Tema sprayed tung oil and wine on the red-hot iron shovel to create a blazing flame to exorcise evil, and at the same time increase the “yang” of the victim’s family. In the past, Tujia villages in Xiangxi almost all had Tema, and they either worshiped the gods in the sacrifices, or prayed at the feast, or prayed for help in the folklore.
The mountainous area in the west of Hunan is a mysterious place surrounded by mists and peaks. It is a place where witch culture prevails in history. The mountains and rivers rise and fall, the yin and yang grow away, and the thousand-year-old ancient winds interpret the light and shadow mottled of the Baiyun Cang dog in the years.
In the mysterious Xiangxi, the story of all kinds of mountain ghosts, everyone has a basket. There are Emperor Dragon King and Eight Kings. There are the in-laws of the Society. There are ancestral ancestors in the church. These gods can bless the blessings, but a little scorn may bring disease or disaster. You don’t have to say that the gods and the white tigers have trees. There are trees in the caves, cave gods in the caves, mountains and ghosts in the mountains, water monsters in the water… even snakes, frogs, foxes, and monkeys can repair the road.
The heroic spirit, the sorcerer’s wind, shrouded the mysterious haze of the seven mountains and one waters of Xiangxi. The mountains of the seven-point mountain, the mountains and the mountains are green, and the mountains and rivers are stacked. The rivers and rivers at the foot of the mountain slowly push the mysterious atmosphere that pervades the dragons and dragons on the world. The two-point field is used to welcome the moon in the mountains and rivers. The high and low slings between the water and the clouds, the sloping rafts on the river, the love songs on the mountain roads, and the cockroaches of the cockroaches… lived the entire Feng Shui situation in Xiangxi.
As the media of the gods, the folk priests of Xiangxi, following the ancient customs of Xiangchu and Bayu, the spirit of the Confucianism, the interpretation, and the Tao, the gods in the body, the way of the gods, the technique of the sorcerer, the secret of the ancestor In the blood and roots, walk between the romance of reality and the secludedness of its world. Regardless of the Tujia, Miao or Han people, they are called “old divisions”, the Miao priests are called “Miao Laosi”, the Han priests are called “customers”, and the Tujia priests are called “Tu Lao”. “Tu Lao Shi” also has a popular Tujia language title: Tema, meaning “the person who worships God.”
In the past, Tujia villages in Xiangxi almost all had Tema, and they either worshipped the gods in the sacrifices, or prayed at the feast, or prayed for help in the folklore. These witches and priests continued their ancient legends in the way of word-of-mouth, maintaining the roots of the national soul.
The “Pengjia Old Altar” in Kaloping County, Longshan County used to be a very prosperous Temafa Hall. As a descendant of this family, Peng Jilong is now the inheritor of the national intangible cultural heritage “Temao Gods”. This is already his first. I built the Tema Hall three times.
The Tema Hall, which is dedicated to the ancestors of the past, is the symbol and symbol of the inheritance of Tema. The water is active, the tree has the foundation, and the folk priests are extremely particular about the legitimacy of the law. The founder must have a legendary story to be talked about, and the apprentice can only be recognized and obeyed by the public. More importantly, the Tujia people believe that after the death of Tema, the soul does not belong to the ancestral hall to accept the worship of the descendants, but to enter the Tematang and into the higher level of the spiritual world. Therefore, in the past, all families with the inheritance of Tema will have a Tema.
The Tema is the spiritual dependence of the Tamar. They deal with blame and chaos, and confront all kinds of elves and ghosts. They must have the blessings and blessings of the ancestors of the past generations. Otherwise, the rituals are not effective, and they are dangerous and unusual. Every time Temama goes out, he must first go to the Tematang to fire a cannon, scent, burn paper, sip wine, tea, and worship three priests, so as to ask the ancestors to accompany them. After completing the ceremony, how much is paid by others, and never bargaining. According to the rules, the cock used to solve the problem in the ritual is often used as a reward for the martial arts. This cock must be slaughtered in front of the Tema, and cannot be used for other purposes. Otherwise, it is regarded as a disrespect to the ancestor.
