Mysterious boiling river in the rain forest
In the depths of the mysterious Amazon rainforest, there is a boiling river that emits hot air. People often see biological bodies floating on the river. It is about 6.24 kilometers long, most of which is 25 meters wide and 6 meters deep. The most amazing thing is its average water temperature, which is as high as 90 °C. If some small mammals, reptiles or amphibians accidentally fall into the water, it is not surprising that they are boiled to death by such a hot river. Of course, people are no exception.
Natural hot water is usually attached to heat sources such as active volcanoes or magma systems. These heat sources constantly provide heat to the groundwater to maintain high temperatures. The boiling river in Yellowstone National Park is the most typical example of heat source. It is part of the Gardner River and relies on a huge Yellowstone volcano. The flowing water can get huge heat from the volcano. The temperature of the river is between 45 °C and 60 °C.
In the depths of the world’s largest tropical rain forest, it is incredible to have a misty boiling river, because it is too far away from the heat source such as volcanoes. The nearest active volcano has more than 600 thousand. M, which means that it can not reach the hot volcanic rocks, so it can not get the heat energy released by the molten rock, but the temperature of the river is surprisingly 90 °C. So how did this boiling river be caused?
Underground heat source
We know that the Earth is a huge thermal pool with enormous thermal energy coming from the nuclear decay inside the Earth. The heat causes a temperature difference between the interior and the earth’s surface. It drives the geothermal heat to the surface. The geothermal phenomenon is a natural phenomenon that these heats are transmitted to the surface through water and other media, such as hot springs and geysers.
Although hot springs are easily formed near volcanoes, volcanoes are mainly the result of movement of the Earth’s plates. Therefore, in areas where plate motion is severe, high-temperature water naturally emerging from the ground often occurs.
While Peru is located at the junction of the Pacific and American plates, the faults and cracks discovered by scientists also indicate that plate activity is common. Faults and cracks are like “earthquakes” that are criss-crossed. The “blood vessels” are groundwater that is heated by geothermal heat to high temperatures. In addition to being located at the junction of the plates, Peru is also located in the Amazon rainforest area, which has a very abundant rainfall. A large amount of rainwater enters the ground along the well-permeability sedimentary rocks, flows into faults and cracks containing high-temperature groundwater, mixes with high-temperature groundwater, and finally floats out of the water to form a boiling river.
But this is only a guess. The exact source and flow of the current boiling river needs us to explore.
Hot water can also kill undead creatures
The boiling river deep in the Amazon rainforest is a little-known natural wonder on earth. Although it is an animal’s hell, it breeds some microorganisms that can survive in high temperature environments, some of which are identified as new species, which are not visible anywhere else.
Scientists say: “The boiling river in the Amazon rainforest helps us study geothermal, and the heat-tolerant creatures in the river can help us understand the original life of the earth.”
At the beginning of the birth, the earth was very turbulent: the volcano often erupted, and the hot magma flowed on the ground; the celestial bodies from space kept hitting the earth and warming the earth; the magma ocean covered the surface of the earth. The earth at that time was not so much a rocky planet as it was a hot lava hell. But scientific research shows that in such a hell period, there are still lifes that, like the microbes in the boiling river, endure unimaginably high temperatures. What special skills do these high temperature microbes have to survive in the harsh hell environment?
Creatures on Earth will die when they exceed a certain temperature, mainly because the protein in the organism changes and loses its activity after the temperature rises. A polypeptide chain composed of amino acids is folded into various special-shaped protein structures. In order to maintain this structure, many chemical bonds are often formed inside the protein. As the temperature rises, the chemical bond that maintains the structure of the protein breaks: first the weaker bond, then the stronger bond.
This change in protein structure is actually fatal, because the structure of the protein is the key to its function. If the structure of the protein is abnormal, its function will also be affected. For example, mad cow disease is a fatal disease caused by a change in the structure of prion protein: a change in structure causes normal prion protein to become an infectious protein, eventually causing mad cow disease.
As such, we can speculate that microorganisms that can survive in the boiling river may have evolved proteins that are stable at high temperatures, and their structures are not easily altered by temperature, so their survival will not be affected. Perhaps the amazing evolution of the primitive life that survived in hell was the same as the microbes of the boiling river, which evolved proteins that could withstand extreme heat, so they could be in hell. The earth survives.
The boiling river in the depths of the Amazon rainforest is not only a natural wonder, but also a biological miracle. Scientists will continue to penetrate the Amazon rainforest and unravel all the puzzles of this boiling river, especially the secrets of microorganisms living at high temperatures.