The little-known history of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman in the last 50 years of the 17th century was the world of the Coplawu family. In September 1656, Coplulu Muhammad Pasha was appointed Grand Vizier, marking the beginning of a period in which many of his family and guests became Grand Vizier. Coplulu Muhammad served as Grand Vizier until his death in 1661. His son “smart” Ahmed took over the big Vizier until his death in 1676, and his time in office was unprecedented. The next officer was Carla Mustafa, the son-in-law of Kirpluh Muhammad, who was executed in 1683 by the defeat of Vienna.

In 1687, another female son of Koplulu, Siush, served as the big Vizier for several months. Since 1689, Mustafa, the youngest son of Coplulu Muhammad, succeeded Davisil until his death in the war against the Habsburg dynasty in 1691. In 1692, the guest of Kara Mustafa was “squatting” Ali for a year. Between 1697 and 1702, the son of the brother of Coplulu Muhammad, the “smart” Ahmed and the “smart” Mustafa cousin “scorpion” Hussein Pasha became Grand Vizier. The last big victor of this ruling group was Numan, the eldest son of the “smart” Mustafa, who served as the great Vizier in 1710 and succeeded in nurturing new success. As family members have mastered the empire’s management power, the opportunities for the company’s loyal followers have increased, and their loyal network of followers has enabled them to gain greater power. In the meantime, although there are other politicians who have been in the big Weizier for a short time, but until the turn of the century, the Kepululu family encounters the priest family of the patriarch Feizula Efendi, and they tend to decline.

Born in Albania, Koplulu Muhammad entered the ruling class through the juvenile recruitment system and grew up in the city of Kuplu in the north-central Anatolia. In 1656, he was already in his 70s. Although he has been working for a long time and is performing well enough, his experience is not enough to make him stand out compared to other possible candidates. However, he also has an undisputed advantage, that is, he did not participate in the long-term factional struggle that has plagued the capital in recent years. In addition, although he lived in Istanbul when he was promoted, he did not have an official position here. When he was appointed by David Vizier, he was just about to leave for the governor of the remote Syrian Tripoli. During that time, other big Viziers were also outside the court circle. For example, the predecessor of Keplulu Muhammad, the 80-year-old “歪 neck” Muhammad Pasha, was called from the Governor of Damascus to return to the DPRK. Prior to this, the elderly Siush Ush Pasha received the appointment of David Vizier when he was working in Silistra in the Danube region, specifically as the governor of the province of Silistra or the northern shore of the Black Sea. We are not aware of the Governor of Qi Province. In February 1656, the Sudan decided to recall Delhi Hussein Pasha, who had worked in Crete for 13 years, but in the end, Delhi Hussein Pasha had not had time to take office, and the unrest broke out. · Muhammad became a big Vizier.

Half a century later, the historian Mustafa Naima wrote that, in fact, when the ruling class discussed the appointment of Delhi Hussein Pasha, the Empress Dowager Sultan and her faction recommended Kopp. Lulu Mohamed Pasha was the big Vizier, and it was certain that he could eventually be recalled to the court because he had a relationship with the Empress Dowager family, who supported him against other possible candidates. Naima’s evaluation of the former Empress Cossem Sultan of Turku Sultan shows that he can accept the Sudanese mother as a regent and interfere in state affairs. In addition, he is well aware that a member of a ruling group and a representative of a minor Sudan who can be accepted by everyone, rather than an official who cannot be impartial due to involvement in chaos, can play an important role in the appointment of personnel. Ensure that the appointed person can relentlessly and efficiently resolve the previous chaos.

The administrative basis that Coplulu Muhammad needed to meet the expectations of the Sultan Sultan has been laid. It is likely that in the year of 1654, it was possible that under the command of Turku Sultan, the office of David Wizil moved out of the palace area. It is hoped that David Vizier’s complexity away from the courts may help restore the prestige of this position lost over the past half century. Turkhan and his party feathers proved to be quite eye-catching. But there are also many people who share the same opinion with the seal keeper of “Angel” Ahmed Pasha. They believe that Coplulu Muhammad is nothing more than “a miserable poor worm… to serve two cows, but in his hand Not even a grass.” However, his supporters were strong enough to withstand the opposition of vested interests to his appointment, and after years of chaos, he became the head of the government and was welcomed by many people.

