What happened a few seconds before the big bang?

In the few seconds of the Big Bang, a black hole is formed. The black hole is the black hole with the shortest time in the universe. It is also the black hole with the smallest mass. It is even a proton size, smaller than the atomic nucleus, even with the naked eye. Unrecognizable, because the black hole was the product of the early universe, it is also called the “primary black hole.”

Black hole in the beginning

A black hole is produced by a gravitational collapse caused by a star of sufficient mass to die after the fuel in the nuclear fusion reaction is exhausted. The black hole in the beginning is not formed by the collapse of the star. Unlike other black holes, the black hole is the product of the close combination of matter under high pressure conditions when the universe is just created, and the black hole is smaller than other black holes, sometimes even small. Even the naked eye can’t tell. The scale of the black hole in the beginning is even smaller than that of the atomic nucleus.

Black hole in the beginning

It is said that the black hole in the beginning was only a few microseconds after the big bang, because the universe is too late to expand, and the whole universe is full of light. In the case of ultra-high temperature and high pressure, it is possible to make a small black hole, but it is very small. It absorbs up to dozens of photons and evaporates. For those smaller-quality native black holes, scientists believe that it is possible to relate to dark matter to explain some of the problems of dark matter.

Although dark matter is considered to be the master of the universe, to a certain extent, it rules the entire universe, and the material in the universe we can see is only a drop in the ocean. However, the detection of dark matter is not through normal means of observation. Since dark matter does not interact with electromagnetic forces, it cannot be found by conventional electromagnetic astronomical observations, and its existence can only be inferred indirectly through gravitational effects.

The researchers believe that this new study can help scientists better understand what dark matter is. We already know that it rules the universe, but we don’t know what it is. In the early days, black holes were thought to exist in the period of high density after the big bang, that is, in the early stage of accelerated expansion of the universe. We now know that today’s universe was born in a big explosion 13.7 billion years ago.

Because the black hole in the beginning is much smaller than the black hole in the current universe, its volume is even smaller than that of the atomic nucleus, so it will not swallow the entire star, and naturally will not cover up the light. On the contrary, since the black hole volume is too small, collision with the star may cause obvious vibration on the surface of the star. By observing the abnormal motion on the surface of the star, we can figure out what is going on inside the star.

Similarly, if a black hole passes through a star’s central nuclear structure, we can understand the interaction inside the star by observing the vibration of its surface. Now, for the scientists of this study, it may only be a matter of time. The researchers simulated how large a black hole is in order to cause significant vibrational ripples on the surface of the star when it comes into contact with the star. It turns out that this requirement is met when the mass reaches a typical asteroid level.

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The black hole in the beginning is that when the nuclear energy of a relatively large star is exhausted, the core of the star whose mass is three times higher than the mass of the sun will evolve into a black hole. If the neutron star has a companion star, and the neutron star absorbs enough of the companion, it can also evolve into Black hole. In the black hole, there is no outward force to maintain balance with gravity, so the core will always collapse and form a black hole.

Black hole in the beginning

When matter falls into the realm, even if it is calculated at the speed of light, it can no longer come out. Einstein interprets a black hole as a space-distorted hole in a geometrical way. Matter works with space. If space itself is a hole, there is no material to escape.

In order to form a black hole, the smaller the mass, the higher the density of the material after compression, the stronger the pressure and the contraction phase. However, the black hole smaller than the mass of the sun is impossible to form in the modern universe but expands in the universe. At the time of the high density of the investigations of Dorwich and Igor Novikov in 1967, Hawking in 1971 had envisaged that in the early stages of the expansion of the universe can produce black holes, they can have small holes like black holes called Black hole in the beginning. A black hole with a smaller scale than a nucleus is called a black hole in the beginning.

How big is the black hole in the beginning?

You can imagine a star with ten times the mass of the sun. For most of its billion-year lifespan, the star converts hydrogen into helium at its center to generate heat. The released energy generates enough pressure to support the star to resist its own gravity, which produces an object with a radius about five times the radius of the sun. The escape rate from the surface of this star is about one thousand kilometers per second. That is to say, an object that rises vertically from the surface of the star at a speed of less than one thousand kilometers per second will be dragged back to the surface by the gravitational field of the star, and objects with greater speed will escape to infinity.

When a star runs out of its nuclear energy, there is nothing to maintain its outward pressure, and the star begins to collapse due to its own gravity. As the star shrinks, the gravitational field on the surface becomes more powerful and the escape velocity increases. When its radius is reduced to thirty kilometers, its escape speed increases to 300,000 kilometers per second, which is the speed of light. From then on, any light emitted from the star cannot escape to infinity, but can only be towed back by the gravitational field. According to the special theory of relativity, nothing can travel faster than light.

Black hole in the beginning

The result is a black hole: this is an area of ​​time and space from which it is impossible to escape to infinity. The boundary of a black hole is called the event horizon. It corresponds to the wavefront of the light that is emitted from the star and cannot escape to infinity, but only at the radius of the Schwarzschild. The Schwarzschild radius is R=2GM/c^2, where G is the Newtonian gravitational constant, M is the star mass, and c is the speed of light. For a star with about ten times the mass of the sun, the Schwarzschild radius is about twenty kilometers.

There is now fairly good observational evidence suggesting that there are black holes of this scale in a binary system such as the swan X-1. There may be a considerable number of black holes that are much smaller than this, scattered in the universe. They are not formed by the collapse of stars, but by the collapse of highly compressed areas of hot, high-density media. It is believed that such a medium exists shortly after the big explosion that began in the universe. This “early” black hole has the greatest interest in the quantum effects I will describe here. A black hole weighing one billion tons has a radius of 10-13 cm, with only one neutron or proton scale. It may be orbiting the sun or around the center of the galaxy.

“Black hole in the beginning” refers to the black hole generated under the extremely high temperature and pressure in the early period of the universe. Because of its special formation, its quality is very small. According to Hawking’s law of black hole radiation, the smaller the mass, the higher the energy of radiation.

The black hole in the beginning is a black hole formed within a few seconds of the Big Bang. Its size is only equivalent to a proton. In all black hole theory, the Hawking emissivity is inversely proportional to the mass. Because this radiation process gradually reduces the quality of the black hole. In the process of a very small mass of black hole, there will be a final stage like a high-pressure deflation, a large number of radiation bursts. This is equivalent to a hydrogen bomb that produces millions of tons of explosive power.

In the current age of the universe, even a normal black hole will not lose all the quality. However, since the native black holes are not formed by the star core collapse, they can be of any size. And the life cycle of the black hole in the beginning is very short, because it can release a lot of Hawking radiation itself. An atomic-sized black hole has a mass of about 10^4KG and a temperature of 6000 degrees. The volume will decrease as he evaporates further. According to Hawking’s description, the black hole will eventually disappear in an explosion.