5G is coming, the future is coming

At the 2019 World Mobile Communications Conference (MWC19), 5G smart phones have become a must for various manufacturers: Samsung’s Galaxy Fold, Huawei’s Mate X, LG’s V50ThinQ, and ZTE’s Axon 10 Pro smartphones support 5G communication.

5G is the fifth-generation mobile communication technology. It is a collective term for a series of communication technologies. According to the different communication requirements in different scenarios, 5G brings us the following three application scenarios:

eMBB (Enhance Mobile Broadband) enhanced mobile broadband. The most intuitive feeling for everyone is faster mobile speed: watching ultra-clear video is no longer stuck, “eat chicken” and “pesticide” no longer hang up teammates due to the speed of the network. Compared with 4G networks, 5G bandwidth is larger, peak rate can reach 20Gbps, 20 times that of 4G, user experience rate can reach 1Gbps or more, 100 times that of 4G. The 5G transmission speed exceeds the fiber, which brings more possibilities. In the case of communication, after 1G calls, 2G messages, 3G pictures, and 4G videos, 5G can bring holographic communication: using holographic projection to achieve face-to-face communication, not just on the screen. Of course, this also requires the support of terminals and other technologies. The arrival of 5G will lead to the arrival of new technologies and accelerate the development of related industries.

mMTC (massive Machine Type of Communication) Massive machine type communication. The device connection density is 10-100 times higher than that of 4G, supporting the connection of 1 million devices per square kilometer, and the number of supported devices is at least 100 billion. mMTC is used in scenarios with low power consumption, low bandwidth, low cost and low latency requirements, such as smart street lights and wearable devices. Based on this scenario, there are currently two major standards for operators to actively deploy: NB-IoT and eMTC, which have been applied on smart door locks and shared bicycles. These two authorized standards are the basis of 5G mMTC. The arrival of 5G will not replace these two standards. On the contrary, the implementation of 5G depends on the evolution of these two standards. The fixed standards of mMTC will also be based on these two standards. Smooth upgrade.

uRLLC (Ultra Reliable & Low Latency Communication) is ultra-reliable and low-latency communication, which reduces the delay by 5-10 times compared with 4G, and can achieve a delay of only 20ms from end to end. This is a working band that requires ultra-low latency. Great kinetic energy came. For example, an ambulance can achieve ultra-low-latency video through 5G, and help doctors to grasp the condition in advance during the process of being sent to the hospital; automatic driving also requires ultra-low-latency communication transmission, and responds promptly according to different scenarios when driving. To ensure traffic safety.

The deployment of 5G will first land on eMBB. We will first see the arrival of 5G smartphones. uRLLC and mMTC are widely used in the Internet of Things, and the development of standard protocols still requires a lot of work. According to the timetable established by the 3GPP organization standards, the formulation of all 5G standards was completed by the end of 2019. The operator will personalize the deployment of uRLLC and mMTC according to the application scenario. For industries that require cutting-edge technology, such as car networking and smart factories, operators will work with industry partners to develop specific scenario technologies to jointly promote industry maturity. The Internet of Everything will come, but the process is still long.

3GPP is an international wireless standardization body responsible for the development of wireless communication protocol standards and reporting to the ITU (International Telecommunication Union). At present, the 5G NR standard SA (independent networking) program was officially confirmed in June 2018, and it is planned to complete the formulation of all 5G standards by the end of 2019. China Mobile, ZTE, and Huawei have great voices in the formulation of 5G standards.

When we look at the future, the future has arrived. Inadvertently, new things have already been born. Scenes that have not been imagined in the past are now commonplace. The arrival of 5G will not only realize our embarrassment, but also bring more possibilities that we can’t imagine now.

What will 5G bring to us? What is the future?

Below, we look to the future from 5G and smart life, 5G and smart city, 5G and smart production.