In the internal affairs, the first measure of Coplulu Muhammad Pasha was aimed at the renaissance of the Kadizad movement. In the early days of Muhammad IV, the factional struggle was fierce. Their abstinence teachings once again captured many people’s hearts and caused great threat to public order. Restoring public order was the primary goal of the new Daweizier. He could not ignore them. The threat that comes. Their spiritual leader, Stivani Mohamed Effendi, was an evangelist who was able to enter the palace because of the popularity of some officials in the court. The Kadizade faction criticized the entire religious ruling class, but its fierce remarks were still directed against the blasphemy. In Stefanie’s emergence in 1651, he persuaded the then big Vizier “angel” Ahmed Pasha to order the destruction of a Harvard brothel in Istanbul. When attacking the second brothel, his partisan was repulsed, and they hijacked the dean (the predecessor of Karačle Bizad Abdul Aziz Effendi) Bahá’í Mohamed Effendi And got a teaching from him to condemn the blasphemy, but later the teaching was revoked.

A week after Coplulu Muhammad Pasha, the Kadizade sent a challenge to propose a multi-point plan to return to basic doctrine. They assembled at the Mohammed II Mosque and planned how to implement it. Copthorne Muhammad demonstrated his determination to rely on the state’s “official” religious organization to seek the opinions of religious institutions, which as a religious part of the state’s ruling body, also suffered because of the influence of the Kadizad faction at the top. Threat. But perhaps it is a fear of the public. Although the new Grand Vizier has exhausted the leaders of the Kadizade, they have not executed them, but they have been exiled to Cyprus, and the powerful is also in Stefanie Muhammad. included.

Other liquidation objects, including those feared by Koplulu, and those he believes should be responsible for creating turmoil, are less fortunate. The Orthodox Patriarch was hanged for encouraging the Christians of Wallachia to resist Ottoman rule, which is unprecedented. Delhi Hussein Pasha was accused of misappropriating funds for the war in Crete, but some people in the backstage Empress Dowager of Coplulu Muhammad believed that such a person with merits should not get such an ending. At that time, the instructor also refused to recommend the death penalty, and Delhi Hussein escaped. But he only escaped for a while. Two years later, Coplulu Muhammad took the back of Delhi Hussein and invited him to Istanbul and persuaded the Sudan to sentence him to death.

But no one can be sure that Copthorne Muhammad can hold power in his hands before Death takes him away. His opponents are all stunned, and believe that if they can gather enough power, they will be replaced one day. Any Ottoman high-ranking official who has survived the recent fierce struggle is fortunate. The fact that he survived is enough to fuel his ambition and make him hope that he will become Davisil one day. Old dissatisfaction is still accumulating, and those who have been violated want to express their dissatisfaction and get compensation. Seyyid Ahmed Pasha, who was promoted to the Naval Marshal in the Dardanelles in the late summer of 1656, was promoted to the position of the captain of the Navy, another opponent of Coplulu Mohamed Pasha, in order to drive this person out of Istanbul. When Coprudu Muhammad took office, he ordered the dismissal of Sayyid Ahmed’s naval marshal and transferred him to Bosnia as the governor. The Sudanese cavalry regiment supporting Sayyid Ahmed ran around to protest. Coprudu persuaded the Guards to fall to their side and tried to establish a united front to bring the heads of all government departments to his bureaucracy. The Sudan authorized him to punish unruly people while imposing a curfew. Many cavalry officers were executed, the cavalry was hiding, some were concealed in the city’s caravan hotels, and some were in Skudar across the Bosphorus, and the founders were all in different places. In order to scribble the roots, all those who united with the cavalry for common goals were pursued. According to the confidant and chronicler Abdulrahman of Sultan Mehmet IV, their bodies were all thrown into the sea to feed the fish. .

