Those who worked together in the same year, many of them went to Beijing to be officials. These years when they meet the grass baby, they will say, “Hello, there are so many works left behind.”
The 87-year-old grass baby sits in a chair next to the bed and wears a red and black sweater. The uniform pin-striped cotton jacket of East China Hospital is now on his lap.
His wife, Sheng Tianmin, came in and helped him with his collar.
”I don’t know how to change clothes now.” Grass baby slowly said.
”Not told you, the reporter is coming to interview today.” Sheng Tianmin said with a smile.
The grass baby laughs like a child, oh, think of it.
The caregiver handed him a small white bowl with some cut apples. Speaking, the grass baby forgot the apple and put the bowl on the bed. When Sheng Tianmin talked to the reporter, the care worker pointed to the bowl, meaning “you haven’t finished eating it yet.” Grass baby immediately put the bowl into his arms and put a small piece of apple into his mouth. That demeanor is obedience, no struggle, no purity.
It is this gentleman who seems to have rejuvenated. In the 20 years after the “Cultural Revolution”, he did not prepare, disguised, or paid wages. He translated more than 4 million words of Lev Tolstoy’s novels and Xiao Luo. The works of Hoff, Lermontov and others – an Eight Immortals table is not enough to spread these translations.
For a long time, he was sick and could only go to a small hospital in the street for treatment. Even with the leadership of the municipal party committee, the hospital is still dragging on. In the end, the then Shanghai Municipal Party Committee Secretary Xing Xingwen “angry under the blame”, grass baby has medical treatment. It is no wonder that the leaders of the relevant departments will not convert “big translators” to “administrative grades”.
What the ancestors uploaded
Ningbo Zhenhai Shengjia is a local family. From the Kangxi Dynasty to the Republic of China, there were 408 people who took the fame and worked in the family. There were countless people and industrialists who went abroad to study abroad.
In 1923, Cao Ying was born in the family of Camel Bridge, formerly known as Sheng Junfeng. Shengziji Brewing Garden is the ancestral industry. The record of Zhenhaizhi was created by the great-grandfather of Shengjunfeng in the 18th year of Daoguang (1838). In 1915, the president of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai made a decision. For the first time, China participated in the San Francisco-Panama-Pacific International Fair in the name of the government. 1.9 million people visited more than 4,000 Chinese goods in the Chinese exhibition hall costing 90,000 yuan. Finally, Hangzhou Zhang Xiaoquan scissors, Guizhou Moutai and Ningbo Shengziji soy sauce won the gold medal – this incident, in 2006, the grass baby still remembers clearly, but also at the East China Hospital, told reporters from home. Sheng Tianmin said that the grass baby family also made fermented bean curd, rice wine, vinegar or something, after the liberation “public-private partnership”, the factory was still in the 1960s.
The mother of the grass baby Xu Shuju is the show of everyone in Cixi County. Xu Jia had a romantic novelist Xu Wei (Cao Ying’s cousin) who was earlier than Zhang Ailing’s debut. His novel “Ghost Love” was made into a movie “Human Twilight” by Ningbo Zhenhai Chen Yifei many years later. The father of Cao Ying studied Western medicine. He graduated from Tongji Medical College in Shanghai in 1919. After that, he opened a clinic and practiced medicine. After more than a year, he returned to his hometown and became the dean of Ningbo Railway Hospital. The ancestral sauce garden has a special manager to take care of, the family’s economic situation is very good.
Later, Sheng Junfeng had a small brother, his 8-year-old brother, Sheng Xiaofeng. After graduating from the Department of Journalism at Fudan University, he was an editor at the Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House.
On October 21, 1931, the “Current Affairs Bulletin” in Ningbo area published a message: “Primary School Sheng Junfeng donated 30 gold”, saying that after the “September 18th” Incident, Ningbo’s various groups in the fundraising activities against Japan to save the country, 8 The old Sheng Junfeng donated 30 oceans. The money was worth 100 pounds of pork or 150 kilograms of sesame oil at the time. This was donated by his father, Sheng Ji’s son. In this way, the word “patriotism” was given to his son.
In 1937, the Japanese were getting closer and closer to Ningbo, and his father took the family to Shanghai to escape. The garden house of the old family stationed the Japanese troops until the victory of the war. After liberation, considering that he did not return to Ningbo, his father donated the house to Qijiang Girls’ High School.
In Shanghai, they rented a new style house in the opposite of Fuxing Park (formerly known as the French Park) and had a small garden.
In the early days of the Anti-Japanese War, the first volume of Lu Xun’s Complete Works was published in China for 20 volumes. The price was 20 yuan, but the reservation only received 8 yuan. Sheng Junfeng ordered a set of pocket money and “read it over and over again”. The last 10 volumes of the complete works are Lu Xun’s translations. He said that he was on the road of translation and was influenced by Lu Xun.
