Ancient and huge spider family
Spiders are a generic term for the arachnids of the arthropods. Spiders are a big family all over the world. They live in all places you can imagine: soil, soil, trees, grass, stone, caves, water, low-lying land, bushes, moss, inside and outside the house… except Antarctica (where it is It’s too cold.) In other places, even the bottom of the sea and the sky, there are traces of spiders.
The ancestors of spiders can be traced back to 520 million years ago, and the Carboniferous of 300 million years ago was the most prosperous period of the spider family. In the Mesozoic era of the dinosaurs, there was a giant spider that could prey on small dinosaurs. Today, there are more than 40,000 kinds of spiders on the planet. According to the lifestyle, it can be roughly divided into three types:
The first is a safari spider, who will safari for food, such as a tarantula. This spider looks like a prairie wolf, chasing and preying on prey;
The second is a netting spider, such as a garden spider. When it comes to spiders, most of what you think of is this one;
The third type is cave spiders. They like to hide in the hole and net the hole at the hole. This net is different from the net of the netting spider. It has no stickiness and is used to sense the size of the prey and hide itself. When the prey passes by, the cave spider will suddenly burst out of the hole, catching the prey with lightning speed. This spider is raised by many people as pets.
The size of the existing spiders in the world varies greatly. The largest spider is the Grice Tarantula in South America, which feeds on small birds and is 38 cm wide when deployed. The smallest spider is a spider, with a body length of only 0.043 cm, which is smaller than the period after the sentence.
Need to emphasize that although the furry spider looks very scary, the spider web is also very unpleasant, but many people want to step on the death when they see the spider. The idea of seeing the spider web to destroy is actually unscientific. Because spiders eat more mosquitoes than cockroaches every year, some kinds of spiders can only get nutrition from mosquitoes, such as Malaysian jumping spiders. The next time you see spiders and spider webs, think about the situation when mosquitoes gather on your body.
Spider-like spider, but not spider
There are many superheroes under Stan Lee’s brush, so who is he most fond of? The answer is Spider-Man. Peter Parker became Spider-Man because he was bitten by a special spider and his body mutated, thus possessing the spider’s skills. But Stan Lee chose spiders instead of mosquitoes or flies, apparently because the spider itself has all sorts of enviable magical powers.
Australia has a jumping spider that can jump over half the height of the height to capture insects flying in the air. If people have this ability to bounce, then you can easily jump on a tens of meters high building. Spider-Man jumps freely in the “urban forest”, relying on this ability.
The front end of the spider’s head usually has 8 single eyes, but the vision is not better than humans. Because its structure is different from that of human eyes, photosensitivity, color discrimination, imaging ability, etc. are weak. Therefore, spiders need to rely on other sensations to assist in survival, such as hearing, taste and touch. This ability was given to Spider-Man and was collectively referred to as “spider induction.” This super ability to detect danger in advance helps Spider-Man escape countless fatal attacks.
Some spiders can be easily glued to the surface of a smooth object. This is because the spider’s feet are covered with fine fluff, and the fluff is firmly attached to the surface of the object by the suction between the superfine hair molecules on the body. This power is so powerful that spiders can carry 170 times their weight without falling from the ceiling. We saw Spider-Man in the movie free climbing on various walls and ceilings, relying on this ability.
Spider-Man is popular because of his super powers and his personality. Peter Parker is very shy, especially in front of girls, like a big boy next door. In fact, most spiders, including the bulky Tarantula, are very docile. Spiders rarely attack humans actively. They only bite when they are self-protected. At this point, Spider-Man is no different from spiders.
Of course, Stan Lee also has a choice when giving Spider-Man the ability. For example, most spiders are toxic, but Spider-Man does not secrete venom. Because in our cognition, the use of poison is a villain, how can it be a man? For example, because of poor digestion, spiders inject the digestive juice into the hunting object, and then use the mouthparts to suck the prey. If Spider-Man does this, it is not a superhero, but a horror film.
Spiderman Weapon Spider Silk
Every superhero has its own signature weapon, Iron Man’s suit, Captain America’s shield, Thor’s hammer, and Spider-Man’s apparently spider silk. Similarly, spider silk is also a magic weapon for spiders to survive and become famous.
All spiders will spit, but only about half will weave the net. The spider silk is from the spinner (usually located at the back of the abdomen), and the secretion of the gland from the nozzle of the spinning tube is exposed to the air and the filament is present in the form of a liquid in the abdomen. After being discharged, it becomes a solid silk.
There are many kinds of spider silk, each of which has its own use. The golden Orb Weaver spider has six separate long silk glands that can spit out seven kinds of silk: one for wrapping eggs, one for hunting, and the other for meshing. The most amazing of these is the traction wire. Traction wire is the highest strength of known biomaterials and is known as “biological steel”.
Spider silk also has a wonderful use, you absolutely can’t think of it: when the spider sprays the spider silk, and there is no object attached, and just as the ascending airflow passes, they will be dragged by the spider silk, vacating, in the air. Fluttering in the wind. Garden spiders, tarantulas, pirates, jumping spiders, etc. all have such incredible “flight” skills.
There are two main types of spider webs, one is a flat circular net, which looks like a delicate round fishnet or dome, and has many geometric patterns. The other is a three-dimensional net, that is, based on a flat spider web. Spider silk is added to the upper and lower sides to form a three-dimensional structure. Studies have shown that three-dimensional meshing is more time consuming, but the efficiency of insect catching has increased, and most importantly, it can effectively prevent the wasps that pretend to fall on the spider web and wait for the spider to catch the spider.
It takes several hours for a spider to weave a complete spider web. After weaving it, it needs to be repaired. Wind, rain, birds, insects, people, etc. may cause damage. In addition, every time, the spider will “recycle” the spider web and woven it in another place. Instead of weaving a net as you imagine, waiting for food to be delivered to the door is as simple as that.