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The Ottomans still have not won the island of Crete. The Venetian’s blockade of the Dardanelles was very short. In 1657, Ottoman ships appeared in the Aegean Sea as usual. In order to control the islands of Botscaada and Limnos, which are close to the mainland of Anatolia but far from the native ports of Venice, the Venetians over-expanded. Osman and Venice had a fierce sea battle for several months in the Dardanelles. During this period, Coplulu Muhammad personally led the army to the coast of Anatolia. In the end, Osman regained the two islands, and all those who were suspected of negligence in the battle were executed. This is an early manifestation of a completely different relationship between Coplulu Muhammad Pasha and the former Big Wizil. On the other hand, the Venetians discovered that the war with Osman caused their finances to dry up. Some members of the Senate also understood that Osman was the main source of income for Venetian merchants, but to enter this market, it is necessary to restore normal relations between the two sides. However, this pragmatic view has not been widely recognized. When the Hungarian prince Lakozi George II adopted an independent foreign policy to force the Osman expedition to Transylvania, Osman also considered peace with Venice, but they demanded the entire Crete, which is the Venetian unacceptable.

Lakozy has always been a defender of the Hungarian Protestantism. In December 1656, his agreement with the Swedish King Carl X Gustaf gave him the courage. He decided to march north to Poland. He also persuaded the neighboring Ottoman vassals of Wallachia and Moldavia to join him. The move alarmed the Istanbul government because they believed it would threaten the balance of power that exists between Habsburg and Osman and that they want to maintain. For Osman, the weak Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on the northwestern border is better than a vibrant vassal state with Swedish support. As a result, Lakozi’s expedition to Poland did not bring him any benefit. In the spring of 1657, the governor of the Qiqi Province, “Angel” Ahmed Pasha was ordered to conquer Lakozi and his allies. In the summer of the same year, Crimean Khan led the army to join the Ottoman army. In 1658, Koplulu personally led the army to Transylvania, and the Polish-Lithuanian Federation sent thousands of troops to help. Lakozy fled and he was quickly replaced by the vassal monarchs of Wallachia and Moldavia, who were less likely to be convinced or not easily persuaded.

In the winter of 1657, just after the recovery of Bozcaada and Limnos, before the expedition to Transylvania in the spring of 1658, in order to avoid troubles caused by the troublemakers in the military operations, Coplulu in Edirne The camp opened the killing ring and cleared many cavalry who were ordered to gather here. When Mustafa Naima described this matter, she could not even calm down. He wrote that the body of the Tongja River in Edirne was full of bodies. Abdulrahman Abadi Pasha wrote that the winter was particularly cold, which brought many difficulties to people. The snow was so thick that the road was blocked and the supply was difficult. People could not find the firewood for heating. The felled fruit trees act as fuel.

Outside of Coplulu Muhammad Pashaan, he restored the order of Istanbul and defeated Venice and Lakozy, but the governor of the provinces of Anatolia still refused to accept him. At the end of 1658, during his return from Transylvania, he suffered the rebellion of these governors. If this rebellion is not successfully suppressed, it will end his term and shake the entire ruling class. As a result, the unrest was suppressed, and more than 30 Pasha were executed, most of whom had long-term experience in serving the country. This also temporarily ended the frequent rebellion in Anatolia over the past few decades.