First, 5G and smart life
1. 8K ultra clear video

EeMBB★★★★★

mMTC★★★★

uRLLC★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

At present, the fiber bandwidth of first-tier cities is up to 500Mbs, and the transmission speed of 5G has theoretically surpassed that of fiber. Fixed wireless access (WTTx) utilizes mobile network technology instead of traditional fixed lines to provide home Internet access, so 5G WTTx can not only provide network speed beyond optical fiber, but also effectively solve the difficulties and high cost of traditional fiber broadband deployment. And as users’ demand for bandwidth increases, WTTx can deploy bandwidth faster. 5G network slicing technology can provide different network bandwidths under the same physical network to meet different network requirements. The arrival of 5G will make the future home network access more wireless. At present, Verizon and AT&T have invested in the US pilot project, using 5G instead of fiber to enter the home. According to Huawei’s forecast, by 2020, 350 million households are likely to purchase WTTx services.

5G WTTx will give us a better home entertainment experience. A typical case is Ultra HD 8K video. As of August 2016, global 4K/UHD TV users have occupied more than 40% of the market, and major manufacturers such as Sony have also begun to release a series of lower cost 4K/8K TVs. The bandwidth demand of 8K video exceeds 100Mbps, and 5G WTTx is rapidly deployed. The advantage provides excellent support for the popularity of ultra clear video.

2. Games

eMBB ★★★★★

mMTC★★★

uRLLC★★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

First of all, cloud games will benefit from 5G. The cloud game puts all the player’s operation processing, screen rendering and data compression in the cloud, which reduces the hardware requirements of the device terminal. However, most of the families still can’t achieve the network performance required by cloud games. 5G can upload a large amount of data of the terminal to the cloud for processing and quickly return it, providing 4K and ultra-low latency immersive gaming experience.

Tencent demonstrated on the MWC19 the cloud game platform “Tencent is playable” jointly built with Intel. The platform combines 5G technology and cloud server to get rid of the hardware constraints and save the time to download the game, achieving 1080p60fps and less than 40ms. Delayed high quality gaming experience.

In addition, the highly responsive tactile gaming device combined with the AR/VR function brings a new sensory dimension to the player, and the addition of a tactile response brings a more immersive gaming experience. 5G’s high bandwidth and low latency meet the requirements of AR/VR devices. The 4K image quality makes the picture more realistic, and the ultra-low latency video also reduces the vertigo, especially the fast response tactile feedback, making the “number one player” The immersive gaming experience is getting closer and closer to us.

The promotion of the game will also benefit from 5G. With the increase of 5G bandwidth, players can play the game directly in the App Store and Google Play. The game operation no longer needs to install a large-capacity APP on the device. Each game manufacturer can concentrate its own game on one customer. As an entrance, all game processing is carried out in the cloud, and future users will no longer worry about the terminal capacity being too small.

3. Social network video

eMBB ★★★★★

mMTC★★

uRLLC ★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

Social network video is currently the most significant trend. Social videos represented by short videos and mobile real-time videos represented by live broadcasts are accepted by more and more people. Traditional social networks are also actively deploying in the video field: Facebook and Twitter launch live video; WeChat launches instant video, and Weibo also splits the video section in the latest update. Video socialization is more social and interactive than traditional text and image socialization, and can connect more people in real time.

But people are not satisfied with the status quo. People are increasingly demanding immersive videos such as super clear live broadcasts, 360° live broadcasts, sports player live broadcasts, and multiplayer live video interactions. Facebook launched the 360° live broadcast platform in 2017. The anchor can be connected to the mobile phone with Gear 360 (2017), Insta360 Nano / Air, Girpopt IO, Allie Camera and other devices to perform 360° live broadcast on Facebook with 4K resolution. It can be viewed directly on your phone or on a VR device. This requires more than 100Mbps bandwidth, and the arrival of 5G can give better support.

