Strokes can cause complications such as hemiplegia, aphasia, and side limb dysfunction, which are well known to the public. But the stroke may also damage the swallowing function, which is little known.
Related studies at home and abroad have shown that the incidence of swallowing dysfunction after stroke is as high as 51% to 73%. Patients mainly have symptoms of dysphagia such as decreased tongue activity, coughing, coughing during eating, and vocal cord paralysis. They also cause complications such as aspiration pneumonia, asphyxia, malnutrition, dehydration, and psychological disorders.
Since swallowing dysfunction after stroke is easy to cause eating and coughing, don’t feed the patient with solid food, and it is not enough to change the fluid? Specialist medical staff solemnly reminded: This view is a big mistake.
The seemingly simple swallowing action, which is analyzed from a physiological point of view, is composed of a series of highly coordinated reflex activities, which can be divided into three stages: oral period, pharyngeal period and esophageal stage. Different types of patients with dysphagia have different locations and degrees of lesions, including lip dysfunction, facial muscle dysfunction, tongue dysfunction, soft palate dysfunction, epiglottic dysfunction, laryngeal dysfunction, upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction, and Various types of pharyngeal muscle dysfunction.
According to the classification of the swallowing function of the patient, it is necessary to follow different precautions, and the whole is progressive, from mushy food to soft food, and finally to drinking water. Pay attention to body position when eating, try to use semi-recumbent position or sitting position; pay attention to the rate when eating, chew slowly, remember to wait for the patient to completely swallow the food in the mouth, and then the next feeding.
Those with limited tongue movement and poor coordination should eat thick liquid first, then drink diluted liquid to avoid high-viscosity food; those with insufficient tongue strength should eat thin liquid to avoid a lot of mushy food; swallowing during pharyngeal period Delayed, should eat thick liquid, avoid dilute liquid and fluid; if the respiratory tract is insufficient, you should eat mushy food to avoid dilute liquid and fluid; if the laryngeal elevation is insufficient or the pharyngeal muscle dysfunction and the pharyngeal wall contraction should be insufficient Eat thin liquids to avoid thick and highly viscous foods; those with insufficient tongue root retraction should eat thin liquids to avoid high-viscosity foods.
It is worth reminding that when eating, try to take the sitting position or 60 degrees above the bed, the head does not lean back. When eating in a lying position, tilt the head and the whole body to the healthy side by 45 degrees. The amount of each mouth should be appropriate. Wash the mouth in time after eating to avoid food residue.