Screening for common cancers

As people’s health awareness increases, many people will have regular physical examinations, especially for cancer screening. So, what are the corresponding screenings for rectal cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, and breast cancer with high incidence?

1. Screening for rectal cancer

Rectal cancer is a cancer that occurs at the end of the digestive tract. It can cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients often have abdominal pain, diarrhea, blood in the stool, and urgency. When the body has symptoms, you can go to the hospital to do the relevant tests. Fecal occult blood tests can help determine if there is a case of blood in the stool. Secondly, an anal finger test can be performed. A tumor with a lower position can be palpated by a doctor to initially understand its size, but a tumor with a higher position needs a colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is the most direct and effective examination of the intestinal tract.

2. Screening for liver cancer

Screening for liver cancer can first be performed by means of imaging examination and, if necessary, tissue biopsy. Secondly, when liver cancer occurs, liver function may also indicate abnormalities, such as elevated aminotransferase. The synthesis of thrombin requires the involvement of liver secreting factors, and the thrombin activity of liver cancer patients is low. Liver cancer developed from hepatitis B can detect hepatitis B virus and has a high viral load.

3. Screening for lung cancer

Lung cancer is a respiratory disease with symptoms such as hemoptysis and difficulty breathing. The examination of lung cancer first relies mainly on imaging examination. X-ray examination can initially screen the lungs, but normal X-ray examination does not mean the absence of cancer tissue. CT and MRI can further detect microstructural lesions and help doctors determine whether they have lung cancer. CT examination can visually observe the location and size of cancer and help to choose a treatment plan. Second, it can also be screened by sputum culture. If the cancer cells fall off and mix with cough and cough out, they can be detected.

4. Screening for breast cancer

Screening for breast cancer can first be palpated by specific examination techniques on the breast tissue. Every woman should master the self-examination method of breasts (preferably about 5 days after the end of menstruation) to develop the habit of regular breast self-examination. Secondly, it can be further examined by X-ray and color ultrasound of the breast. CT, MRI examination can find subtle lesions. If necessary, the biopsy tissue can be taken out for pathological examination to determine whether it is breast cancer.