4. Smart home

eMBB ★★

mMTC★★★

uRLLC★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

The contribution of 5G to smart homes is that we want to provide a unified wireless local area protocol standard. At present, the connection protocols for smart home devices are very different. In view of the products of various manufacturers supporting HomeKit, the Philips “show” bulb is connected to the Philips bridge through the Zigbee protocol for intelligent control; the Eve Energy smart socket exchanges data via Bluetooth; the D-Link camera passes WiFi. In summary, different developers will adopt different wireless protocols to control smart home devices. Even if they use the same protocol, such as ZigBee, they need their own gateways to connect, which will affect the smart home’s synergy and scene experience. The different power consumption requirements of household products determine different connection protocols. Some non-plugged devices such as door and window sensors use ZigBee protocol with low power consumption, short distance and low data volume to greatly extend battery life, while plug-in devices such as The camera prefers a WiFi connection to ensure better network connectivity and big data transmission.

However, the arrival of 5G will not immediately change the existing smart home market. For household devices with low requirements on the network such as sensors and switches, high energy consumption of 5G is the primary problem. The widely used ZigBee protocol can meet the needs of the device for several years. Moreover, 5G belongs to the wide area network, and even LPWAN (low-cost wide area network) in the 5G framework is a waste of resources in the home. Although different devices use different wireless network protocols, smart home platforms such as Apple HomeKit and Green Rice Auara can integrate smart homes and achieve automation, such as automatic door opening at home, automatic turning on the lights at sunset, and air conditioning at a temperature below a certain value. Therefore, the agreement is still in the mainstream for some time, and it remains to be seen whether 5G can provide a unified wireless protocol.

However, when we walked out of the house, 5G has a place to use in smart homes. NB-IoT (Narrowband Internet of Things) has been implemented in the Internet of Things as a LPWAN (Low Power WAN) standard. Dolly Technology has cooperated with China Telecom and Huawei to launch a smart door lock based on NB-IoT. The base station communicates with the door lock through NB-IoT. When we go out, the operation of the APP terminal directly controls the door lock through the base station. I believe that the upgrade of 5G LPWAN will provide a better experience for smart home.

5. Smart Health

eMBB ★★★★

mMTC★★★★

uRLLC★★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

The problem of aging population is getting more and more serious, and it is followed by health problems. Medical care is more and more important for us. The arrival of 5G also brings motivation to smart medical care. There are several typical scenarios for smart healthcare.

(1) Remote health monitoring. People begin to take control of their health and take timely and effective treatment of the disease. Mobile medical devices continuously collect personal body information in real time and upload it to the cloud. The hospital can perform real-time medical monitoring of patients based on health data. Combined with the AI ​​model, intelligent analysis of health status can be achieved to provide accurate and timely health management, medication guidance, and appropriate treatment plans when necessary. The three characteristics of 5G can better support the real-time transmission of medical health massive data, cloud services and the interconnection feedback of medical IoT devices.

(2) Remote surgery. In remote areas, medical resources are relatively scarce. Once emergency treatment is needed, remote surgery can be performed to achieve effective resource allocation. Remote surgery requires extremely high real-time performance, which requires ultra-low latency, and 5G is well satisfied. In addition, because remote surgery cannot be directly performed clinically, the simulated tactile feedback during the operation is extremely important for the operation. Accurate force feedback is the most important of remote surgery, which determines the ultra-low latency and reliability of only 5G. To meet the requirements. A typical case of force feedback is the remote B-ultrasound robot at Belle?le enMer Hospital in France, which provides B-ultrasound diagnostic services for remote areas, reduces the cost of medical treatment, and has reached commercial levels.

(3) Super ambulance. In the process of ambulance delivery to the hospital, 5G is used for ultra-clear real-time communication to help doctors master the patient’s condition and pre-process in advance to maximize the surgical effect.

Second, 5G and smart city
Intelligent security

eMBB★★★★★

mMTC★★★★

uRLLC★★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

(1) UAV security inspection. UAVs can replace humans for various aerial operations, such as building inspections, pipeline leak detection, and safety prevention. The huge real-time data generated by the UAV equipped with high-precision monitors requires more than 200Mbps bandwidth. Real-time transmission of video also requires ultra-low latency of network transmission. 5G provides great support for UAVs for security inspection.

