Tiwanaku: The Sun Empire on the Andes

For Inca and the original Spanish explorers, Tiwanaku is a magnificent place with temples and gods. The Incas told the Spaniards that their ancestors came from this place, suggesting that this blood relationship gave them the power to rule the Andes. Archaeologists have not yet determined whether the Incas’s statement of inheritance is really effective. Researchers say their desire to connect with Tiwanaku is a good indication of the importance of the Tiwanaku people.

Aleksey Runicci, an archaeologist at the University of Pennsylvania, said: “Everyone in the Andes knows Tiwanaku.” He is now digging a temple of Tiwanaku known as Puma Pengu. “This temple is a place of great religious significance and is the center of pilgrimage, which attracts people to Tiwanaku,” he added.

Runny is a young man with a square chin. This scholar is serious. We climbed about 800 meters and then walked towards the ancient temple of Puma Peng, which was not steep. In the era of Tiwanaku, pilgrims may have treked from the shores of Lake Titicaca, passing through the most sacred places in the Andes. According to the religious beliefs in the Andes, the Creator appears in the water and then creates the Earth and humans. The small temples and temple ruins built around the lake date back to 700 BC. Researchers believe that Tiwanaku was originally one of these religious centers. In the 6th century AD, perhaps because of the central position of the lake in Andean mythology, or because of the growing power of the Tiwanaku people, Tiwanaku became the main pilgrimage center. These pilgrims may not be far away by the reeds

Cross the blue-blue lake, and then like Runny and me, walk east, through the grass on the plateau, and head towards the blue-white peaks of the Andes. For most pilgrims, the highest mountain in the journey, the Yiyi Mani Peak, guides them like a bright light. Runiqi said: “Iyi Mani Peak is their most sacred mountain. They believe that many ancestors have been there and died there.”

Along the pilgrimage route, at some point, Yiyi Mani suddenly disappeared from the people’s field of vision, replaced by the ancient temple of Pumapen, which is a pyramid-shaped temple. The Wanaku people were built with earth and stone. Now, most of the temple has become a ruin, and its huge slabs are placed on the ground, as if they were knocked down by the wayward giants. However, during the ancient pilgrimage, you could not see a trace of stone carving. Therefore, Runnyi envisages that the walls of the temple are covered with gold foil and silver, as well as colorful, gemstones and gold beads; the temple’s ground is painted with bright crimson, blue and green paint.

Hallucinogenic plants, drug tools and snuff have been found in the ruins of Tiwanaku. Recently, another archaeologist has unearthed a mummified clergyman with a hallucinogen and medicine in his pocket.

Runnye believes that the architects of Tiwanaku chose the location of the temple to hide the mountains and know what they are doing. “They know what kind of influence the temple has, and that is the Yiyi Mani Peak suddenly disappears in the field of vision.” He said, “This is an optical illusion they made.”

Only when you climb the last step and reach the top of the temple’s platform, the mountain will reappear, blue and white, sparkling.

“Look at the surroundings now,” Runny said. “Iyi Mani Peak is in front of us. Lake Titicaca is behind us. According to the cosmology of the Andean residents, this is really a place where heaven and earth meet.”

Puma Pengu is the only temple with a number of shrines and a beautiful courtyard decorated with stone statues and carvings. The moat surrounds this religious center, forming a miniature lake with the small temple building as the center. University of Chicago archaeologist Alan Crater said: “They completely changed the natural landscape and integrated it with their own religious beliefs.” Allen has been conducting excavation work in Tiwanaku since the late 1970s. .

Known as “Acapana”, the central temple is built on seven floors and is similar in structure to the nearby Qimusa Chata Mountain. In order to make the temple more like a mountain, the Tiwanaku people punched holes in Acapana and laid drainage pipes so that every year the rainy season came, the rain would rumbling through the temple. Kratt said: “This is a symbol of the cosmic circulatory system.” He believes that the Tiwanaku people may be holding births or other ceremonies when the water roars through the mountain-like temple.

Other rituals are even more ruthless. Like the Warri, the Tiwanaku people are also very ferocious, and they will celebrate the victory by using captive sacrifices. In Acapana, you can still find the bodies that have been mutilated, perhaps some of them are the mummy of their enemy ancestors, and some are the captured soldiers in the battle. Like the Warri, Tiwanaku’s pottery was horrifying, and the lion’s masked warrior had a cut head in his hand and a waistband with a skull made of prisoners’ heads. Tongue, rolling his eyes.

During the heyday of AD 700 to 1000, the Tiwanaku people almost controlled the entire Lake Titicaca basin and the land in southeastern Bolivia and southwestern Chile today. Like the Warri, the Tiwanaku people, as first-class engineers and peasants, turned the open, inflowing Katari River valley of Lake Titicaca into a granary in their capital, irrigating 78 square kilometers with the canals. River valleys, growing corn, potatoes, buckwheat and other crops. John Genasek, an archaeologist at Vanderbilt University who has explored the neighborhood of Tiwanaku, said: “They actually changed the direction of the river and made the river pass directly through the valley.” Today, the ancient ascension The remains of the riverbed are still visible, and the river flows down the river valley, which is caused by the construction of the Tiwanaku people.

Apparently, the Tiwanaku people needed a lot of corn, potatoes and coca to make them available to the pilgrims who swarmed and impressed them. “This seems to be the main motivation for their expansion,” says Jenasek. Archaeologists still don’t know if the Tiwanaku people forced the village to migrate like the Warri, but they confirmed that the Tiwanaku people had a more open In society, the cities in which various ceremonies are held are not as tightly controlled as the Piquikta of Warri.

Deborah Blom said: “Tiwanaku is a very international city that attracts people there.” She carefully compared the two skulls found in Tiwanaku side by side. As a physical anthropologist at the University of Vermont, she is studying the migration of the ancient empire and discovering that people from all over the world are popular here. The two skulls illustrate this very vividly.

“People from different Tiwanaku territories have different skulls,” Blom said. “They tied the rope or board to the baby’s head and made the baby’s head into a special shape.” After adulthood, they will Wear a hat that fits your unique skull shape. The skull at Blom’s hand is long tubular, reminiscent of the volcanic mountain peaks. It may be more like a slight change; the other skull is flat and flat, with raised sides. Blom said: “The tubular head is from the east side of the lake, and the flat head comes from the Mokgua people near the southern coast of Peru.” Based on genetic studies, they seem to have moved here. Blom has not yet found any settlers from Warri (their skulls are only flat on the back).

The Wari and Tiwanaku people may not have an intermarriage, but there is no evidence that they are hostile. Both countries have colonies in Moquegua, a warm area suitable for growing corn, but there are no signs of fighting there. “In those days, those colonies were larger and more important places.” Schreiber said, “They must be related to each other, but we don’t know how to contact them.”

Researchers are still studying the history of these two kingdoms. Some people think that Warri is the first to collapse; some people think that Tiwanaku first collapsed. Is one conquering another, or is it a drought that has defeated two countries? Whatever the reason, the two empires apparently ended abruptly. In the city of Pata, one day, the potters laid down their tools and left, perhaps by some unknown intruders. In Tiwanaku, the stonemasons stopped their monumental construction projects, the temple was unfinished, and several huge Andean rock blocks were abandoned on the shores of Lake Titicaca. They are now lying on the grass like giant stranded whales.

However, in the Andes of South America, certain things created by the Wari and Tiwanaku people did not completely disappear, such as imperial thought. 400 years later, it was on the basis of the empire they built that the revival of Inca emerged.