Peng Jilong’s Tiematang is on the edge of the bamboo forest on the bank of the river next to their house. It used to be a slate-built god. I don’t know when to repair it. In the 1950s, after the various activities of Tema were terminated, the Tematang was gradually disappeared due to years of disrepair. One night in the early 1980s, a woman in her family dreamed of her deceased father, whose father was a Tema before his death. The father in the dream told her: “Without the Tema, I can only live in the cave.” Then Peng Jilong rebuilt a log cabin on the original site as the Tema. But in a few years, this Tema was destroyed when repairing roads and frying stones. Soon Peng Jilong repaired another Tiema Hall. This time it was a cement house. However, due to conditions, the area is only four or five square meters, which is not commensurate with the name of the “Pengjia Old Temple”.
The third time the construction of the Tematang was in 2017, Peng Jilong was supported by the Xiangxi New Bureau of Wenzhou and the People’s Committee of the People’s Republic of China. Excavated the hard rock with an excavator, leveled a small foundation, and built two bungalows with wooden frames. Although it has not yet been finalized, it has begun to be sacred and solemn. There is an altar on the wall of the north house, and a couplet of books on the front of the south house: “The horns of the three horns are shocked, and the bells ring the Wanmin.” The horns are sobbing and sharp, the copper bells are short and exciting, and they are the medium for communication between Tamar and the ghosts. It is the sacred duty of Tema to use the long songs and secret curses, magic symbols, handprints, etc. that are all night long.
On June 25, 2018, Tujia friends took me to Peng Jilong’s Tamar home in Shuangping Village, Longshan County. Mr. Peng is sitting at the Tema Hall and chatting with his neighbors. He talks about the laws and regulations of his ancestors and the Peng family, and his face is full of confidence and pride. He said that the souls of the ancient altars of the Peng family were enshrined in the Tema Hall, and they protected their disciples. The higher the mana, the higher their ability to protect their children and grandchildren. Among the ancestors of the past dynasties, the first place was the ancestral grandfather’s helmet. From the dragon helmet to Peng Jilong, at least seventeen or eight generations have been passed down. The descendants of Tema are calling themselves “the dragon helmet Peng Fatu”. The life of the dragon helmet is currently unclear. His symbol is a bronze statue of Guan Gong, a horse-riding knife. When Peng Jilong is doing the martial arts ceremony, the bronze statue is always available on the altar.
Peng Jilong said that the inheritance of Tema is divided into Yang Chuan and Yin Chuan. Yang Chuan is a master of chanting, dancing, divination, cursing, and spells. The yin does not need to learn, and the ancestors who are enshrined in the Tematang will suddenly add skills to future generations. It is said that Peng Jilong’s grandfather, Peng Xianyi, did not learn to study the horse. Suddenly, one day he was unconscious. He was running around and looking for divination. As a result, he got the “yin” of Tema, which was the blessing of the ancestors. You don’t need to learn but you will dance all kinds of horse dance. Peng Xianyi saw that the inheritance of the old altar of the Ma Peng family was interrupted, and he experienced the “negative biography”. From then on, he learned the knowledge of Tema and became a famous Tema. Peng Jilong said that once he dreams of his father at night, someone will come to ask for a practice the next day. This has happened many times. He thinks this is the result of his heartfelt worship at the Tema Church and the worship of the founders. The pulse of the law is strong.
Although Peng Jilong’s Tiematang is small, it is the sacred place shared by dozens of households in Kaloping. Every New Year’s holiday, every household must come to worship. Although the project is small, it has not been completed, and it needs to be further partitioned, decorated, decorated, etc., and his ultimate wish is to carry out a “Temama Festival” in the county every year in his terrace.
In Tuxi, Tujia, Miao and Hakka (Han) are intermarriage, mixed in blood, cultural overlap, and regional characteristics even exceed national characteristics. When we arrived at Peng Jilong’s home, he just came back from a Miao nationality home. The Miao nationality friend surnamed Zhang, who was in his 50s, often felt weak and walked up the mountain. He was so tasteful, and often dreamed. The person who passed away. The fortune teller said that he is afraid of blood and disaster. Fortune telling is only fortune telling, and you have to find Tema to solve the problem. Mr. Peng gave him a “detoxification” ceremony. One of the contents was “stepping on the knife”, which led the parties to go through the “Knife Mountain” to avoid the evil.