(2) Intelligent monitoring. In recent years, with the advancement of cutting-edge technologies such as AI and big data in the security field, the security system has become more intelligent from the dependence on people. The realization of functions such as face recognition and behavior recognition, and the transformation from the middle to the early warning are all benefited from the maturity of technologies such as AI.

However, in order for the new technology to play its due strength, it needs the support of ultra-high definition video. The large amount of data generated by this video requires 5G for transmission. For the early warning function, the 5G ultra low delay feature is also well satisfied. And 5G can realize the connection of massive devices, which can allow more camera devices to access the network, making the scope of monitoring more extensive.

Zhang Xueyou’s concert captured the fugitives by using the surveillance camera on the security gate. It is foreseeable that when the 5G arrives, the surveillance system will be further upgraded.

2. Smart travel

eMBB ★★★★

mMTC★★★★★

uRLLC ★★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

Traffic has always been an important issue in cities. If everything on the road can be interconnected and mutualally perceived, it can effectively solve the congestion problem, and even the probability of traffic accidents can be reduced to zero. V2X (Vehicle to Everything) means that the vehicle-to-vehicle communication mainly includes four types of connection: vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-network (V2N), and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P).

(1) V2V (Vehicle-To-Vehicle, car-vehicle) can be used as information exchange and reminder between vehicles, the most typical is used for anti-collision safety system between vehicles.

(2) V2I (Vehicle-To-Infrastructure), vehicles can communicate with roads and other infrastructure, such as traffic lights, roadblocks, etc., to obtain road management information such as traffic signal timing.

(3) V2N (Vehicle-To-Network) is the most widely used form of car networking. Its main function is to make the vehicle connect to the cloud server through the mobile network, and use the navigation, entertainment and anti-theft provided by the cloud server. And other application features.

(4) V2P (Vehicle-To-Pedestrian, car-pedestrian) is used as a safety warning for road pedestrians or non-motor vehicles.

It is also 3GPP, and in March 2017, it cooperated with many parties to complete the development of the C-V2X standard LTE-V based on cellular network (Rel-16 C-V2X). The primary feature of LTE-V is that vehicles do not rely on network coverage and cellular networks to enable direct communication between vehicles (V2V), direct communication between vehicles (V2P), or communication between vehicles and road infrastructure (V2I).

For infotainment and non-delay sensitive information security use cases (such as traffic accidents one kilometer ahead), the C-V2X also supports vehicles communicating with the cloud over the cellular spectrum over mobile networks (vehicle-to-network, V2N). In the globally unified 5.9 GHz ITS band, the C-V2X is able to transmit secure information (such as road hazard warnings) using low-latency direct communication technology, independent of V2N transmitted over commercial cellular spectrum bands supporting in-vehicle and infotainment applications. Communication impact.

At the same time, C-V2X Rel-14 also paved the way for 5G-based C-V2X technology, which can be smoothly upgraded to 5G C-V2X. The 5G NR-based Rel-16 C-V2X direct communication will also be the same without relying on cellular networks.

The 5G-based C-V2X also gives a huge amount of kinetic energy to self-driving. The advantages of 5G’s eMBB and uRLLC enable autonomous vehicles to effectively share information on roads, road conditions and the surrounding environment with other vehicles and road infrastructure.

These features are designed to build realistic road conditions based on the surrounding environment by sharing high-throughput sensors with other vehicles. In addition, vehicles can use the 5G NR-based C-V2X to transmit their intent and planned travel routes to other vehicles with greater predictability and accuracy, further optimizing the route planning for autonomous driving.

In 2017, Shanghai Auto and Huawei jointly demonstrated the 5G long-distance driving, Huawei and German Space Center jointly tested 5G autonomous driving in Munich, and certified 5G ultra-low delay to guarantee the real-time control of the vehicle.

There are several scenarios for smart travel:

(1) Smart transportation. The traffic lights can adjust the signal according to the traffic flow, weather and time; the navigation can plan a reasonable travel plan according to the road conditions to avoid congestion, and the accurate navigation of the AR can accurately display all the information on the road to avoid the driver’s driving misjudgment.

