Psychological effect refers to the phenomenon that most people produce the same or similar psychological reactions under the same circumstances or for certain same stimuli. It is universal and different.
1. Romeo and Juliet effects
The story of Shakespeare’s famous book “Romeo and Juliet” is almost universally known: Romeo and Juliet love each other, but their love is greatly hindered by the feud between the two sides. But the oppression did not break them up, but instead made them love deeper until they were sensational.
Psychology calls the phenomenon that the person in love is “more difficult and more forward” is called “Romeo and Juliet effect”, that is, when there is an external force that interferes with the love relationship between the two parties, the emotions of the two sides will instead Strengthened, the relationship between love is also stronger.
This is a “weird” phenomenon about love.
The cognitive dissonance theory is a good explanation of this quite romantic effect. When people are forced to make certain choices, people have a high degree of psychological resistance to this choice, and this mentality will prompt people to make the opposite choice and actually increase their preference for the objects they choose.
Therefore, when people choose the object of love, because of the psychological resistance of people’s opposition to the resistance of love, the relationship between the two sides will be stronger.
But when this resistance to love does not exist, the two sides may separate.
Love that has experienced many obstacles and tests of life and death may not be able to withstand the impact of ordinary life. When the resistance of love disappears, perhaps two people who have been bitterly lost have lost the power of love.
2, herd mentality
Scholar Axi has conducted a herd mental experiment. As a result, only 1/4 to 1/3 of the subjects in the test population did not have herd behavior and maintained independence. It is a common psychological phenomenon.
The omnipotence is a kind of will quality that people oppose independence. The people who are strong in the majority lack the opinion and are easily hinted. It is easy to accept the opinions of others without analysis and put them into practice.
There are quite a few people in life, and there are some people who use people’s psychology to achieve a certain purpose. Some commercial advertisements use people’s herd mentality to sizzle their own goods to achieve their goals.
There are also some shocking events in life that will cause a sensational effect. The masses are competing to spread, discuss, and participate, but there are also many situations in which human propaganda and rendering have attracted public attention. It is often a “frozen” of public opinion, and people are easy to follow “hot”.
Advertising and media coverage are commonplace, but people with a herd mentality often follow the “joining”.
It is an unhealthy mentality to “obey” some kind of propaganda effect without analysis, to the “consensus” behavior that follows the crowd, and to the “blindness”. More spirit of independent thinking, less blind obedience, so as not to be deceived, to be a healthy psychology.
3, halo effect
The halo effect, also known as the “obsession effect.” This kind of strong perception of quality or characteristics, like the aura of the moon form, diffuses and spreads around, thus concealing other qualities or characteristics, so it is called the halo effect.
Sometimes the halo effect has a positive effect on interpersonal relationships. For example, if you are sincere to people, then even if you are inferior, others will trust you because they only see your sincerity.
The most typical example is that when we see a star exploding some scandals in the media, we are always surprised. In fact, the image of this star in our mind is simply the circle she showed us on the screen or in the media. Moon halo, its true personality we are not known, just inferred.
4, Matthew effect
The Matthew Effect refers to the better the better, the worse the bad, the more the more, the less the less.
In 1968, Robert K. Merton, a researcher in the history of science in the United States, proposed the term to generalize a psychosocial phenomenon: “Compared to those unknown researchers, prominent scientists often gain more prestige even Their accomplishments are similar. Similarly, on the same project, reputation is often given to those who are already famous. For example, an award is almost always awarded to the most senior researcher, even if all the work is done by a graduate student. ”
Robert Morton sums up the “Matthew effect” as: Any individual, group or region, once succeeded and progressed in a certain aspect (such as money, reputation, status, etc.), will have an accumulation advantage, there will be more More opportunities for greater success and progress.
This term is borrowed from the economics community to reflect the poorer income of the poor, the richer the rich, and the unfair distribution of income in the economics of winners.
5, placebo effect
Placebo effect, also known as pseudo-drug effect, counterfeit drug effect, substitute agent effect (English: Placebo Effect, from the Latin placebo solution “I will comfort”), refers to the patient although it received invalid treatment, but “expected” Or “believe” that the treatment is effective and the symptoms of the patient are relieved.
Some people think that this is a noteworthy human physiological response, but some people think that this is the illusion produced by medical experimental design. Whether or not this phenomenon really exists, scientists still fail to fully understand it.
The placebo effect was proposed by Dr. Henry K. Beecher in 1955 and is also understood to be “non-specific effects” or subject-seeking effects.