The main character of Anatolia is Hashan Pasha of Abkhazia, the fellow of Muhammad Pasha of Abkhazia, who was an active dissident before Keplulu entered the core of Ottoman politics. He supported the former rebel, the former Grand Vizier Ipsil Mustafa Pasha, as many of Paskatchewan of Anatolia, who refused to recognize Coplulu Muhammad as the Great Vizier. legality. Daweizier’s slaughter of the Sudan’s cavalry regiment in Edirne only received counter-effects. Many people who had escaped his anger had left the town despite the cold weather, and the local cavalry that had not responded to the orders in the provinces also fought and refused to assemble. . In the mid-summer of 1658, about 30,000 people, headed by Hassan of Abkhazia, gathered in Konya in central Anatolia, including Governor of Damascus and Governor Anadolu, and 15 other former or current governors. The rebels protested against the Central’s mobilization order, proclaiming: “We will continue to gather here until Copthorne Muhammad stepped down. ” They also suggested that Damascus Governor Tayalzad Ahmed Pasha would replace him as Dawei. Ziel. The father of Tayalzad Ahmed served briefly Vizil in the reign of Murad IV. His brother was the governor of the province of Raqqa in Syria. The Sudan ordered the rebels to immediately head to the front line of Transylvania, but no one obeyed his orders because they repeatedly reiterated that they were afraid of Coplulu Muhammad and that they refused to fight unless he stepped down. Therefore, in the mid-summer of 1658, Copthorne had to leave Edirne to the front line without the majority of Anatolian soldiers. The Sudan was alert to the fact that they might have caused chaos and decided not to allow them to accept the command of David Vizil in the Balkans, but to let them go to defend the front line of Baghdad. But Hashan of Abkhazia resisted, but instead marched toward Bursa in the west. In order to add a legitimate aura to his rebellion, he also ordered his followers not to take the food and money of the peasants along the way, and to explain the source of the materials they collected.

The news that the rebels were close to Bursa made the government aware that their demands were serious, and officials still remembered the rebellion of the past, such as the rebellion of Abdul Nyebi in Georgia. During the expedition of Coplulu Muhammad, the former Naval Marshal Kenan Pasha was guarded by Bursa. Hassan of Abkhazia (the messenger called him “the servant of the Sultan” angered Muhammad IV. His memoir, Abdurrahman Abadi Pasha, described his reaction:

Even though I feel deeply sorry, I have to say that these people are not my servants, they may be slaves to the devil. I have ordered them to give up the idea of ​​vain and illegitimate thoughts, come to me, but they dare not come. They can also strengthen the defense of Baghdad, or they will disband and return to their jobs. Do they continue to be disobedient, is it a Muslim? If Allah permits, I will kill more than one person, and I will kill them all.

Daweizier also issued an ultimatum in the camp on the front line: if the rebels refused to join them, he would count the general ledger with them after the war ended.

In the mutiny of Hassan in Abkhazia, the role of the Anatolian cavalry is a little different. Before him, the traitors used traditional discourse to express dissatisfaction, insisting that they were still loyal to the Sudan, and expressed dissatisfaction with his servants, claiming that the responsibilities of the empire were all those officials. And Muhammad IV rejected his request, and Abkhaz’s Hassan no longer supported the government. He wants to build his own country: “From now on, please regard us as an enemy that is uncompromising with Iran’s Shah. They (Sudan) can own Lumilia, we will have Anatolia. ” The new Sudan is young and inexperienced, and the Great Vizier and the vast majority of the loyal empire’s army are far away. This radical statement has clearly become more threatening.

Hassan of Abkhazia and his troops camped outside Bursa. He set up a local government-like institution and, like the head of government, appointed his own party to replace the governor who went with Coprudu Muhammad. He also collected food from local people in the name of supplying military supplies. Residents of Bursa handed over the food and weapons they had collected to Kenan Pasha, but also kept in touch with the people of Hassan of Abkhazia to supply their troops. This has angered Sultan Muhammad, and he asked religious figures to enact the teachings and judged that the sin of those who refused to enlist infidels and incite riots was even worse than the infidels. But the clergy refused to make such a judgment, and the Sudan had to give up and instead called on people to take up arms against the rebels. Diyarbakir Governor Murtcha Pasha was ordered to command the troops to levy rebel forces, which were transferred from forces still loyal to the Sudan, including Diyarbakir, Erzurum, Aleppo and Ergiil (by Chiriyaya and Cyprus merged to form troops in the eastern provinces, as well as the troops of the Kurdish tribe leaders. The government issued a notice to assure the Anatolian people that order will be restored and that people are not allowed to criticize David Vizier before the Sudan. When Kenan Pasha was convinced to transfer to Hassan’s camp in Abkhazia, the government’s ability to fight the rebels further declined. Istanbul sent troops to guard the coastal town of Gemlik on the road to Bursa. When they arrived in Mudanya, they killed some of Abkhaz’s Hassan, but he immediately sent more troops to fight back. The government troops then retreated and crossed the Marmara Sea and returned to Istanbul. Just as in the case of the Abdul Namibi rebellion in Georgia nine years ago, people in Skudar excavated trenches to defend the capital, and the cannons were deployed.

