Opening a historical and cultural tour from Mexico City

Mexican Sun Pyramid

2019 is the 500th anniversary of the Spanish invasion of Mexico. At that time, a Spanish exped team from Cuba landed in the Yucatan Peninsula and gradually penetrated into the interior of Mexico and formed an alliance with the Aztec archer Tlaxcala. After three years, the huge Avatar collapsed. The Zitke Empire destroyed its capital, Tenochtitlan (now underground in Mexico City).

Out of interest in Mexican culture and history, the author recently traveled for seven days in the capital city of Mexico City. Due to the poor local air quality in the winter and the altitude sickness (about two or three kilometers above sea level in the Mexican plateau), I feel tired and sleepy, but Mexico is completely unique and rich in exotic culture and scenery, and is basically the same or even lower than China. The price makes the author feel that it is worthwhile.

Looking for Maya and Aztec civilization

In Mexico City, in addition to the must-see attractions such as Constitution Square (the main square in the center of the old city), the National Museum of Anthropology in Chapultepec Park must go.

The National Museum of Anthropology is more targeted than the spectacular National Palace, the sparkling Somayan Museum on the façade or other comprehensive museums. The number of exhibits here is high and the quality is good. Compared with the fare of 70 pesos (less than RMB 30), the price is very high.

The architectural shape of the Museum of Anthropology is like the courtyard of Beijing. At the gate of the museum, there is a sculpture about 8.5 meters high and weighing 161 tons called “Traluo Rain God”. In the middle of the courtyard, there is a huge totem stone sculpture, 27 meters high, with a huge “ceiling” on the top, which is magnificent. The mushroom-shaped top of the stone pillar is filled with clean water and sprayed down to the surroundings, symbolizing the desire of the Mexicans in the ancient desert for water and the role of water in promoting Mexican culture.

The museum is divided into two levels, along the outer courtyard of the first floor, in turn, 12 exhibition halls can be visited in a counterclockwise order. They showcase Mexican indigenous culture, introduction to anthropology, settlement of the Americas, the pre-classical period of the Central Plateau, Teotihuacan, Tortic, Mesica (Aztec), Oaxaca, Kos Tower Gulf civilization, Mayan civilization, western culture and northern culture.

Compared with the second layer, which mainly displays the costumes, living utensils, weapons, and house styles of modern Indians, the first floor exhibits the soul of the museum and is the epitome of the cultural heritage of Indian nationalities in 4,000 years. Among them, the Maya exhibition hall and the Aztec exhibition hall are the most worth seeing.

The Mayan showroom collects archaeological discoveries in southeastern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and Honduras, and presents exquisite artifacts created by the Mayan civilization for thousands of years. There is a replica of the tomb of King Bakar, which was discovered deep in the Pyramid of the Temple of the Inscriptions in the ancient Mayan city of Palenque. On the empty walls of the exhibition hall, there are many murals depicting the life of the Maya, which makes people travel in time.

Out of the Maya exhibition hall, the author wondered: In the case of isolation from the ancient civilization of Eurasia, the Maya mastered superb mathematics, astronomical calendar and construction techniques, but did not use copper and iron, wheeled vehicles, and did not stock cattle, horses, pigs and sheep. In the absence of metal tools and transportation tools, they created a city-state civilization known as the “American Greece” in the tropical jungle, based solely on the Neolithic primitive production tools and the foundation of corn agriculture. Moreover, in the seven or eight hundred years of the AD, the Mayan civilization reached its peak, and then the main civilization suddenly decayed and disappeared, which is a mystery to date.

In the seven or eight hundred years of the AD, the Mayan civilization reached its peak, and then the main civilization suddenly decayed and disappeared. So far, it is a mystery.

In the future, part of the Aztec civilization that inherits the Mayan civilization, and the Maya and Inca are called “the three great civilizations of India.” The star in the Aztec exhibition hall is the “Sun Calendar Stone”. This round boulder is 3.6 meters in diameter and weighs 24 tons. It is said to be a monument dedicated to the sun god by the Indians. It was originally decorated on the wall of the temple of Tenochtitlan (the capital of the Aztec Empire). In the center of the disc, the complex sun gods are engraved; the surrounding four “solar” signs represent the process of the new solar birth and the extinction of the old sun in each solar age.