Sheng Junfeng studied English at the British-based Rensett Institute of Technology. At that time, progressive books and Russian literature were influxed, and he began to learn Russian. Following the report of an advertisement, he knocked on the door of a family. Opening the door is a Russian middle-aged woman wearing deep myopia glasses (then there were tens of thousands of old Russian refugees in Shanghai). After asking the reason, he told him that the tuition fee was 1 yuan per hour. Sheng Junfeng has calculated and asked for a class every week. According to the teacher’s instructions, he went to Xiafei Road, a bookstore opened by an overseas Chinese to buy a textbook: “Russian Jinliang” first volume. At that time, he had 5 yuan of silver foreign pocket money every month, 4 yuan to learn Russian, 1 yuan to buy reference books, not even seen a movie.
The beginning of the Tass news agency and translation career
In 1941, the Shanghai Underground Party Organization and the Soviet Tass Society discussed and co-organized Chinese publications to promote anti-fascism. The leader of the underground party, Jiang Yufang, found Sheng Junfeng and hoped that he would do some translation work. At that time, Sheng Junfeng was about 18 years old. In the following year, he published the first short story “The Old Man” translated by Pradonov, using the pseudonym “Grass Baby”.
At that time, news agencies in many countries set up branches in Shanghai, such as Reuters, Associated Press, and AFP. Most of them used Chinese who speak foreign languages. Grass Baby officially joined the Tass Society in 1945. The agency has a Chinese publication “Time” in Shanghai, an English newspaper “Daily Warfare” (someone jokingly called it “a little yellow ox”, Daily War News homophony), and a “sound radio station.” Grass baby remembers that a Soviet female broadcaster could read Russian directly in English. The person in charge of the radio music program is a Chinese, called Li Delun. Every morning, he bites the big cake fritters to go to work, while eating and taking out the records. After liberation, he went to the Soviet Union to learn the command and later became the head of the Central Symphony Orchestra.
At that time, the Kuomintang blocked the news of the war and only reported victory and did not report defeat. Therefore, it is necessary to “steal the enemy” to fully understand the situation. Jiang Yufang asked Fu Lei, who is proficient in French, to listen to the short-wave broadcast of the French news agency and then translate it into Chinese. The grass baby often went to the home of Mr. Fu Lei, the new village of Shimen Road, to get the translation.
In the 1940s and 1950s, under the background of “taking Russia as a teacher”, Cao Ying translated a lot of introductions to the Soviet state system, the management of the party in the enterprise, the marriage and family, the education of children’s education, and the Russian grammar reading, while also reading to Chinese readers. Introducing Russian and Soviet literary and artistic works, many articles were selected for the middle school Chinese textbooks.
In 1955, he published the translation of “The Total Agronomist of the Tractor Station” (Nikolayeva waited). At that time, Hu Yaobang, who served as the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Youth League, called on the National Youth League members to learn from the heroine Nasgar. “Caring for the suffering of the people and opposing bureaucracy.” A year later, Wang Meng published “New Youth in the Organization Department”.
Zhang Hailing, a student of Cao Ying, said: “Hu Yaobang noticed that “the total agronomist of the tractor stationmaster” is probably the ‘accident’ of literature browsing, but there is also ‘necessity’ in it, one of which is the excellent translation of the grass baby, the original Great for beauty.”
Cao Ying has written an introduction to the five Nobel Prize winners of the Soviet Union, including Pasternak, Sholokhov and Solzhenitsyn. He is also familiar with Russian poets and has translated some of the poems by Ye Saining, Mayakovsky, Akhmatova, Mandelstam and Zvetaeva.
In his mind, Leo Tolstoy is a giant of Russian literature, proclaiming fraternity, freedom and humanitarianism with his life’s work, and Sholokhov is one of the most successful inherited the spirit and skill of Torah. So he worked hard to translate Sholokhov’s work in the 1950s.
Sholokhov’s “One Man’s Encounter” began on the last day of 1956 and was serialized in Pravda. During the Great Patriotic War, “not a traitor to death”, many surviving Soviet officers and men returned to suffer great suffering. Professor Xu Zhenya from East China Normal University said that on New Year’s Eve, when Moscow broadcast this novel, there were thousands of people, and many Soviets stood and listened, and shed tears in the cold wind. “The grass baby is a thinker. He is very sensitive. He immediately feels the meaning of it and immediately translates it.”
Cao Ying later wrote: “I was excited when I was translating. I often stopped writing to wipe my tears… The Soviet people lost about 40 million people in the Great Patriotic War. So after the war, almost every family table was left empty. Tableware used by people.”
He was interested in many of Sholokhov’s works. He translated “Learn Hate” before liberation. After liberation, he translated “The Revealed Virgin Land” (renamed “New Land” during retranslation) and “Don River Story”.
a deep understanding of the Russian mind
There is a famous saying in Cao Ying: I am like a Jew who licks every dollar of their money and licks every minute of their own.
365 days a year, he sat in his own study, companionship with the tiny Russian characters like going to work. A friend borrowed his house and just talked a few words in the morning. Cao Ying said: “I’m sorry, I have to go to work.” Sheng Tianmin told reporters that when he was working, the children knew that they could not disturb.