The rebels are about to enter the city, and the entire region is in chaos. People set up obstacles around their homes and surrounded themselves at home. Residents along the Marmara Sea moved their homes to Istanbul and harvested the crops in advance before the harvest season. The thieves are active and rumors are everywhere. More and more people are beginning to hate Coplulu Muhammad Pasha. According to Mustafa Naima, most people want Abkhazia’s Hassan to win, especially the clergy, because of their The leader was exiled to Cyprus by Stevanie Muhammad Effendi. Some of them even regard Abkhazia’s Hassan as “the revival of the 11th century faith in the Islamic calendar”, a Mahdi-like character who restored basic doctrine to the prophetic tradition.

The Sultan ordered Coplulu Muhammad Pasha to return immediately from Transylvania. Abdulrahman Abadi Pasha is likely to be with his master at this time. He recorded that Sultan Mehmet, the Queen Mother and the entourage had already traveled to Edirne before the expedition. Therefore, Coplulu Muhammad Pasha had to rush to Edirne, who arrived on October 12, 1658. Three days later, he met with Sudanese, the mayor and the military chief. Then they moved to Istanbul. After arriving in Istanbul, the Sudan issued a large salary to the still loyal elite. The troops gathered in the grasslands of Kaykhta, the northernmost part of the Golden Horn Bay outside the city, and were training troops to prepare for the rebel army. If a member of the Sudanese Corps does not receive the money within five days, it will be removed from life. The government seems to have regained its initiative.

The rebels and the government forces fought in Kutasia in the central and western Anatolia for two months. The rebels were defeated and suffered heavy losses. Although their attack on Iznik succeeded and defeated the government, it was already It doesn’t help. The news of the distribution of the military squad reached the members of the former Sudanese Corps of Hassan, who had invested in Abkhazia. Many of them ran back to Istanbul, hoping to return. However, some 7,000 elite cavalry who refused to participate in the Battle of Transylvania have long been delisted, and Coplulu Muhammad ordered that these people will be killed if they are arrested. Within a few days, in Anatolia, 1,000 people lost their lives, and others who did not catch up with the name were also executed, but Copthorne Muhammad still had no confidence to win. He sent 5,000 guards to reinforce Iraq. Znick. However, the continued massacres of the cavalry led to the idea of ​​a mutiny in the Guards, although so far they have been united under the leadership of the government, even if they are obeying fear. Now, they protested that they should not be the murderers of the Muslim compatriots, and that Daweizier was their enemy, threatening to hand him over to Hassan of Abkhazia. This threat was so serious that it forced Coprudu Muhammad to stop leading the rebel controversy, and Murtcha Pasha was ordered to replace him. However, Coprudu quickly seized the opportunity to question the leadership of Murtcha, because Murtcha failed to pre-empt a good fighter in central Anatolia, letting Hassan of Abkhazia The total victory was 8,000.

Winter is coming, and the government and the rebels’ spies have penetrated into each other’s camp. When Koplulu considered secret negotiations with the rebels, the status of Abkhaz’s Hassan had begun to waver. The key lies in the transfer of Hashan in Abkhazia to the southeast. It was discovered in Gaziantep (Antapu) that due to heavy snow and local residents still support the government and hostile to them, their army could not get enough. Replenishment, he decided to transfer to Syria, but not far away, they met in Bierjik on the Euphrates River and lost more than 1,000 people. At the same time, in Moltcha, Aleppo, spies from his winter camp, mixed into the camp of Hashan in Abkhazia, and assured the rebel soldiers that the Sudan would not be arrogant and persuaded them to deviate from the coach. Hassan of Abkhazia was informed of this matter and sincerely told the shakers that they were fighting for their ideals, but for hungry people, Murtcha’s sweet words are hard to resist. Seeing that their supporters were gradually losing, Abkhaz’s Hassan accepted the proposal of the high-ranking priests of Gaziantep and agreed to ask the clergy to plead for him on behalf of him. Murtcha sent a hostage to prove his sincerity in reconciliation. Abkhaz’s Hassan and his followers, including those who had held important positions, were invited to the camp in Aleppo to wait for the pardon order. Murtcha vowed to keep them safe.