A completely opposite effect also exists – the Nocebo effect: patients do not believe that treatment is effective and may worsen the condition. The anti-placebo effect (Latin nocebo solution “I will hurt”) can be detected using the same method as the placebo effect. For example, a group of control groups taking ineffective drugs may experience a worsening of the condition.
This phenomenon is believed to be due to the fact that people who receive the drug have a negative attitude towards the efficacy of the drug, thus offsetting the placebo effect and having an anti-placebo effect. This effect is not caused by the medication taken, but by the patient’s psychological expectation of recovery.
Medical staff can use a placebo to stimulate the patient’s placebo effect. When you believe in a certain drug, you can enhance the therapeutic effect of the drug and improve the quality of medical care.
A person who is prone to the corresponding psychological and physiological effects when using a placebo is called a placebo responder. The personality characteristics of such people are: good and communicative, dependent, susceptible to suggestion, lack of self-confidence, good attention to various physiological changes and discomfort, suspected disease and nervousness.
The placebo effect is an unstable state that can vary with the nature of the disease, the psychological state of the illness, the degree of discomfort or illness, and self-evaluation, as well as changes in the behavior of the medical staff and the environment. Therefore, there is a phenomenon in which the placebo effect is sometimes obvious, sometimes not obvious, or not at all.
We should remember that the placebo effect is more likely to occur in patients, with approximately 35% of patients with physical illness and 40% of psychiatric patients. It is precisely because the patient has this psychological characteristic that Jianghu doctors and witch doctors can have an activity market and perform their skills.
6, the desired effect
The desired effect is also called the “Pygmalion effect”, also called the “Roussell Tower effect”. This effect stems from a beautiful legend in ancient Greece. According to legend, the ancient Greek sculptor Pygmalion fell in love with the beautiful girl who used ivory carving, and hoped that the girl could become a living real person. His sincere love touched the god of love, Alafu Rodriguez, and the god of love gave the girl a statue of life, and eventually Pygmalion married the girl she loved.
Later, many psychologists led by Professor Harvard University of Harvard University in the United States conducted a series of studies. The experiments proved that the intellectual development of students is directly proportional to the degree of concern of teachers.
Rosenthal and Jacobson believe that the main reason for the “false information” provided by them to produce “real effects” is that “authoritative predictions” have triggered teachers’ higher expectations for these students. The teacher’s higher expectations played a miraculous suggestion in eight months.
After accepting the positive information that teachers infiltrate into the process of education and teaching, these students will reshape their self-image according to the direction and level of the teacher’s delineation, and adjust their role consciousness and role behavior, thus producing a magical “expectation effect.” “.
In fact, the “Rosental effect” is the theoretical basis of appreciation education, and its theoretical value is far from being universally valued by teachers. I think we can get some inspiration from this expectation effect, that is, teachers should give students more encouragement and expectation, and should also apply this effect to students.
The teacher wants to tell the students that they are the smartest group of people in the world. Let students enhance their self-confidence and be more hopeful about their future.
In the practice of teaching, treat all your students with attitudes towards smart students, give them some positive expectations, and your students will become more and more intelligent.
At the same time, I also give the teacher a suggestion: Anything that the students can do on their own is resolutely not replaced; if they can talk less in the class, they will talk less, if they can talk less, they will not talk; they will give the class time to the students and let them learn freely. The right is returned to the students. Then, what you give back to the students will be a better future.
7, Hawthorne effect
The Hawthorne Effect, or Hawthorne effect, originated from a series of experimental studies between 1924 and 1933, and then, from 1927 to 1932, George Elton Mayo The professor has been researching and analyzing Hawthorne’s experimental results for many years.
The word Hawthorne comes from the factory used for the experiment, which is the name of a plant located in Chicago, USA. The experiment began with the study of the relationship between working conditions and production efficiency, including external environmental impact conditions (such as lighting intensity, humidity) and psychological factors (such as rest interval, team pressure, working time, managerial leadership).
The situation in which performance or effort rises due to additional attention is called the “Hawthorne effect”. It is also called the “venting effect.”
The discovery of the Hawthorne effect came from a failed management study. The Hawthorne plant on the outskirts of Chicago, USA, is a factory that manufactures telephone exchanges. The factory has a relatively complete entertainment facilities, medical system and pension system, but the employees are still indignant and the production situation is not ideal.
