Circuit well, you must pay attention to Kirchhoff’s laws of voltage and current.

3. Promotion
If your first major in electrical science is relay protection, you will probably be scared away by obscure professional terms and complicated formulas. If your first piano piece is Pathetique, you probably won’t want to touch the keys again in this life. The most effective learning activity is the simplest part for us to learn unknown areas, and then gradually increase the difficulty bit by bit. That is, get out of the comfort zone, stay away from the panic zone and stay in the learning zone.

After going through the initial stage, you need to polish your skills in a targeted way. this process needs to apply the principle of ” deliberate practice”, i.e. paying constant attention to the important and difficult points. One of the most important steps is called ” monitoring”, which is to observe how you are learning. Don’t be afraid to make mistakes. When we know that a problem is wrong, the brain will remind you that it is ” important here” and record your mistakes ( for students who are still studying, it is ” wrong topic book” or ” wrong topic mark”, and for those who have already worked, it can be ” work log” ), or refer to the evaluation of your classmates and colleagues.

4. Practice
There is a phenomenon called ” generative effect” in psychology, that is, the knowledge processed and processed by oneself is easier to remember than the knowledge directly told to you by others. This phenomenon well explains ” why when listening to the teacher’s examples, he will not be able to close his book” and ” using fluorescent strokes is of little help to learning”. You can achieve ” self – test” by reciting, retelling, and completing a topic independently without looking at the answer. When someone has demonstrated a skill to you, if you want to really learn it, you must do it yourself immediately.

5. Integration
The essence of effective learning is to see the internal connection of a knowledge system. When you come into contact with a new concept, two questions automatically pop up in your brain: are there any similar things that you have seen before that can explain this concept? What is the connection between this concept and other fields and subjects?

The highest level of learning is unity of knowing and doing, that is, integration of new knowledge, past experience and other knowledge through continuous practice and reflection. Here are the general steps to ” merge” knowledge:

1. Understanding stage. At this stage, we need to observe and discover the core concept and nature of the problem. For example, when you get a new topic to complete, you will go to HowNet to search for documents and borrow various related books from the library. After going through it roughly, ask yourself: What is the unknown problem? What data do I have now?

2. Planning phase. This stage is used to plan solutions to problems. Just now we have a general understanding of the existing data in our opponents. At this time, we should actively look for the correlation between the existing data and unknown problems, refer to some previous solutions, and try to design our own solutions, such as modeling or an executable design.

3. Implementation phase of the plan. That is, to implement the scheme listed in the previous step.

4. Review phase. After the implementation of the previous stage, it is clear which of the listed schemes is better or worse. With this experience, the next time you deal with similar problems, you will have a better idea of how to design and which scheme is more feasible.