In Aleppo for a few days, they were treated with hospitality. Hassan of Abkhazia was settled in the official residence of Murtcha, 31 entourage and other servants were arranged. However, the Istanbul side did not respond to their request, and the presence of the rebels in Aleppo also made Murtcha very uneasy. Finally, he issued an order, on the night of February 24, 1659, with the guns of the Aleppo camp, the government officers killed the rebel guests who were staying in their homes. In the evening, Abkhaz’s Hassan Pasha, Tayarzad Ahmed Pasha, Kenan Pasha and others ate in Naima’s imagination in Mutcha Pasha’s house. Enjoy the food, wine, and food, and agree to release your suspicions. But when they went to the toilet in Murtcha and prepared for the routine bathing before the evening service, 20 (or 30) “dragon-like warriors” swarmed in and killed them all. The news of the massacre was immediately transmitted to the governor’s bastion, and the cannons sounded, indicating that the time to kill the low-ranking rebels had arrived. The heads of all the rebels were stuffed with straw and sent to the Istanbul public, and the body was hung outside a city gate in Aleppo.

There is no direct evidence that Coprudu Muhammad Pasha participated in the conspiracy to end the Abkhaz Hassan rebellion, but the result is certainly satisfactory. The ending of the whole incident also made Ottoman’s other dissidents afraid to make a second order to avoid following the footsteps. Only the “blind” Mustafa Pasha of Antalya’s Sanjakbayi used the chaos brought by the Abkhaz Hashan rebellion to ignite on his own territory. As a result, the government launched a strong counterattack at sea and on land, and the “blind” Mustafa easily believed in the promise of the Sudan’s pardon and was executed shortly. Damascus and Cairo’s people who dared to challenge Copthorne Muhammad were also executed.

Big Vizier did not give up his war. The Anatolian rebellion was just settled, and he immediately dispatched his agent in Istanbul, Ismaili Pasha, who succeeded Kenan Pasha as the important cadre to the eastern border, looking for anything that might be considered a threat to the state. people. No one can be an exception, whether he is the Governor, the Guards or the Cavalry, or a judicial or religious leader. They will all face the death penalty (the teaching of the Master has approved the death penalty). In order to achieve the goal of establishing a common goal by Coplulu Muhammad, Ismaili’s investigative team consists of military and religious justice officials, and in order to keep the people firmly in mind, everything is in the hands of the Sultan and his ministers. They crossed the Anatolia region with great fanfare. Expanding taxes is an established policy of the Ottoman government, and a balance between this demand and the government’s demand for the military is a necessary compromise. Some farmers often call themselves soldiers in order to evade taxes. One of the tasks of the investigation team is to verify the identity of those who claim to be soldiers, to make sure they are not farmers. The investigation team once discovered 80,000 guns, all of which were illegally owned by farmers, and they were all sent to the armory. In Konya, some of the members of the Meurana Order were arrested, some of whom were released after their identity was identified, but the other four were counterfeit goods. Further investigation revealed that they were actually the remaining parties of Abkhaz’s Hassan Pasha, and these four people were all investigated according to law.

The situation in Anatolia and the Arab provinces has finally stabilized, and the war in Crete has entered a stalemate. Valladia and Moldavia have returned to calm after replacing the rulers, but Transylvani Rajkot George of Asia still refused to accept the decision of the Sudan to squander him, and with the support of Habsburg, he continued to fight against the rulers chosen by Sudan.