In Xiangxi, the story of all kinds of mountain spirits and ghosts, everyone has a basket. When Peng Jilong was in his teens, there was a man named Yang in the village. He was a spirited man. He took a machete to slash people every day. He ran to the mountains every day, and he repeatedly repeated “Big Sister, White Sister”. Peng Jilong’s grandfather, Peng Xianyi, is the most important throne in the local area. After his divination calculation, a huge ginkgo (ginkgo) tree became a fine, wrapped around the man. He always shouted “Big Sister”. The reason is also here. After the ceremony, the Tamars nailed a sharp iron shovel into the tree. It didn’t take long for the tree to die. It is said that the man named Yang was sick.
Another thing is that there is a Tamar in the village of Aili, who came from Liye town. He saw a fox on the way, and inexplicably followed the fox to the mountain. Fortunately, he met a villager in the mountain and called him. The name woke up. People think that it is a fox that is only a good one. If you don’t wake up and affirm its way, it is estimated that there are many evils.
Peng Jilong said that it is better to deal with it by the entanglement of the tree fox scent, and the most difficult to deal with, such as anger and madness, many times can only watch the patient become more and more serious and helpless.
Since the ancient witch doctors, the teacher has one. The witch doctor culture, which is as old as the history of mankind, is gradually drifting away from the marginalized destiny. The Tema of the Witch Doctor is still close to the last branch of the flower of the ancestral spirit. In Peng Jilong’s words: “If you go to the hospital, some people will find us.”
“One day in 2013, there was a woman named Tian in Baojing County who suddenly fell down when playing cards. She was unconscious and immediately sent to Baojing County Hospital for treatment. She was transferred to Jishouzhou Hospital because of the ineffective treatment, but she was still not awake. Come over. Her family found me. After divination, I infer that it was the trouble that Tuwang was looking for their home. It turned out that this family was working outside, and they didn’t go home for many years. The ancestors of the family were not supported for a long time, and they confessed to Tuwang. So the king of earth punishes her. The king of earth is the king of the world, and the king of the dead is the king of ghosts. The ancestors are governed by him. I gave his family a ritual of worshipping the king, giving the patient peace of mind and adding flames. Gas), the disease is fine.”
In the rituals, Tema sang the gods, and prayed at the feast, prayed for help in the folklore, and continued the ancient legends in the way of word-of-mouth, maintaining the roots of the national soul.
Zhu Ziyun: “Although the ancestors are far away, the sacrifices cannot be dishonest.” Isn’t the story of Peng Jilong not another interpretation of Zhu Zijia’s training? Being talking, someone called Peng Jilong to ask him to be a “detoxification” ceremony, and choose the day by the way. Peng Jilong said that such a ceremony is often asked to do it. It is only a “living way”. The big “living road” takes two or three days.
In the area of Neixi in Longshan County, if someone has added a man, or if he wishes to make a wish to the king of earth, he will ask the king of Tema. Sacrifice is a comprehensive folk ritual that takes three days and two nights to complete. It also has a very popular name: “Playing Bodhisattva”, the most important ritual ceremony currently held by Tujia Stephana is ” Play Bodhisattva.”
In August 2018, I watched the “playing Bodhisattva” ceremony hosted by Peng Jilong at the factory in Shuangping Village, Liye Town, Longshan County. In this “playing Bodhisattva”, there are a total of 8 thomas to participate, and there are two accompanying gods as the assistants of Tema, two incense officers specializing in incense burning paper, two wine officials, two tea mothers are responsible for the altar Wine tea and other offerings, and two other knives are responsible for slaughtering, managing and making offerings.