(2) The formation of the truck. Formation driving improves the efficiency of cargo transportation, and the interconnection between vehicles enables automatic formation on the expressway, which can exceed the human driver in safety. Synchronous driving of vehicles with more vehicles requires low-latency network communication, and 5G can provide good support.

(3) Wisdom control. On February 3, 2019, Chengdu Traffic Police 5G Helicopter + UAV Flight Formation was officially dispatched to carry out real-time video transmission, air flight capture, aerial scene survey, etc. in road traffic management, traffic violations, traffic accident scenes, etc. Strengthen road control work from the air. This is the first national 5G smart transportation innovation application jointly released by the Traffic Management Bureau of Chengdu Public Security Bureau and Chengdu Branch of China Telecom. Utilizing the advantages of 5G high bandwidth and ultra-low latency, the road conditions are transmitted back in real time, and the delay is only a few milliseconds, which greatly improves the decision-making ability of traffic management.

3. Smart energy

eMBB★★★

mMTC★★★

uRLLC★★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

The energy sector combined with 5G will be more intelligent to save energy and increase efficiency. Power grids, remote meter reading, and street lights are the primary energy fields for intelligent development.

(1) Smart Grid

Intelligent grid connection: Different power plants or power generation systems need to be connected to the national grid in a unified manner, and the power grid is uniformly distributed to users. This process is connected to the grid. Power generation has different power generation methods such as solar energy and wind energy. The grid-connected process generates a large amount of power generation data. The timely and accurate transmission of data to the control master station determines the efficiency of grid connection and avoids waste and loss of energy. The low latency and massive connection of 5G enables the optimization of the grid-connected system.

Accurate load control: Accurate load control is to cut off part of the interruptible load when the power supply system has special circumstances, such as the interruption of the individual power supply system, to ensure the maximum capacity of the enterprise, the safety of the power grid equipment and the daily power consumption of the users. Millimeter-level precision load control concentrates massive interruptible loads for precise real-time control, allowing for extreme speed control in emergency situations. At the same time, it receives the power consumption of different power terminals, precisely controls different power demand, and achieves high efficiency and peak power consumption.

(2) Remote meter reading

Smart water meters, smart meters, and smart gas meters can all be deployed using the currently licensed NB-IoT, enabling remote meter reading and saving a lot of human and financial resources. Real-time data acquisition is also used to detect pipeline leaks.

(3) Smart street light

The street lamp access network can realize precise single-lamp remote control, and also realize fault alarm and other functions to maximize energy conservation and efficiency.

Third, 5G and smart production
Smart factory

eMBB★★★★

mMTC★★★★

uRLLC★★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

The rise of the fourth-generation industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) and the advent of the digital age have made it possible to transform traditional factories into smart factories. Smart factories have the following characteristics:

(1) Interconnectivity. The smart factory is not a simple interconnection in the production process. The real smart factory can integrate all the material resources, human resources and data in the operation process, and continuously collect and analyze the data through various sensors and communication networks. Achieve intelligent production. At the same time, smart factories are also interconnected with suppliers and customers to fully grasp the upstream and downstream of the supply chain, thereby improving the overall efficiency of the supply chain.

(2) Flexibility. Intelligent factories are gradually becoming intelligent systems driven by artificial intelligence, which can adapt to new environments and automatically adjust production processes and schedules according to different needs. Real-time monitoring of material resources, automatically ordering assets when the resources are insufficient to meet production.

(3) Forward-looking. Forward-looking is also an important attribute of smart factories, which requires plant systems to predict possible risks in a timely manner through intelligent algorithms to minimize losses.

(4) Flexibility. With the upgrade of consumption, consumers’ demand for consumer goods is no longer limited to the standardized supply of manufacturers, and they are beginning to shift towards personalization. Therefore, the production mode of traditional factories needs to be transformed, and flexible manufacturing becomes the future trend of smart factories.

The International Production Plant Research Association is defined as a flexible manufacturing system that is capable of producing any range of product families with minimal human intervention. The flexibility of the system is often limited by the product family considered in the system design. .

