Bertrand Russell was one of the most influential philosophers and public intellectuals of the 20th century. At the beginning of his autobiography, he declared: “There are three simple but extremely intense passions that govern my life. That is the desire for love, the pursuit of knowledge, and the pity for human suffering.” He used this sentence. Explain his many marriages and derailments, his outstanding intellectual achievements and his numerous honors, including the Nobel Prize in Literature.
But in the eyes of Russell’s lovers, he is not so perfect, even very selfish: “His hands are like bear’s paws – no feelings, only strength. His intelligence is strong, but hanging in the air, and there is no emotional life. Relationship. Under normal circumstances, his ideal is abstract, with mathematical characteristics. If he pays attention to others, his mind is easily dominated by passion, which is tragic and pessimistic.” Colette said: “Russell is superb, Let other men be exhausted; emotionally strong, exhausting women. He exhausted his friends, drained their energy, and turned from one person to another, never giving anyone real happiness. Or never found anything happy.”
The subtitle of “The Witgenstein Biography” by Ray Munch is called “The genius is the responsibility”. The subtitle of his book “Russell Biography” is “The Spirit of Solitude” (Russell has a poem saying “a rigorous soul” Burning in the pain of loneliness”). This biography is written by Russell from his birth in 1872 to his fatherhood in 1921. The subtitles of Munch’s two biographies are completely interchangeable, and Wittgenstein is certainly very lonely. Russell is also a genius: he was only 5 years old when he first encountered philosophical problems, playing with his aunt on the beach, picking up When the limpet and the anemone were caught, he asked his aunt: “Do you think of the limpet?” Later, when he was teaching at Cambridge University, after just a few months of study, he became the authority of Leibniz research, on Leibu. Nietz’s work forms a persuasive new perspective.
At the age of 11, Russell began to learn Euclid geometry. He said: “I didn’t think that there is such a wonderful study in the world. It is as dazzling as the first love.” Later, Russell said again and again. The epiphany that happened to him: In 1911, on the way he went out to buy tobacco, he realized that “the Cartesian argument for God’s ontology is reasonable, so I became a Hegelian.” When he met Conrad, there was another epiphany: “We looked at each other’s eyes, half shocked, half intoxicated, and the emotion was very strong, no less than passionate love.” Commod commented that Russell took him. The whole life is seen as a process of constant transcendental intervention, which shows a high degree of egocentricity.
Russell likes to say that there are two types of philosophers in the world: one thinks that the world is a bowl of jelly, and the other thinks that the world is a barrel of bullets. The difference between the two is that either the world is seen as an indivisible whole, or the world is seen as a separate atom. The universe in Hegel’s eyes is like a jelly – if you touch any part of it, the whole body trembles. According to the explanations of his followers, Hegel was once fascinating and arguable. But later Russell thought: “The Hegelian philosophy is a confusing mixture of things, no different from the pun.” Therefore, he gave up Hegel’s philosophy.
In 1909, the 37-year-old Russell and Whitehead’s “Mathematical Principles” was finally completed, with a length of 4,500 pages. The book was published for another four years, and the third volume was not published until 1913. Russell said that he and White Haixin worked hard for 10 years, but each person posted a £50. For this big book, Munch said: “There is no one who reads it or at least reads it. The logic theory contained in the first volume is now being analyzed by philosophers and remains the subject of debate. But the formal proof constitutes the Hundreds of pages in the second half of the book, they are largely unattended, no one reads.” Russell wrote in the 1950s: “I have learned that only six people have read the second half of the book. Three of them It is Polish and the other three are from Texas.”
The achievements of Mathematical Principles are difficult to estimate, but in 1913 it was brutally impacted: the logician Gödel proved that the goals Russell and Whitehead tried to achieve could not be completed: in principle, impossible A logical theory that can derive all the truths about mathematics in the form of theorem. All mathematical logic is doomed to be incomplete. “But Russell and Whitehead do illustrate something interesting and important: they at least prove that a formal axiomization system can introduce a large number of mathematical theorems. Second, in that process, they are against the mathematical logic itself. The development has played a huge role in promoting technology, creating ideas and inspiring later mathematical logic researchers. For example, Alan Turing and von Neumann’s research provides a theoretical basis for computational theory, changing Our life.”
