“There is a forest fire.” In forest areas, fire prevention has always been a top priority. People often say: “The saplings are well planted, and the fire is difficult to prevent.” This is indeed the case. Forest fires have been associated with the day since the forest. It is not easy to raise forests, and fire prevention work should not be taken lightly. Especially in the northern part of China, the four seasons are distinct, the winter and spring seasons are dry, the forest is covered with dry grass and fallen leaves, and when the fire is caught, the fire is used by the wind, and the wind helps the fire. The fire develops rapidly. When people find it, the fire area is over It won’t be a small number.
“A little star fire can destroy a piece of forest.” Generally speaking, forest fires are caused by the fire on the ground and the deciduous leaves. The fire will gradually increase and the trees will be further affected. In places with forests, there are inevitable hay, leaves and trees that are easy to burn. Some scientists have tried every means to use the trees themselves to prevent forest fires – to find and promote some forest species that can be fireproof and help fire.
Use trees to guard against forest fires? This thing sounds a bit like a fantasy, not realistic. After all, trees are easy to burn, and this is well known. However, in the 1920s, some of the phenomena that occurred in the Great Kanto Earthquake in Japan did give some inspiration: perhaps, there are trees in the world that can be fireproof or help to prevent fire.
On September 1, 1923, a strong earthquake of magnitude 8.1 on the Richter scale occurred in the Kanto region of Japan. The Great Kanto Earthquake caused heavy losses: nearly 100,000 deaths, more than 40,000 people were unaccounted for, more than 100,000 people were injured, and the number of casualties was nearly 250,000. . The earthquake also caused a fire. According to Japanese “Nature” magazine, there were 136 fire spots in Tokyo within a short period of less than half an hour after the earthquake. The fire caused by the earthquake lasted for 3 days and 3 nights. The houses in three districts in downtown Tokyo were almost burned out. Two-thirds of the houses in the city were burned, and about 56,000 people died from the fire caused by the earthquake.
However, some residents who fled to the parks of Korakuen and Ueno, Queens, and Hibiya after the earthquake survived. It was because of the protection of large trees and green spaces in the forest park that they escaped the fire caused by the earthquake. Since then, these forest parks in Tokyo have been regarded as “safe havens” and “safe islands” for fire prevention and disaster prevention.
There is indeed a “fire tree” in the world.
In fact, in nature, there are indeed some trees worthy of the title of “fire tree”. Coral trees are such a kind of tree. Coral trees, also known as French holly, are evergreen shrubs or small trees, up to 10 to 15 meters, and the fire prevention effect is very remarkable. This evergreen tree has the characteristics of leaf thickness, crowning, moisture content, less resin, and less burning. When the fire strikes, even if the whole plant is blackened and the leaves are all burnt, the coral trees will not burn, so that the fire cannot spread further. It is really the leader in the “fire tree”. Coral trees are often used in urban or landscape greening because of their strong resistance to and absorption of soot and toxic gases.
Schima superba, Camellia genus is a large tree, up to 25 meters high, the shoots are usually hairless; hi light, slightly shaded in childhood; mainly distributed in Zhejiang, Fujian, Taiwan, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, China Guizhou and other places. The water content of the wood is high, the moisture content of the trunk is more than 40%; the leaves are wide and thick, and the water content is also large. This makes the Schima superba not only not easy to burn, but also has a certain effect on blocking the spread of fire.
In the northern forest areas of China, people often use the characteristics of the wood to arrange “fire lines” to prevent forest fires. Researchers have done a test: after throwing the incendiary bomb, the fire is picked up, up to one or two feet; but when the fire reaches the fire line arranged with the wood lotus tree, it will stop. The next year, when the spring blossoms, the burned wood lotus trees can still sprout and sprout, and soon become a lush piece.
Muhe is adaptable, easy to grow and easy to live, high and sturdy, and it is a natural fire barrier. It can be arranged as a defense line and is widely used for fire prevention in mixed forests, forest farms and woodlands.
How many fire trees in the world
In addition to the coral trees and wood lotus mentioned above, there are many varieties of trees that are commonly used in daily life, such as ginkgo, paulownia, poplar, barley, and octagonal gold. Plate, son-in-law, holly, heather, palmetto, guangyulan, bitter, medlar, willow, alfalfa, maple, etc. If you grow your strengths and avoid weaknesses, you can introduce them to factories, institutions, schools, streets, houses, parks, etc., and you can not only receive certain greening and beautifying the environment, but also make them a hidden fire fighter and add a safety barrier to people. .
There are at least 20 species of fire-prevented trees selected by researchers and 8 species of fire-resistant shrubs. Among them, fire-resistant tree species include ash, flower ash, walnut, locust, thorn, yam, yam, apricot, arbutus, yellow pineapple, long-leaf larch, hawthorn, sugar maple, white peony, sable , Hawthorn, flower-covered pear, sugar glutinous rice, Xing’an larch, etc.; fire-resistant shrubs include marsh, artemisia, tamarisk, elderberry, thorn old bud, warm wood viburnum, white clove, red ruimu and so on.
Researchers tested the fire resistance of these species based on analytical methods. Among the 34 tested tree species, the fire-resistant tree species include locust, walnut, plus poplar, and poplar, and the willow, torch, camphor, amorpha, acerola, white poplar, persimmon, berberine, and peach The fire protection capacity is relatively strong.
Researchers suggest that when selecting fire-breeding species, we must adhere to the principle of appropriate tree-fitting and pay attention to the fire-fighting ability of tree groups. At present, the most fire-preserved tree species used in southern China is Muhe, and some areas also use large leaf acacia, black ink, green hook, glutinous rice, glutinous rice, oil tea, red vertebra, paralysis, etc.; in some scenic areas It can also use holly, bone, Cyclobalanopsis, Dendrobium, Phoebe, Coral, Yangmei, Haitong, and top ten credits. Some fruit trees, such as citrus, can also be used as fire-resistant trees.
Good tree is not afraid of fire
Australia also has a kind of tree, which has the glory of “real gold is not afraid of fire”. It is the national tree of Australia – eucalyptus. Australia’s climate is very dry, and eucalyptus can thrive in this tough natural environment. Australia’s eucalyptus has more than 500 varieties, the tall can grow to more than 100 meters, the trunk is straight; the short one is only one or two meters, shrubby.
In order to survive, the eucalyptus has formed many unique growth characteristics in the long-term evolution process: in order to avoid the burning sun in the southern hemisphere and reduce the evaporation of water, the leaves of the eucalyptus are drooping and laterally sunny. For hundreds of millions of years, in order to deal with frequent forest fires, the eucalyptus nutrient transport pipeline is deep in the wood layer, and the seeds are also wrapped in a thick wooden shell. In this way, after a forest fire, as long as the wooden heart of the trunk is not dried, the eucalyptus will become alive when the rainy season comes.
The seeds of the eucalyptus are not afraid of fire, and even need to use a large fire to crack its wooden shell to root.
The isolation of Australia for hundreds of millions of years has created a unique local flora and fauna, and eucalyptus is a typical example. In the long process of development, the Australian eucalyptus has developed a uniquely strong skill: after the fire, they will not only be reborn, but will grow better. This characteristic of Australian eucalyptus is unmatched by many other species in nature.
According to reports, in Finland, where forest resources are abundant, and in Northeast China, South China, and Yunnan, researchers have cultivated more than a dozen species of natural fire-fighting properties. Planting these trees in rows in the forest or around the forest, arranged as fire lines, can make them a strong natural barrier when the forest encounters a fire, prevent the fire from spreading further, and effectively protect the forest.