The above attributes of the intelligent factory determine the requirements for massive interconnection in all aspects of the production process, as well as the timely, accurate and reliable transmission of the generated data. 5G provides a high-throughput, ultra-low latency, highly reliable, massively connected network that is well suited to meet your requirements.

2. Cloud robot

eMBB★★★★

mMTC★★★★

uRLLC ★★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

China’s manufacturing industry has become the world’s largest industrial robot market in recent years, accounting for one-third of global sales. In intelligent manufacturing scenarios, robots need stronger sensing and collaboration capabilities, which creates the requirements for robot cloudization.

First of all, the precision sensors deployed in the robot continuously collect various industrial-grade data, transmit them to the cloud through the 5G network, and process the production process in real time through the super-power of big data and artificial intelligence technology. Under certain circumstances, D2D (Device-to-Device) technology in the 5G technology system directly communicates between objects and objects, further reducing the end-to-end delay of the service and greatly improving production efficiency.

Secondly, collaborative robots require ultra-high security when man-machine cooperation is required. They can be quickly braked in case of failure to avoid injury to workers. At the same time, collaborative robots need to constantly exchange data to cooperate with collaborative processes, making people and robots more friendly. The interaction, which requires ultra-low latency and reliability of the transmission network, so the cloud robot’s ultra-low latency and reliability requirements for network transmission determine that 5G is the key to the development of industrial robots.

3. Industrial Vision

eMBB★★★★★

mMTC★★★

uRLLC★★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

Industrial vision is another key technology in the field of intelligent manufacturing. It analyzes and processes image information by simulating human visual functions to realize applications such as detection and control.

Under industrial vision, robots can locate and identify objects, such as disorder sorting and stacking, welding, and so on. The detecting robot performs defect inspection and quality inspection on the workpiece through a camera attached to the camera, a scanner, and the like.

The image requirements required for industrial vision are getting higher and higher. 3D vision and even AI recognition require a large amount of data transmission and ultra-low latency, and 5G can meet the demand.

4. Industrial AR

eMBB★★★★★

mMTC★★★

uRLLC★★★★★

Three application scenarios apply strong and weak schematic

In the production process of smart factories, people also play a more important role. Combined with augmented reality AR, it can be used for manual assembly process guidance, remote maintenance, etc. in the intelligent manufacturing process. In these applications, the auxiliary AR facility requires maximum flexibility and portability in order for maintenance to be carried out efficiently. The 5G’s high-throughput and ultra-low latency features put all data processing in the cloud, greatly reducing the load on the AR facility.

Fourth, summary
The arrival of 5G will definitely enrich many industries, but when 5G can achieve the above and even the scenarios that are currently unimaginable, there is still a long process. After all, 5G is still only a communication technology. The above situations, such as smart transportation and smart factories, not only need the support of communication technology, but the most fundamental need is the improvement of the underlying technology.

Moreover, the deployment of 5G also requires a process. The three major operators also stated that they will conduct 5G independent networking, which means that 5G will not rely on 4G base stations, and realize the synergy between 5G networks and 4G networks through core network interoperation. 5G-specific features such as edge calculation and network slicing can also be implemented. Independent networking requires a new network, including new base stations, backhaul links, and core networks, which are time-consuming deployment processes.

The 5G license will be issued in 2019, and all the standardization of 5G will be frozen at the end of the year. The 5G mobile phone will be the first terminal to be landed. It is expected that by 2021, 5G eMBB will be commercially available through 5G mobile phones. At the same time, operators and many companies will also work closely together to test the specific applications of 5G mMTC and uRLLC and accelerate commercial use.

5G not only brings faster network speed, but also the possibility of combining all things and new technologies such as AI. I believe that the true arrival of 5G will definitely bring us profound changes.

We will never return to the past. In the past, we used to look at the future. In fact, when we are in a hurry, new changes have already arrived. 5G is coming, the future has come. What we have to do is to be prepared to meet it and create a farther future.

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