Russell’s social philosophy
When Russell was old, in an interview with the BBC, he reflected on the difference between himself and the Bloomsbury: “We still carry the characteristics of the Victorian era, and we believe that by participating in politics and free discussion, You can get orderly progress. More confident people among us may want to be leaders of the people. The generations of Keynes and Litton did not seek to retain any close relationship with the folks, they pursued a life of ecstasy, advocating subtle changes and The feeling of elegance, the beauty that is believed to be in the elite group is full of passion and mutual admiration.
In October 1920, Russell arrived in China, and everything he saw made him very fascinated. The main excitement of the public is not in Russell’s contribution to logic and mathematical philosophy, but to his social and political thinking. He is known as the greatest social philosopher in the world. In a letter to his lover Otto Lin, he said: “China is a state of art, which has both advantages and disadvantages.” He once compared the differences between the Victorians and the Bloomsbury in detail, comparing them. The vitality and energy of one side and the senseless artistic sense of the other side. The contrast between Russia and China is similar: the Bolshevik regime allowed him to see the danger of the elegant pleasure of contemporary life completely ignored; the Chinese let him see that if you expand those pleasures and exclude other things, it can also lead to danger.
For the rest of Russell’s life, Conrad has a special importance, and its influence is more than anyone else: he gave the name of Conrad to his two sons, and Conrad’s novels show the depths of Russell. The fear and anxiety show his fear of mental disorder and his sense of loneliness.
In Russell’s view, Conrad and Dostoevsky are committed to discovering the hidden parts of the human mind. The difference is that the characters in Dostoevsky’s writings illustrate the need to realize the redemption of the gods. The role created by Conrad illustrates the necessity of self-control. Russell said that fundamentally, there are two kinds of philosophy in the modern world: one (expressed in various forms of anarchism and romanticism) originated from Rousseau, advocating the abandonment of all forms of restraint; the other Various forms of totalitarianism are shown) seeking to impose constraints from the outside of the person. Both of these philosophies should be excluded. Conrad adheres to the more ancient tradition and believes that the constraints should come from the heart. On the one hand, he despise the unconstrained approach and on the other hand hates the constraints from the outside.
In October 1911, Wittgenstein began his class at Russell. At first, Russell felt that Wittgenstein liked to argue, was boring, and even showed the characteristics of a fool. “I want him to admit that there is no rhinoceros in my room, but he refuses.” After the class, Wittgenstein often visited Russell’s room to explain his philosophy. “He is very stubborn, talking to him is a waste of time.” But slowly Russell is more and more like Wittgenstein, think he is very talented, began to regard him as a partner in the same philosophy movement, as his own Academic heirs feel that they can hand over mathematical logic problems to Wittgenstein for research.
Russell discovered the qualities of Wittgenstein. “I told him that he should not merely state what he believes to be correct, but should also provide arguments. But he said that the argument is to destroy the beauty of the idea; if that is done, he feels that he is using a muddy hand to stain a flower. Flowers. He really touched me, and the intellectual artist is very rare.” Later, the situation reversed, Wittgenstein had many things about Russell, and Wittgenstein dismissed Russell’s method against Russell. The core concept of “materials can be constructed from sensory materials” is also not of interest. Russell did not realize that Wittgenstein was philosophically decisive with him: Russell believed that the value of philosophy was to allow us to see an eternal and unchanging world outside of impulsivity, passion, and everyday life, and Wittgenstein rejected this. View. But Russell is very patient with Wittgenstein, likes his passion for theory, and respects his intellectual purity. This candid attitude is in stark contrast to his insidiousness and hypocrisy when he treats his lover.