Cao Ying believes that a good translation should be the experience of reading the translations of foreign readers and the feelings of the readers reading the original text.
He once revealed to his friends the process of his translation: read through several times to make the characters clear in the mind; then translate them word by word; then check the original text to see if there is any leak or misunderstanding; then, from the perspective of Chinese, often The actor and friends read aloud and corrected the mouth of the mouth (for example, the old friend Sun Daolin read the translation of Xiao Luokhov’s “One Man’s Encounter” for him, and the grass baby adjusted accordingly. At East China Hospital, they were also neighbors.) Finally, make some adjustments based on the editorial comments.
There are 559 personalities in “War and Peace”. Grass Baby has made 559 small cards, and each person’s name, identity, and personality characteristics are written on it until he truly enters the world of the novel. In addition, Towon’s vast historical picture forced him to cover Russia’s philosophy, religion, politics, economy, military, customs and daily life habits of the Russians. He has been translated for six years in these four volumes.
Today, 559 cards and four originals that have been ruined are lying in his bookcase.
Xu Zhenya is the most admired translation of Grasshopper in several Chinese translations of The Resurrection. He said that the grass baby has thoroughly penetrated the original, and the words are accurate, expressive and more concise.
When translating “Anna Karenina”, Anna’s fate often caught him in it. Student Zhang Hailing remembers that there was a heavenly visit and found that the teacher was somewhat different. He got up and said goodbye, and the grass baby stayed again and again. After a while, Cao Ying said with a sigh of relief: “Anna is dead… I was just saddened by the translation of ‘Anna’s death.'”
In 1985, he first went to the Soviet Union with the delegation and set foot on the land of Tolstoy’s homeland. This is the Jasnaia Porena estate near the city of Tula, covering 380 hectares with birch groves and lakes. Cao Ying said: “He is a real big aristocrat, a big landlord, but he cares about poor peasants. This is not the second in the world.”
In 1987, the Soviet Writers Association awarded the Grassen “Gorky Literature Award”. In the award speech, there was such a sentence: “The two Chinese characters (Cao Ying) show hard work, cultural talent and profoundness to the Russian mind. understanding.”
From August 1990 to January 1995, Anna Karenina was printed 14 times with a total print of 775,000 copies – this is just data from a Shanghai publishing house.
In 1996, Cao Ying wrote: “Some college students have learned a foreign language to a Chinese-foreign joint venture to make big money, and they are really lonely. They have a very good foundation in Chinese and foreign languages, but their working conditions and living conditions are not good. Implementation, can not engage in their beloved work.”
The thoracic vertebrae are broken and the spine is intact.
Cao Ying said that intellectuals must have five things: conscience, mind, vision, backbone, and courage.
”People are alive, can’t say something that is against the heart, do things that go against it; no matter what, use your own mind to think, analyze, judge, you can’t bend over and sway with the wind.”
When the anti-Hu Feng in the 1950s, the friend Man Tao became the object of criticism. When “anti-right”, Fu Lei was put on the “rightist” hat. The relevant departments asked Grass Ying to write a critical article. He did not write a word. He said: “I can’t criticize them with my conscience.”
He also had his own reflection on Stalin, who worshiped when he was young. In a letter to his friend Lan Yingnian, he said: “In the past, our view of the Soviet Union was completely ‘one-sided’. We only saw its bright side from the materials we could touch, only heard a praise to it… In recent years, I have read “Untimely Thoughts” that Gorky had not published before. Roman Roland sealed the “Moscow Diary” and the “Visit the Soviet Union”, which was revisited for 50 years, and further understanding of the history of the Soviet Union… …reading a series of articles you wrote, it’s like seeing a history of undistorted and an unpackaged Gorky.
It is precisely in order to get rid of this historical packaging, after the “Cultural Revolution”, Cao Ying and Ba Jin worked together to establish the “Cultural Revolution Museum”. The photographer Yang Kelin compiled two volumes of the “Cultural Revolution Museum” album, and the texts of the two old people appeared at the forefront of the album. In the preface, Cao Ying said: “Anyone with a conscience will make a cry from the bottom of his heart: no longer can such a historical tragedy be repeated.”
Comparing the photos of the grass baby and his wife in the 1940s and 1970s, it is obvious that the height gap is gone. The catastrophe caused a shortage of his body: in 1965, he was decentralized, and he lost 3/4 of his stomach due to major bleeding. In 1975, a 100-pound cement pack broke the thoracic vertebrae in a body of 90 pounds. Cao Ying said: The thoracic vertebrae are broken and the spine is not broken.
Today, they have been together for 60 years.
In the interview, the old couple checked the names and deeds, and sifted the part of the bottom of the memory box. The scene was very warm.
Their youngest daughter, Sheng Yu, studied Chinese painting in his early years and went to the United States to study oil paintings. He is known for his large oil paintings and glass sculptures. In the Shanghai World Expo Park, there is a group of her large outdoor installation “Open Great Wall.” This group of works was presented at the 2009 Venice Biennale. Sheng Tianmin said that when the weather is warmer, she will push the grass to see.