A tower building designed for the Paris Expo
The birth of the Eiffel Tower was derived from a decision of the French government in 1884. That year, the French official planned to hold a grand fair in 1889 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the victory of the French Revolution. They hope to build a monument that can represent the honor of France. At that time, the stone Washington Monument was just completed. This 170-meter monument became the tallest building in the world at the time. The French hope to surpass this record. At the same time, in order to demonstrate the material achievements and strong industrial capabilities of France, the government decided to build a landmark building of more than 300 meters and openly recruited design proposals. Regardless of the ideas put forward by the contestants, their design must meet the following two conditions: 1. This building can be used to raise funds. 2. This is a temporary building that can be easily removed after the fair.
More than 100 design drafts were involved in the competition. Most of them are very traditional, others are very weird. It was proposed to build a huge guillotine; it was proposed to erect a 1000-foot sprinkler to spray Paris during the dry season; others suggested installing a huge electric light on top of the tower, which could Illuminated in Paris, it is convenient for people to read newspapers. However, the most “whimsical” design comes from the metal arch tower program of 53-year-old designer Gustave Eiffel. Eiffel’s idea was to build a new metal triumphal arch to grace modern science and the French industry. This arch will give a unique impression and will surpass the various forms of Arc de Triomphe in history. In the end, after the comparison and discussion of the organizing committee members and the municipal authorities, Eiffel’s iron tower project was approved. However, everyone did not expect that the program they passed achieved the most exciting work in the history of the Expo and made the 1889 World Expo a classic.
The Eiffel Tower was originally used to make money
At the time, Eiffel was a famous European architect and his works were all over the world. For example, he was involved in the design of the Statue of Liberty in New York, USA. But what really made him famous is the tower named after him. In his own words: “The Eiffel Tower drowned me, as if I had built it in my life.” At the time, the French government decided to build one of the world’s tallest towers in Paris, but the funds provided were only five points of the cost. one. In order to realize his design, Eiffel once mortgaged his construction company and all his properties to the bank as an engineering investment.
In January 1887, Eiffel signed a contract with the French government and the Paris city government. In the exchange, Eiffel’s engineering company will pay $1.3 million out of a total construction budget of $1.6 million. In exchange, Eiffel will receive income from the tower during the expo and for the next 20 years. The ownership will then be transferred to the Paris city government and the government can remove the tower if it wishes. Therefore, unlike other public monuments, the Eiffel Tower was used to make money from the beginning. If you want to take the elevator or stairs to the first floor, you need to pay 2 francs; if you want to reach the top floor all the way, you need to pay 5 francs (Sunday will be cheaper). This is just the beginning. The first floor platform also plans to open restaurants, cafes and shops. The second floor platform plans to open post offices, telephone offices, bakeries and galleries. The tower was designed to accommodate 10,416 paying visitors at the same time.
The Eiffel Tower has been strongly protested by people.
Let a tower tower over Paris, it is conceivable that such a thing would make people who love Paris classical culture unbearable.
Before the construction of the tower, there was a newspaper commenting that it was such a pillar of Paris that was erected next to the Champ de Mars. A citizen living near the tower even filed a lawsuit against Eiffel and raised such a question in court: “What if the tower collapses and overwhelm my house?” Because no insurance company is willing to provide insurance, Eiffel has to let himself The construction company pays for the people living near the tower. Critics from all walks of life are heard: a mathematics professor predicts that when the tower is 229 meters high, the building will collapse; and experts say the tower lights will kill all the fish in the Seine. The Paris version of the New York Herald claimed that the tower would change the climate, and the Morning Post reported that the tower would sink.
On January 28, 1887, the Eiffel Tower project officially broke ground. On February 14th, the elites of literature, art and architecture in Paris protested against the construction of the Eiffel Tower. 300 people including the famous French writers Maupassant, Xiao Zhongma and Zola were protesting against the construction of the Eiffel Tower. The book was signed. The protest book said: “Here we all, writers, painters, sculptors, architects and all the people who still love Paris’s unspoiled beauty, in the name of French art, with all our strength and indignation. Resist the building… this weird and useless Eiffel Tower…” “This ugly chimney building, with its rough volume, destroys the effects of all the monuments in Paris. This big iron is like a large piece of ink. The shadows cover Paris – a city of outstanding architecture with centuries of history.”
Opposition and controversy did not prevent the construction process, but Eiffel promised that the tower could be dismantled and rebuilt elsewhere after the Expo.
The pen of history in the history of architecture
It is not easy to erect such a huge steel tower out of thin air. The Eiffel Tower weighs more than 9,000 tons and uses more than 18,000 metal parts with a precision of one tenth of a millimeter. It requires 7 million holes for construction and needs to be installed. 2.5 million rivets. Each component installed on the tower is carefully calculated beforehand, processed and manufactured at the factory, inspected and numbered, and transported to the construction site. Dozens of Eiffel’s engineers drafted more than 5,300 sketches, and the construction was carried out in strict accordance with the design drawings. Workers were not allowed to make mistakes in assembly. In the course of more than two years of construction, there have never been any casualties; the drilling has been accurately closed when assembling the components, which is very remarkable in the history of architecture.
On March 31, 1889, the tower of this steel structure was completed. The Eiffel Tower is a miracle not only because of its unique design, but also because it was built faster than expected and cost less than expected. Eiffel and his company made a return on investment at record speed.
The built tower was so spectacular that it was appreciated by many people who initially criticized it, including the then French Prime Minister Pierre Tilar. At first he disagreed with the project, but after the project was over, he was awarded the Eiffel Legion Medal. This tower became the symbol of French supreme technology and became the symbol of France.
The Eiffel Tower has escaped several times of disaster
According to the original contract, the Eiffel Tower will be demolished 20 years after its construction. Before the tower was demolished, Eiffel launched a campaign to save the tower. In order to reflect the practicality of the tower, Eiffel set up its own laboratory on the tower and conducted more than 5,000 experiments. In 1903, Captain Fliere installed the first radio on the tower and eventually established a radio connection with other countries, and the signal could be transmitted to North America as far as possible. The success of the radio experiment also helped the Eiffel Tower escape and rewrote the fate of being demolished in 1909. Today, there are still antennas on the Eiffel Tower to transmit television and radio signals.
In 1914, “World War I” broke out. The radio on the Eiffel Tower was used for military surveillance to help France keep abreast of enemy forces. In 1940, the Germans captured France, and together with Paris, there was the Eiffel Tower. In order to prevent Hitler from boarding the Eiffel Tower, the French destroyed the elevator of the tower, so that even if Hitler conquered Paris, he could not conquer the symbol of France – the Eiffel Tower. In 1944, the Normandy landing changed the state of war. Prior to the evacuation of Paris, Hitler ordered the bombing of the Eiffel Tower. Shaultitz did not execute the order and the Eiffel Tower was lucky enough to escape.
Secret apartment at the top of the Eiffel Tower
Since the opening of the World Expo in 1889, more than 250 million tourists have visited the Eiffel Tower. But most Parisians in the 19th century did not know that Eiffel built his own small apartment at 285 meters.
The apartment is said to be “a simple decoration style that scientists love” and has remained largely unchanged since its completion, and its facilities cater to the 19th century Parisian city life. Woodcarving furniture, oil paintings, ornate wallpapers and pianos create an elegant atmosphere. Eiffel uses this space to rest and quietly think. Only a few distinguished guests are invited to the apartment. The guest list is said to include the prolific inventor Thomas Edison.