The “end of the world” statement that has been raging in the world in previous years is also related to the Mayan calendar displayed by this round stone. According to the Maya algorithm, a solar age is 1872,000 days, about 5125 years. The fifth solar eclipse that human beings are currently in is beginning on August 11, 3113 BC, after 1872,000 days, which happens to be December 21, 2012. Fortunately, the “end of the world” predicted by the Mayans did not arrive as scheduled, giving me the opportunity to come to the Museum of Anthropology and witness this “mysterious stone” that shocked the world.

Frida’s “Blue House”
In fact, for a Wenqing, what I want to see most in Mexico City is the “Mexico Rose”, the former residence of the female painter Frida Kahlo. The Ko Yaokan Street in the south of Mexico City is undoubtedly the “pilgrimage” of Frida fans all over the world.

Sculptures exhibited at the National Museum of Anthropology

Frida, who was sad, said: “You are so ugly, how can you seduce so many women?”

Koyaokan was once a small village far from the city, and today it retains the culture of Bohemian (Czech Republic) culture. Many tourists will also watch the famous mime on the weekend to the Centennial Garden, or go to the local market to taste authentic food, such as grilled locusts – foods handed down during the Spanish colonial period. Of course, the most famous attraction here is the former residence of Frida at 247 London Street, commonly known as the “Blue House”.

The “Blue House” was a place where many Mexican painters, Bohemians, and politicians often met. Here, Frida’s “lover” and former Soviet politician Lev Trotsky had a meeting to discuss the tequila fermentation temperature and share home cooking.

The current Frida Caro Museum is the home of Frida from birth to death, built by Frida’s father Guillermo before her birth. Her father was a photographer with Hungarian Jewish origin and was born in Germany; his mother was a descendant of Spanish and American Indians.

There are many “Blue Houses” collections, one of which is dedicated to Frida’s recognizable costumes. Frida likes to wear a bohemian dress to cover her leg disability. According to the documentary filmed in the “Blue House”, before Frida died, she still remembered the negative evaluation of her primary school teacher’s disability.

Frida’s paintings show optimism and joy, as well as the deep pains in her life, especially the illness, car accidents and disability (she has experienced more than 30 operations in her life, and was finally forced to amputate) to bring her physical suffering. And the husband and the famous left-wing artist Diego Rivera’s derailment brought her spiritual torture.

Frida said that Diego Rivera was his friend, husband, lover and confidant, but when Diego and Frida’s sister had an affair, Frida said: “You are so ugly. How can you seduce so many women?” She also compared herself to the betrayed by the “little deer” with arrows in her body and blood.

The last stop to visit the “Blue House” is usually Frida’s bedroom. Frida had two beds, and a mirror was installed on the bed for Frida’s self-portrait. Next to the night bed, there was a butterfly specimen glass box that a friend gave her. Around her bed are portraits of Lenin and Mao Zedong, and a painting “Family Portrait.”

A few kilometers from Ko Yaokan to the west, at the end of Altavista Street, there are two buildings with red and blue roofs connected by sky bridges. It is now the “Die Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo House Museum”. The two buildings were designed by two friends, architect and painter Juan O’Gorman (his own house is also nearby), where the blue building is Frida and the red one is Diego, symbolizing They are independent and equal to each other after marriage. Today, Diego’s residence retains his upstairs studio, bedroom and office (typing, making phone calls, etc.), while Frida’s residence is emptied for temporary exhibitions.

If Frida is better known around the world (partly because of the film Frida), then Diego Rivera is more famous in Mexico. Diego’s most important works of art, some of Frida’s works of art, are housed in the Dolores Olmedo Museum. The museum is housed in a quiet manor house built in the 17th century. Diego lived here for a long time before his death in 2002.

The museum has 144 pieces of Diego Rivera’s works from various periods, including oil paintings, watercolors and prints, as well as statues and folk art from the pre-Hispanic period. In another room, Frida’s paintings were exhibited. In the manor garden, you can see peacocks and Mexican hairless dogs.

Diego Rivera’s famous mural, The Crossroads, is currently on the west side of the third floor of the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico. Originally commissioned by the Rockefeller Center in New York, the painting was ruined by the Rockefeller family because of the anti-capitalist theme. Diego repainted it in 1934.

