The glory of Elizabeth I

Even if Elizabeth I was not the greatest female ruler in history, at least one of them. Although the era of her name is so many decades, her influence is far more than that of decades. In fact, she once again created the glory of England and shaped the new qualities of the English people – and these new qualities will be demonstrated in the creation of the Empire.

After the death of her sister Mary I, Elizabeth, who was not beautiful but still handsome, was crowned Queen Elizabeth I. At the age of 25, she reversed the course of England’s history. However, she also has the unique talent of her father in showing gorgeousness and magnificence. She likes to watch the parade and also likes to appear in the costume parade. She was praised by Spencer as the “Glorious Queen.”

Elizabeth’s “parade” in the country is not just a “show”, it also helps to impress the people and let the people remember her dazzling beauty and majesty.

Religious reform
There is no doubt that Elizabeth has faced various difficulties as soon as she ascended the throne. Both domestic and foreign are facing serious problems, the treasury is empty, the navy is weak, and there is no army. The inexperienced new queen immediately demonstrated her extraordinary ability.

At home, the most pressing issue is the church issue, because dealing with church issues depends on national solidarity and even peace, as well as some other factors. The two short-term reigns of Edward and Mary have taught the lesson: Edward tells us that too fast and tough Protestant reforms are not feasible, and Mary tells us that it is impossible to suppress the change of faith only through the fire.

The problem that Elizabeth has to face all her life is to create a relatively flexible “moderate way” that most nationals agree or tolerate – and the extremists in the two factions are left to be dealt with separately.

Fortunately, unlike Edward and Mary, Elizabeth is not enthusiastic about new beliefs or old beliefs, so she can clearly treat religious issues as political issues. Moreover, her only criterion for resolving religious issues is to bring peace and benefits to the country; if conditions permit, it will be better if everyone can agree.

In the early days of her rule, with her joint efforts with the people, they did achieve this goal. However, Elizabeth also promoted a large number of Catholic priests or people with Catholic knowledge, which led to the Council not supporting her. The archbishops and many upper-level nobles in the House of Lords did not support her. As a result, it is difficult for Elizabeth to implement her policies. Fortunately, although only one archbishop accepted the reforms, Elizabeth was easily able to get at least 7/8 of the priests’ support because of the willingness of the public and the deprivation of other archbishops.

In this way, the general public has controlled the church, and religious affairs are increasingly being decided by the Queen and the Parliament. This system has continued to this day, and the tolerance has increased from time to time. Such tolerance in the Elizabethan era may bring political chaos, but it will not break out until the next century.

Two queens
Queen Elizabeth of England and Queen Mary of Scotland, the confrontation between the two queens lasted almost a lifetime, and it is estimated that no one will be bigger and longer than theirs.

Mary’s personality is more delicate, so it is also easy to move feelings. She is able to plot and plan complex long-term plans, but it may also be abandoned due to impulsive impulses. Elizabeth is more ruthless, but also very feminine.

As we mentioned earlier, although the Queen is trying to find a golden mean in religious and church organizations in order to condense most of the nationals, she still faces pressure from both parties. The northern part of England and the lowlands of Scotland are combined into one faction, while the big nobility is another.

More specifically, the Earl of Westmoreland and the Earl of Northumberland, who believed in the old faith, would certainly be happy to replace Elizabeth with the dismissed Mary, who now plans to marry the Catholic Duke of Norfolk.

The “Northern Rebellion” broke out in 1569, but it was easily settled. The result was that the Earl fled and many of his followers were executed. The two counts fled to Scotland. In Scotland, when the young James VI regent Murray was murdered, some nobles conspired to restore Mary’s throne. This is a huge danger for Elizabeth, because the Catholic Church of each country will support Mary to sit on the throne of Scotland and England.

And in the eyes of others, Mary, who has a son, is more likely to achieve the peaceful inheritance of the throne than Elizabeth, who is not married and has no children. In 1570, the Catholic Church gave the Queen of England another blow: Pope Pius V expelled Elizabeth’s doctrine and demanded that the English nationals no longer support her.

As for the question of who will rule England, it is even more clearly proposed. In 1569, the Catholic aristocracy in the north of England launched a large-scale rebellion in Northumberland, Westmoreland and other places for opposing Protestantism. After the rebellion was suppressed, the northern Catholic forces were hit hard.

Queen’s danger
At the same time, there are other dangers. The relationship between England and France and Spain has been rigid for different reasons. Under the leadership of Alva, Spain tried to destroy the Protestantism in the Netherlands. And the means it took was so cruel that even the believers of Protestant and Catholic people opposed it, which caused it to cope. In France, the civil war between Protestants and Catholics broke out again, although peace was later achieved, but the rulers did not want England to return to Catholicism, because then England could unite with the French Catholic Church.

Thus, Catholics in England turned to Spain. They hope that Alva sends troops to England to lead the uprising, and they claim to be successful. The first step in their plan was to murder Queen Elizabeth, and Spain’s Philip II agreed to the arrangement. Elizabeth, who only knew the content of the plot, began to play with the French: proposed to marry the Duke of Anjou, but in fact she never thought about getting married.

When her intelligence agency figured out the details of the conspiracy, the Duke of Norfolk, who was proposed to marry Mary, was found involved and was sent to the guillotine. At this point, the parliament demanded that Mary be executed.

These events and the big events of the following year gave birth to the development of England’s most important fruits and empire. In France, Medici tempted her unripe and unsettled son, Charles IX, to believe that the Huguenot Protestant was plotting against him. Charles IX originally supported the Huguenots, and the sudden punishment was the horrific St. Bartholomew massacre.

Admiral Collini is one of many victims. The social status of the Huguenots is mainly the most capable craftsmen in all walks of life in France, many of whom moved to England as a result of the massacre. This type of migration is important in itself, but perhaps more importantly, these craftsmen, under the leadership of Collini, have largely formed the best maritime group in France. If Collini and they are not slaughtered by the French, then the French and English naval competition will be more intense, France will not fall behind so much, not to lose at the starting line.