The object of sacrifice is first and foremost, that is, the ancestors of the master family, including the ancestors of the dynasties of the dynasty, as well as those who cannot enter the house due to abnormal deaths, etc., they can only be outside the door when worshiping; secondly, the king of the earth, “You are a human king when you live, you are a ghost king when you die.” The king of earth is a local god that integrates theocracy and human rights. Perhaps it is a tribal leader with a virtue in history, a toast that benefits the other side, and many other characters in the long years. Superposition and deification. In the past, most of the Tujia villages were built with the king of the earth, and they also served as the hand-shaking hall, but the gods were not unified. The third was the emperor of the emperor. This king of the dragon is neither a true god nor a four-sea dragon king. In Tema’s ritual, he “has a big brain, like a tree, his eyes are like grapes, his nose is like a cave, his ears are like a fan, his mouth is like a water hole, he will eat children.” Because he is too tall, he can’t enter the Tujia wood. The house, his altar must be built in the courtyard dam. In addition, the gods involved are also the goddess of heaven, the grandfather of the heavens, the eight kings, the land fathers, the priests of the priests, and the wife of the king of the earth, Lihu Limo, the wife of the emperor, the king of Wuzi, and so on. These gods are typical ancestors and local gods, and almost no Buddhist Bodhisattvas are seen. It can be seen that this “Buddha” is not a “Buddha”, but a general term for people who worship a variety of places.
During the sacrifice of the king, there was a dialogue between Tema and the accompanying gods. The language was witty and even vulgar. From time to time, he laughed loudly. Peng Jilong introduced that the king of the earth was lascivious. The more he talked about the ugly words, the more happy he was. In this “playing bodhisattva” ceremony, there is a link to ask for a child. The 72-year-old Tema Ma Pengzu will perform a trip to Tiangong for a child, and will be dressed as a man slash-and-burn, read and test, and will be a female crying and pregnancy. Have children. When the horses sang in time, interspersed with witty dialogues, they played a play that didn’t look good.
Peng Jilong, the inheritor of the national intangible cultural heritage who communicated with the gods of gods, god dances and gods, was preparing a ritual and exorcism ceremony at a household in Kaba Village, Liye Town, Longshan.
The cock is considered to be the most powerful yang in the yang, so Tema uses the cock to exorcise evil spirits.
The eight-treasure copper bell and the knife are the main instruments of Tema, which are usually used together and can also be used as divination tools.
The ceremony of the Tema was almost an entertainment activity for the villagers, and everyone in the village came to watch it.
In the past, Tujia Village had a place to worship ancestors and song and dance gatherings, also known as the Tuwang Temple and the Eight Great Temples. The gods provided are the local gods who integrate the human rights of the gods and the tribal leaders who have merits and deeds, and the toasts that benefit the other side. The Eight Great Temple of the Fallen Lake is the earliest restored king of the earth.
Of course, humor is only a small part of the solemn, sacred ritual. The purpose of the ritual ceremony is to please God, avoid evil, pass customs, exorcise evil spirits, and pray for blessings, and Yueshen is the most important thing: from the moment when Tema blows the horns, the lanterns are lit up in the hall, and the copper dings are burned without interruption. The cypress paper, the peach branches, the big money and the money paper burned to the gods, the copper bells, the firecrackers, the knife hand in front of the altar, the white knife into the red knife, the sacrifice of blood sprinkled the house, dozens of bowls arranged Neat and large pieces of meat, wine official tea, uninterrupted drinking and tea… “Playing Bodhisattva” is a feast of the gods, without the meaning of a little god.
On October 25, 2018, the young Tima Chuan Peng Jien used the electric horse to take me from the ancient town of Liye to the home of Mr. Ma Pengguanghua, the old village of Lili Village. Walking through the bright sunshine in the early winter, the golden grapefruits on both sides of the road and the oranges are heavily decorated with ancient villages, but I know that most of these ancient villages are only kept by the old and the weak.
Peng Guanghua is a traditional Tujia blackhead, and he is a spirited man. He lives alone in a two-bedroom house on the side of the road. He cooked a small pot of radish on a small stove and cooked rice in the rice cooker. “I can’t eat much, don’t eat and can’t.” Old Tema was greeted with enthusiasm, while slowly busy at the fire pit. Peng Jien told the old Tema that we were specifically looking for him to “talk about the egg” – to understand the old rules of Tema, the old ladder Ma Dian smiled, and kept coming up. Mr. Peng’s ear is a bit back, and the conversation is somewhat difficult, but it does not affect his interest. He speaks and laughs from time to time.
