The form of drug application that is made to meet the needs of treatment or prevention before any drug is supplied for clinical use is called a pharmaceutical dosage form. After the drug is made into different dosage forms, the patient is convenient to use and easy to accept, not only the dosage of the drug is accurate, but also increases the stability of the drug, and sometimes reduces the side effects. So far, there have been dozens of pharmaceutical dosage forms. The most commonly used ones are as follows:
Injections have become one of the most widely used dosage forms in clinical practice because of their rapid efficacy, accurate dosage and reliable action. Injections are generally divided into the following five categories: (1) water-soluble injections, also known as water needles; (2) oil-soluble injections, also known as oil needles; (3) emulsion-type injections, also known as emulsions; (4) suspension Liquid type injection; (5) sterile powder for injection, also called powder needle. In addition, a large dose of injection into the body by intravenous drip, also known as infusion.
Tablets have stable traits, accurate doses, and are convenient to carry and use, but infants and comatose patients cannot swallow. In addition to the most common plain tablets, tablets also include coated tablets (divided into sugar-coated tablets and film-coated tablets), effervescent tablets, chewable tablets, multi-layer tablets, dispersible tablets, sublingual tablets, buccal tablets, implants. Tablets, solution tablets and sustained release tablets. For example, acetaminophen film tablets, aspirin enteric tablets, vitamin C effervescent tablets, nitroglycerin sublingual tablets, compound borax mouthwash tablets, etc., can also be made into a combination tablet of two or more drugs, thereby Meet the different needs of the clinic.
One of the commonly used oral dosage forms can be divided into hard capsules, soft capsules and enteric capsules. Capsules can mask the bitterness and special odor of the drug, and can also improve the stability of the drug and its bioavailability, so that it can exert greater efficacy. In addition, the enteric capsule begins to dissolve after entering the intestine, which can avoid the effect of gastric acid destruction.
Liquid dosage form
Including solutions, syrups, emulsions, suspensions and the like. The dosage of the liquid dosage form is easy to grasp and adjust, and is especially suitable for infants and elderly patients, and the drug has large dispersity, fast absorption, and can exert the drug effect quickly. However, the long time of the liquid dosage form will reduce or even invalidate the effect, and it is easy to mold and is not convenient to carry.
It refers to a granular preparation made by combining a drug with a suitable auxiliary material, which is also called a granule. It is a common dosage form in recent years. It is especially popular among children because of its sweet taste, small size and easy dissolution. Generally, it can be classified into soluble granules, suspended granules and effervescent granules.
It refers to a semi-solid external preparation with a certain consistency made by uniformly mixing the drug with a suitable substrate. It is mainly used for skin and mucous membrane surface in medical treatment, and has the functions of resisting skin infection, protecting wounds, moisturizing, isolating air, softening suede and stimulating granulation growth. More importantly, it can help the drug penetrate into the skin and continue to exert its effects on the drug. Some drugs can also produce systemic therapeutic effects through transdermal absorption, which can prolong the duration of action.
It refers to a solid preparation made of a drug and a suitable matrix for the body cavity, and is divided into an anal plug, a vaginal plug and a urethral plug. Suppositories are suitable for patients with gastrointestinal tract medication and vomiting symptoms. They are more suitable for children and coma, such as compound pediatric antipyretic suppository and Jiuhua hemorrhoid suppository.
It refers to a preparation made of a drug and a suitable propellant, which is contained in a pressure-resistant sealed container having a special valve system. The drug directly reaches the action site or the absorption site, and the action is rapid and the dose is small, and the side effect is small. Aerosols can act locally or systemically in the respiratory tract, skin or other channels, and are commonly used to treat asthma, burns, ENT diseases, and the like.
It refers to a spray or a nebulizer powered by a compressed gas to spray a liquid droplet or a semi-solid preparation, also called a pneumatic agent, such as a nitrogen-based spray.
Medium dosage form
Traditional preparations such as pills, powder, cream, soup, Dan, wine. In general, the decoction is a decoction, which absorbs quickly and is suitable for acute diseases; the absorption of pills is slow, the effect is moderate, the drug is durable, and it is suitable for chronic diseases; the infusion cream, such as honey refining Chuanbei cream for cough, compound gelatin The pulp is used for supplementation; the wine, such as bone spurs, is used for rheumatic pain or bruises.