If you want to see Diego’s most famous work, “The Dream of Alameda Central Park on Sunday Afternoon,” you will get the Diego Rivera Mural Museum. This 15-meter-long mural was created in 1947, and Diego conceived many people who have entered the city since the colonial period, including Hernan Cortes and Beni To Juarez. . In the painting, everyone is surrounded by Katrina (a skeleton wearing a pre-revolutionary women’s costume); Diego himself is a fat-faced child, and Frida stands next to the skeleton. According to the characteristics, you can find everyone from the painting.

The third largest pyramid in the world
When traveling to Mexico, be sure to visit the largest ancient Indian religious and cultural center in the Americas – the Sun Pyramid and the Moon Pyramid (collectively called the Sun and Moon Pyramid). Although the attraction is far from the city, it is a pity to miss it.

The Sun and Moon Pyramids are located about 40 kilometers northeast of Mexico City, surrounded by mountains and once had the largest city in ancient Mexico, Teotihuacan. It is a religious shrine and economic center of the Toltic people of the Maya, and the general urban pattern was formed in the early 1st century BC. In the 8th century AD, Teotihuacan eventually died due to social, environmental and economic reasons.

During the heyday of Teotihuacan, the exterior was painted in a bright red sun pyramid, which was dazzling at sunset.

In the centuries after the fall of the city of Teotihuacan, it has been the pilgrimage site of the adjacent Aztec royal family. The Aztecs believe that all the gods are there to sacrifice themselves to let the sun shine in the world at the beginning of the “Fifth Sun”.

Mayan sculptures on display at the Archaeological and Historical Museum in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico

The ancient Teotihuacan, which occupies more than 20 square kilometers, is still only 2 kilometers long along the “Dead Road”. The reason why it was called the “Road of the Dead” was because the later Aztecs believed that the greatest buildings on both sides of the road were mausoleums, which were built for the first generation of rulers of Teotihuacan.

Teotihuacan’s Pyramid of the Sun is the third largest pyramid in the world, second only to the southeast, about 90 km long, the Cholula Pyramid (also stepped) that has been covered by trees, and the famous Egyptian Khufu. pyramid.

Although the general travel strategy will advise visitors to visit earlier, some authors of altitude sickness will leave at 1 pm – first take the four subways from the southwest of Mexico City, arrive at the North Central Station in the northeast, and then buy bus tickets, two After an hour, I finally arrived at the site that witnessed the powerful technological power of ancient Mexico.

The bus arrives at the southwest entrance of the Pyramid Scenic Area, which is very simple, but the toilet next to the marble interior is very clean. After entering the scenic spot, the long road paved along a small stone has been moving forward, and the sun pyramid stands not far away. Around the Sun and Moon Pyramids, there are other remains of the ancient city of Teotihuacan.

Between these relics, various stall vendors sell crafts and souvenirs, and a pyramid necklace can be bargained from 1,000 pesos to 100 pesos. Bypassing these vendors, you can climb the Pyramid of the Sun. It is best to wear a hat and sunglasses and water when climbing. Most people have to walk a few kilometers to the foot of the pyramid and climb the steep steps with bare hands. The evening I went to the evening, the wind was very big, and the feeling was similar to the Badaling Great Wall that I had climbed on the outskirts of Beijing.

The base of the Sun Pyramid is about 222 meters long on each side, and the top of the tower is more than 70 meters high. There was a temple-like building on it, but it has disappeared. In the Aztec faith, this pyramid is contributed to the sun god. This was confirmed in 1971 because archaeologists discovered an underground passage that was 100 meters long, from the west wing of the pyramid to the cave directly below the center of the pyramid, where they discovered the original religious artifacts. In addition, the archaeological excavations in the corner of the pyramid also found the child’s cemetery, which is considered part of the sacrifice ceremony at the time of the pyramid’s completion.

There is a way to get a glimpse of the majesty of the Sun Pyramid, which is to climb the top of the Moon Pyramid at the northern end of the Road to the Dead. This more elegant moon pyramid, completed around 300 AD, is almost the same as the Sun Pyramid because it is built on a higher terrain.

The author climbed to the top of the Sun Pyramid and walked around to admire the sunset, blowing the wind, and taking in the surrounding city and beautiful scenery. Imagine the exterior was painted bright red during the heyday of Teotihuacan. The sun pyramid is dazzling at sunset. You don’t need to use time and space through to travel through time and space, you can sigh the greatness of ancient human civilization in the same space.