Peng Guanghua, also known as Peng Changshun, is a chicken. He is 86 years old. He was in charge of the palm of his hand when he was 12 years old. He was the last old Emma who started the traditional ceremony in the Republic of China.
Peng Guanghua’s grandfather did not learn Tema, and their family’s inheritance was interrupted for many years in the hands of Grandpa. Peng Guanghua’s father, Peng Zuwu, learned the Tema from Master Yi Guangshou at the age of seven or eight. “Yi Guangshou’s master is getting a yin, and the pharmacist (medicine) is also stunned (very powerful). He will open the knife, it will not hurt and will not bleed. Once the patient’s leg is opened, even the white bones are seen, and the bones are scraped. After the meat is wrapped, the bowl of God water is sprayed, and even the cockroaches are not left. The food is stuck in the throat, and he can also take out the stuck things from the neck.” Speaking of the teacher, Peng Guanghua looked Congratulations. He said that the master must go several times a day, can predict the patient’s ending, speak directly, and do a good job of doing things well. If you can’t cure it, don’t do anything with the host, and prepare for it.
When Peng Guanghua was a child, he studied with his father and learned from Master Jia Minghong. At the age of 12, Master Jia Minghong gave his name to the law. Mr. Peng remembers very clearly that he was only in his thirties in the 36th year of the Republic of China. They had a group of people playing the 24th Bodhisattva in the Dawanggou area. The sacrifices at the time were all cattle, sometimes killing 7 cattle as a sacrifice. . He said that such a Tamar event will not be there again. The people who went with him at the time had passed away, and only one of them was still alive.
Peng Guanghua now also helps people to do the martial arts ceremony from time to time. In recent years, no matter whether they added a man or went out to make money, they all prevailed to ask Tema to hold a “playing bodhisattva” ceremony. Not long ago, Mr. Peng was in Tangkou. The village hosted an altar. For an old man living alone, playing a bodhisattva is enough to sustain a period of life. Peng Jien told me that Master Guanghua is an atmosphere, responsive, and must answer questions. The service is very generous. When the ceremony comes back, the whole leg meat will be given to the old people in the nursing home.
In Xiangxi, there is no clear boundary between life and death. When people reach a certain age, they will prepare their own coffins in advance, and they will usually be placed in the hall. “My own life room is my own work.” Peng Guanghua patted a piece of life material placed in the room. He used to be a carpenter. He was especially good at making a living room. He also created a style and taught several apprentices. Up until now, several of his carpenter apprentices are still engaged in this ancient and mysterious craft, and people can even identify which old house he used to die from his door.
Peng Guanghua’s father, Peng Zuwu, also had two other apprentices. One had passed away and the other had not finished. The two brothers and brothers did not pass on. Peng Guanghua himself has two apprentices, one of whom is his son, who died a few years ago. Another apprentice was only in his 60s before he followed him. He usually used his ritual as an assistant. Unfortunately, he had missed the best study time, his hands and feet were no longer good, he couldn’t jump the horse, and his age was not good. Don’t remember so many scriptures. Peng Guanghua said that to do Tema should be fully committed. The two hands are not empty (take the device), the feet are not empty (stepping on the steps), the mouth is not empty (singing the scriptures), the hands, feet, and mouth should be coordinated and consistent. The buddha can’t see the book, it’s all by memory, and the verses of a few hours need to be backed up. “To sing the money and pay the money to the three brothers of the three kings, you must sing for two hours. You can’t make any mistakes. It takes two days and two nights to play the ritual of the Buddha, and you have to work hard.” Mr. Peng used to There is also an apprentice, a national cadre. “He has good memory and good studies, but he is not willing to take up his duties. If he learns, he will have to take up his duties, he will have to take the stage, but he will say that he does not do this.” Now no one else is learning, they are The law has basically been followed by no one. “I let him learn Tema well, and the country also attaches importance to it. We should also pass on these things, but young people have to work to find money, eat and play outside, and who are willing to learn. Adults don’t learn well, young people don’t. I hope to learn.” Mr. Peng said helplessly. In fact, what Peng Guanghua worried more than the loss of ancient culture was the question of where he died after his death. He used his priesthood in his life. After his death, the soul did not enter the ancestral hall. Instead, he returned to the Tema Church. Without the apprentices, the souls of the dead are very likely to become unaccompanied by the ghosts. This is the real night for Peng Guanghua. Not a good thing.