In order to explore the reasons, in November 1924, the National Research Council of the United States organized a research team involving various experts, including psychologists, to conduct a series of experimental studies at the plant. The central topic of this series of experimental studies is the relationship between production efficiency and working material conditions.
In this series of experimental studies, there is a “talk test”. In more than two years, the experts have asked the workers to talk to more than 20,000 people individually, and stipulated that during the conversation, they should patiently listen to the workers’ various aspects of the factory. Opinions and dissatisfaction, and detailed records, dissatisfaction with workers is not allowed to refute and reprimand.
This “talk test” received unexpected results: the production at the Hawthorne plant increased significantly. This is because the workers have long been dissatisfied with the various management systems and methods of the factory, and there is nowhere to vent. The “talk test” makes their dissatisfaction vent, and feels comfortable and motivated. Social psychologists call this wonderful phenomenon the “Hawthorne effect.”
8, the Viter effect
The theory of Phillips is called the “Witt effect.” The so-called “Witt effect” refers to the publication of a novel by the German writer Goethe two hundred years ago, entitled “The Worries of Young Werther”, which tells the story of a young man who fell in love and committed suicide. After the publication of the novel, it caused great sensation, which not only made Goethe’s reputation famous in Europe, but also caused a wave of imitation of Witt’s suicide in Europe. For this reason, several countries listed “Young Werther’s Worries” as a banned book.
The “Witt effect” is analyzed from the perspective of social psychology, just like the emotional “flu”. The media’s screaming of suicide news has strong hints and inducibility for some people who are on the verge of life and death.
A typical example is that on April 1, 2003, after the Guo Guorong suicide incident, the media reports were cumbersome and ridiculous. As a result, from midnight to 9 am the next day, six men and women in Hong Kong committed suicide by jumping off the building. Five of them died. In the same month, there were 131 cases of suicide in Hong Kong, an increase of 32% over March.
In China, about 250,000 people die each year from suicide, and at least 1 million people commit suicide. Since 2000, 22.2 out of 100,000 people have committed suicide every year, and one suicide every two minutes and eight suicide attempts. It can be said that if every suicide is reported, I am afraid that the entire newspaper can not be finished.
In fact, the proportion of suicides among Chinese people has increased in recent years. This is of course directly related to the dramatic changes in the transition period of Chinese society, and the increasing spiritual and material pressures on people.
9, stereotype effect
The so-called stereotype effect, also known as stereotype and social stereotype, refers to a relatively fixed and classified view of a person or a certain type of person. It has not been substantively exchanged, and it has produced a kind of unchangeable, general and simple evaluation of a certain kind of people. This is a phenomenon that often occurs when we know others.
Some people are always accustomed to mechanically classifying people, treating a specific person as a typical representative of a certain type of person, and treating the evaluation of a certain type of person as an evaluation of a person, thus affecting the correct judgment. .
Stereotypes are often a prejudice. People not only have stereotypes about people who have been exposed, but also stereotypes about untouched people based on indirect information that is not very real.
The stereotype effect is diverse. For example, some leaders believe that people who love to pick up faults must be “stabbing their heads.” Those who are silent and must be very deep in the city; those who are active and active must be rough, and those who are introverted must be honestly obedient; young people are simply childish. Easy to impulsive, the elderly are experienced, conservative and steady.
In addition, there are geographical stereotypes.
10, broken window effect
Break Pane Law The so-called “broken window effect” is an understanding of the suggestive or inductive impact of the environment on people’s psychology.
The theory of “broken window effect” means that if someone breaks the window glass of a building and the window is not repaired in time, others may be subjected to some suggestive indulgence to smash more. window. It is necessary to correct and remedy the problem in time.
Philip Zimbardo, a psychologist at Stanford University in the United States, conducted an experiment in 1969. He found two identical cars and parked one of them in the middle class community of Palo Alto, California. The other parked in the relatively messy New York Bronx.
The car parked in the Bronx, he took off the license plate and opened the roof. The result was stolen the same day, and the one in Palo Alto was ignored for a week.
Later, Simbadu hammered the glass of the car with a hammer. As a result, it only disappeared after a few hours.
Based on this experiment, political scientist Wilson and criminologist Karin proposed a “window window effect” theory, saying: If someone breaks the window glass and can’t get timely repairs, others may go to fight. Rotten windows.
Over time, these broken windows give people a sense of disorder. As a result, crime can breed and prosper in this atmosphere of public insensitivity.