Newly-married couples give each other a ring is an irreplaceable scene at the wedding ceremony, and lovers give each other gifts in the love stage, which is also an important way to express feelings. There are many similar phenomena in the animal kingdom. The heart of the “beauty” is not only to show personal charm, but also “public relations” and “gift” is a very important way. Many birds are very particular about this.
The Arctic Tern is an elegant seabird. During the breeding season, the male Arctic tern will hold a freshly caught fish in his mouth and hover over the nest of the nest, hoping to attract the attention of the female who has not yet found a spouse. Of course, the male tern will not easily lose the hard-won gift before attracting the attention of the female tern. Once it dedicate a gift to a female who loves it, this spousal relationship is basically established.
The Royal Tern is a seabird living in North America. When the male eagle’s male bird pursues the female bird, in order to win the recognition of the female bird, it is necessary to constantly provide it with the fish caught from the sea. Don’t think that this test is simple. The size of the female is very demanding. The fish less than 5 cm will be disdainful, and the too big fish will not be beneficial, because the fish is too big for the female to swallow. It is easier to fall to the ground and be ruthlessly taken away by the neighbors around. Therefore, only the size of the fish can be won to win the female bird’s favor. Young males generally lack experience and often lose the favor of “beauty”. Biologically, the courtship process of male birds not only stimulates the increase of estrogen in the females, but also proves their fishing skills to the females, proving that they have the ability to assist in breeding the next generation. During the hatching and brooding, because the nests of the royal terns are gathered together and are very close to each other, the females must remain in the nest to protect the eggs or the chicks from being stolen by the neighbors. There are plenty of opportunities for performance, and they clearly know how much food the female and chicks bring back.
Many male birds will give gifts to the female birds in the courtship activities. The hornbill in the rainforest will give the female a fresh fruit at the appropriate time to attract the attention of the female. During the breeding season, if you pay attention to the most common sparrows around you, sometimes you will see some birds rubbing their mouths on the other’s mouth. That is, the males are feeding the females in a feeding manner.
The male bird has a feeding behavior of courtship, and the benefits for the female are obvious. Some scholars believe that this is a kind of degeneration of the females. They seem to have returned to the nestling age. When the males feed the females, the females will make a feeding attitude like the chicks. Some scholars believe that it is the female bird that gains energy for reproduction by obtaining food from the male bird, which is beneficial to the production of high quality eggs.
Tentative type “gift”
Some birds are exactly the same on the outside, and they can’t distinguish between males and females. In this case, they will send a small gift to each other to test the gender of the other, such as a penguin. During the breeding season, the male penguin tries to test the other’s gender through courtship. It first placed a small stone at the foot of another penguin, courted it, and observed the reaction of the other. If the other person is also a male penguin, it may immediately fight the penguin who puts the stone. However, if the other party is a female, it will respond to the male penguin’s courtship action. The gift at this time is more like a secret sign between male and female.
The most luxurious gift
The Crown Gardener is a forest bird that lives in New Guinea and is about the size of a starling. During the breeding season, the brown male crowned gardener uses a bush of ground to build a 3 m high “villa” that resembles a North American Indian teepee with pillars for support and access The passage of the bedroom. What’s even more interesting is that the male crowned gardener is searching for colorful fruits and colorful colored objects, which are stacked in front of the “villa”. In this way, a “villa” full of ornaments becomes a gift for the female crowned gardener.
Although the male-decorated gardener is dedicated to the female “decorative villa” is a very precious gift, but compared with the male Fogg gardener who lives in the mountains of Anchaa, Indonesia, their gifts are inferior. The male Fugk gardener’s gift for the female is the most luxurious of the birds – they are built as “luxury villas” with a height of up to 4 m and a diameter of up to 6 m. This is an amazing bird’s nest built around a small tree, covered with thatched grass at the top and supported by several branches. In front of the entrance is a garden with a variety of eye-catching items collected from the forest, brightly colored berries, reflective beetle cobwebs, yellow leaves and daily wilting The flowers are replaced, and all the items are neatly stacked in piles to form a beautiful landscape. To keep the environment of this “luxury villa” clean and tidy, the male Fogg Gardener has to work very hard. When the female is impressed by this carefully decorated “luxury villa” gift and is with the body, then the male The “input” of the Gek Gardener bird is very worthwhile.
The male satin blue pavilion bird living in Australia is a beautiful bird with a blue metallic luster. Similar to gardener birds, they build gazebo nests on the forest floor and place brightly colored and reflective objects at the entrance to the pavilion. But the Satin Blue Pavilion bird not only collects all the items collected by the gardener bird, but also collects broken glass, bottle caps, parrot feathers and even cans. Of course, this modified “gazebo” gift is also to attract the opposite sex. However, in places where male satin blue pavilions are dense, in order to make their “gazebo” more beautiful, they will steal in other nests and even become addicted thieves. They will not miss any chance to enter the neighbor’s home, of course. The war that followed will continue to ring. In fact, this kind of behavior is a kind of competition. The winners will hold more decorations to decorate their own nests, thus making their “gazebo” more attractive to females.
Touching spiritual gift
Sometimes, the gift that the male gives to the female is not material, but spiritual. The male long-tailed dwarf bird living in Costa Rica is a very beautiful, sparrow-sized bird. Their feathers are dark blue velvet, red on the top, and the sky has a silky feather on the back, and the long two central tail feathers show their elegance and freedom. During the breeding season, the dance of the male-tailed dwarf dolphins is like a master performer. Each of them forms a group to show the beautiful dance to the female. The males first chose a slender horizontal strip of stripped leaves as a “dance floor.” When the female approached, the two-bird dance began. A male bird first jumped up and showed the flying action of the butterfly in the air. When the tree fell back to the branch, the other male bird leaped and repeated the action. In order to pursue a very picky female, the dance of the male group will repeat 1,000 times in 1 hour. Female long-tailed pygmy birds evaluate their gifts in front of the males – dance, which is quite strict because they will independently breed offspring after mating with males. A female long-tailed pygmy bird usually chooses a pair of males as their spouses after testing the stage, dance, duration and frequency of 40 pairs of males. This test is cruel, and ornithologists have found that in an area of about 80 males, there are only six males mating with 90% of females in 10 years, while other males may have no spouses for life. They are still dancing until the end of their lives.
The essence of “gift”
”Gift giving” is a special way of behavior that animals form in the long-term adaptation to the environment. This behavior is diverse and the gifts are different, but most of them are food, which has certain ecological significance. . It can not only prove to the female that she has the ability to assume the father’s responsibility in the future breeding activities, provide the necessary food source for the female and young birds, but also induce the female bird’s sexual response and reduce the female to escape or attack. The possibility of behavior.
For a long time, people have always believed that the phenomenon of “seeking for feeding” in birds is purely a symbolic act to help maintain the relationship between spouses. However, it now appears that the males provide food for the females far beyond the formation of their eggs and the need for hatching. The “feeding for courtship” in some birds is even more important. Before the female delivers herself to its spouse, she must carefully select the indefatigable males who can prove that they have the ability to provide sufficient food. Therefore, “quiet feeding” is still a test of the ability of a male bird as a father.
The “gift” behavior can also be said to be a state of equilibrium under the control of selfish genes. Gifts as an important means of courtship for the birds, whether given to the male side or the beneficiary female side, are for the same selfish purpose, that is, to pass on their genes as much as possible.