In the “Play Bodhisattva” ceremony, an extremely ordinary two-person bench was placed in the middle of the hall. On the crossbar of the bench, there were several pieces of money paper torn into strips. Tema called it money. Mr. Peng Jilong said that the bench is the horse of Tema. Peng Jilong’s younger brother, Peng Jixun, recited the story of “catching horses and horses” while performing the story of capturing, subduing, and decorating the Tema horse mount: pressing a few pieces of black and yellow money paper at the foot of the four stools, and then on the bench. They also wear various bridles, saddles, girth belts, horseshoes, combs, etc., and wear various virtual ornaments on the head, neck, stomach, limbs, four hooves and tails of the horse. Next, Peng Jixun sideways “riding” on the “horseback”, holding the eight-treasure copper bell in his left hand and the sword in his right hand, preparing to raise the whip and gallop.
Peng Jixun is the inheritor of the state-level non-genetic project “Temao Gods”. He and his brother Peng Jilong followed his father to learn to do Tema, and he went to work together. He read high school and recorded several major books in Chinese. Sacrifice. I saw him put the lower end of the eight-treasure copper bell against the knee, and kept squatting and stepping on his feet. It seemed to ride on the horse and rushed with the horse. The left hand holding the brass bell was more like holding the horse’s reins. The rhythm-swinging copper bells constantly make a tight sound. The knife holding the right hand is like a dancing whip, constantly making waves and slaps.
The purpose of the ritual ceremony is to please God, avoid evil, pass customs, exorcise evil spirits, and pray for blessings. Yueshen is the most important thing. “Playing Bodhisattva” is the feast of the gods, and there is no such thing as a god.
Through the full fireworks, in the faint light of the oil lamp, it seems as if the eight-treasure copper bell shines on the chest of the war horse, and the sword is drawn across the dusty sand field. The altar is the universe. Tema is riding this BMW. Sometimes it goes to heaven and time, and sometimes it goes to the underworld. Sometimes it runs to the world and Kyushu. It only asks God and moves troops. The altar of Tema is the total military altar: “The front door enters the army, the back door enters the horse”, and Tema will summon the yin yin of his thirty-eight-way trough from the heavens, the underground, and the ancestral land to the general army and the army. In the halls, there are still many soldiers and horses who can only stand outside the door to receive support. Scattering soldiers, sending troops, arranging soldiers, starting soldiers, and attending school… The troops are dispatched, the siege is slightly, and the three armies are indiscriminate. This is actually a large-scale autumn field soldier. The ceremony is a re-emergence of history. On the virtual school ground, Tema is dressed in a red robe, stepping on the gossip, and singing the “Temao Gods” with the eight treasures.
The history book records that the Chu people’s military array is divided into five parts: front, middle, back, left, and right. Each army will have the ancestors of today’s scouts – scouts first. Scouting or walking, or riding, are all hand-held that are used for signal purposes and are also used for divination. In the Chu army, there are military sorcerers and strategists. Every battle must be made. I strongly feel that Tema and Gu Chu with the army wizards should be in the same line. If the Tema god songs are really the remains of the “Chu songs”, then it means that the “Cubi” songs that Xichu Bawang heard in his Majesty have been sung to today. Still not stopped.
Maogus is the ancient performing arts of the Tujia people. The Tujia language is called “the ancient dialing shop”, which means “the hunter with long hair”. The performers are dressed in grass, performing ancestors fishing and hunting, farming, etc. The prototype of the dance, and the performance of the drama, the two are intertwined, forming a seamless dance.
Peng Guanghua, 86, was the last old Emma who began to preside over traditional rituals in the Republic of China. He used his priesthood in his life. After his death, the soul did not enter the ancestral hall but returned to the Tema, because there were no apprentices following the law. His death is very likely to become a ghost of no one, so that he often does not go to night.
The actor who was temporarily organized performed the Maogus to the guests in the Jabala area. In the past, Maogus played mainly during the activities of votive and ancestral ancestors. Nowadays, he is often interspersed in the Tujia swing dance.
On December 14th, 2018, I walked along the cold and winding mountain road from the foot of the slope to Shidi Village. There was no shadow in the road. The sun leaked from the gap of the clouds from time to time, and suddenly there was a sense of mystery. At an intersection on the mountain, I saw a few pieces of “Blocks” engraved with words such as “long life and wealth”, “opening the broken strings” and “arrows to the monument”. Later, I learned that these monuments are my trip. Mr. Peng Jijin, who is going to visit, is standing for a child who is not properly married.
Peng Ji Jingang came back from the neighboring county Baojing to help the people complete the “Taoist Dojo”. The so-called “Taoist Dojo” is a ritual for the deceased in the affair. The local people of Peng Jijin are called “Taoist”. Peng Jijin showed me his official certification: the Taoist card issued by the Provincial Religious Association, which stated that they belonged to the Taoist school. The master was Ying Xiang (Fa Ming) of the foot of the horseshoe village of Baojing Wanminpo Town. Peng Jijin showed me the costumes he wore during the ceremony: the crown of the five-party Buddha and the scarlet owl. The two verses he took out were “Blood Basin Classics” and “Kuan Yin Jing”. He also told me that the most obvious thing they can do in the affair is to “close the body”, that is, to spray a bowl of water through the characters and the curse on the deceased, even if it is suspended for ten days and a half on the day. The body will not stink. The locals often say “red clothes, black priests.” In fact, various religious cultures can be magically blended together in the folk, and not the people usually understand the ambiguity, even the fire.
Peng Jijin said that most of his funeral ceremonies were “Taoists” who read the classics. The scope of activities was not only in the county, but also in the surrounding counties and cities such as Baojing, Yongshun and Minjiang. In a few occasions, if the family had a request, he was the host of the Tujia traditional funeral “Sommit”. This is a very old Tujia funeral hosted by Tema. Currently, it is only in the footsteps of Peng Jijin’s hometown. Retained. The ritual procedure includes sending pigs to the deceased, sending cattle, and sending houses (the thatched cottage). When a man passes away, Tema is going to take a long cigarette bag. When a woman dies, he will carry a piggyback and put some tools for women in the back. The whole process of the ceremony uses Tujia language, which mainly describes the pain of separation between life and death, praises the various virtues of the deceased before his death and so on. This is the only Tema ritual currently used in Tujia language. There are very few young people who can use Tujia language. Peng Jijin is the only person who will be “Sommit”. Thus, his other officially recognized identity is the inheritor of the state-level intangible cultural heritage “Sommit”.
Peng Jijin’s father, Peng Wucui, is a famous Tema in the foot of the slope. Peng Jijin regrets that his father’s many abilities, such as “Tangkoukou”, have not been learned. Why don’t you go to learn Taoist priests with your father? He said that his master told Xueren that he was a good friend of his father. The two often presided over the affair. The master was a “daoist” and his father was a priest. Both of them smoked opium and the exchanges were extremely close. In the 1980s, Peng Jijin and his father discussed that the number of people asked by Tema was small. It was impossible to solve the problem of eating by Tema, or to learn the Taoist priests. So in 1982, he began to follow the teaching of Ren Xuexue. After the death of Master, he and his disciple, Xiang Yingxiang. Learn.
Peng Jijin’s father, Peng Wucui, also had two or three apprentices. One of them was not good enough to practice, and the other was not learning. Peng Jijin said that the main reason is that no one asked Tamar to do things, and naturally it was lost. Despite this, Peng Jijin’s identity with himself is “the last step in the slopes”. Usually help the villagers to calculate divination to solve problems, from time to time to do some bridges, seeking children, solving evil, burning tires and other ceremonies. This read-only to the fourth grade of elementary school, most of the time to release cattle, road repair, but also to Guangdong, two years of work, nearly the ancient Tujia old man, but constantly transforming his priesthood in the Buddha, Taoism, and Tima.