The “Defense Force was forced to change” and the “Navy Secretary was dismissed” … A war crime trial against a “seal” commando has recently forced the US Pentagon to “succumb to President Trump”. For the US Navy, this is not the first time. The “Admiral’s Rebellion” that broke out 70 years ago due to the cancellation of the construction of a super aircraft carrier has directly led to the retirement of a large number of senior US Navy generals.
Meteor-like fall of super carrier construction plan
On July 29, 1948, the then US President Truman finally approved the construction of the first super aircraft carrier “United States” in the history of the United States. To this end, the high-ranking US Navy has been encouraging. No one had thought that the strange fate of this super aircraft carrier would eventually become the inscrutable history of the US Navy.
At the end of World War II, the two atomic bombs dropped on Japan proclaimed the arrival of the nuclear age with the destructive power of the world. From the United States to members of Congress to civilians, everyone believes that nuclear weapons will be the magic weapon for future wars. However, at the time when ballistic missile technology was not yet mature, only large strategic bombers could drop atomic bombs. In the minds of high-level US military personnel, whoever controlled the strategic bomber had the right to decide the future war. In the eyes of Congress, for reasons of economy, efficiency, and ease of command, the task of nuclear strikes is best handled by a single service.
As before, the US Navy and Air Force attack each other on different occasions to gain control of nuclear strike missions. However, the Navy is clearly at a disadvantage in this military battle. The U.S. Air Force is advocating that only a newly developed B-36 strategic bomber can be used to launch a nuclear air strike to achieve “cheap victories” without having to engage in heavy ground combat, let alone Expend huge sums of money to build large aircraft carriers with weak survivability. Air Force hero Dulit, who once led a team to attack Tokyo, claimed that strategic bombers and nuclear weapons would make the navy fleet “useless furnishings”, and that aircraft carriers and battleships would likely be sunk by air forces in an instant. Since the US Air Force originated mainly from the US Army Air Force during World War II, US military seniors such as Marshall and Eisenhower from the Army also fully supported the Air Force. To make matters worse, no country at that time could pose a threat to the United States at sea, and the importance of the US Navy had diminished, and there was growing concern that it might be downgraded to a “minor service.”
Of course, the U.S. Navy also has its own people at high levels-James Forrest, the first Secretary of Defense, is from the Navy. With his strong support, the U.S. Navy hard-pressed the Air Force’s B-36 strategic bomber project, a super carrier capable of carrying nuclear-weapon carrier aircraft, the “United States” construction plan with a displacement of 80,000 tons, was approved. On April 18, 1949, the Newport News shipyard in the United States began laying the keel for this aircraft carrier, and everything looked so smooth.
But the celebration of the US Navy came too early. On March 28, 1949, Frost resigned because of health issues with Truman’s political views, and Air Force fanatic supporter Louis Johnson took over. As soon as the latter came to power, he severely cut naval funding, and even declared that “there is no reason to keep the Navy and the Marine Corps, because General Bradley told me that amphibious operations are history and we will never conduct amphibious operations again, so there is no need Keep the Marine Corps. In addition, the Air Force can do everything the Navy can do, so there is no need to keep the Navy. ”
Even more exciting for the United States Navy is that on April 23, Johnson cancelled the construction of the “United States” aircraft carrier without the approval of Congress, and without consulting the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Navy, or other naval generals. This super aircraft carrier was “ephemeral like a meteor” and was forced to dismount just 5 days after laying the keel. The US Navy regards this matter as a shame and humiliation, scolding “the US Air Force has sunk the Navy’s aircraft carrier.” A large number of senior naval officials, including then-Secretary of the Navy John Sullivan, resigned indignantly. More retired naval generals and military industry figures attacked Johnson’s approach. Even more extreme, in the early morning of May 22, the heart-struck Forrest chose to commit suicide at the hospital. A superstorm from the US Navy was finally triggered. This was the “Admiral’s Rebellion” incident. ▲
“Don’t let them sink the Navy”
Perhaps irritated by Air Force supporters’ unspeakable practices, the U.S. Navy generals have activated an extremely aggressive revenge model. The first to take the shot was Rear Admiral Daniel Galleria, who turned on the personal attack mode in a critical article entitled “Don’t Let them Sink the Navy”, accusing Johnson of being an “outspoken criminal and villain” and demanding that he Blame the resignation. Subsequently, a number of naval generals published a series of eloquent articles and speeches in the United States, criticizing Johnson for demeaning the Navy’s defense policy and mocking the Air Force’s B-36 bomber plan.
What has caused even greater turmoil is that senior naval generals, led by Admiral Arthur Redford, commander of the Pacific Fleet, used “secret research and policy units” code-named Op-23 to fabricate various fake materials that discredit the Air Force. The unit was created in December 1948 and is housed within the Staff of the Naval Secretary of Operations and is led by Colonel Arleigh Burke.
In June 1949, Colonel Van Zandt, a US reserve officer, circulated an “anonymous material” in Congress, which not only recorded the strong dissatisfaction of senior naval generals such as Secretary of the Navy Denfield and Johnson ’s defense policy, but also Johnson and Air Force senior generals have been accused of “fraud and fraud and bribery” in the B-36 strategic bomber program. According to the material, the U.S. Air Force accepted the defective B-36 bomber at the cost of damaging national defense interests and benefiting individuals such as Johnson. Buying this bomber was a “billion dollar mistake.”
Undoubtedly, these seemingly professional materials made by Op-23 made the US Air Force and Johnson embarrassed. As the highest military official of the United States Navy, Admiral Denfield, Secretary of Naval Operations, also personally entered the “make up”. He said at the hearing: “There is a methodical movement aimed at bringing the Navy down
“It is a transport team and anti-submarine service.” He criticized Johnson’s “atomic blitz” defense strategy as betting on the Air Force and B-36 to bet on the future.
This wave of high-ranking naval seniors’ tie-ups has led to chaos in the US military and government. Congress had to send a special investigative team to conduct a full inspection of the B-36 program and Air Force officials. However, the consistently strong US Air Force is not just passive. The Air Force Special Investigations Office, in conjunction with the FBI, secretly traced and found typewriters that printed these materials. Since the clue was directed at Op-23, the navy’s private actions were exposed during a search by the special investigation team. At the same time, senior officials of the Air Force refuted the navy’s accusations one by one at a congressional hearing, and the situation became increasingly unfavorable to the navy. ▲
Promoting the establishment of the Department of Defense
What really shocked high-level US political circles was that the “Admiral’s Rebellion” incident that lasted for several months shook the political red line of “literate leader”, and the newly established “National Military Department” was exposed to the lack of restrictions on the major services. Truman decided to “cut the knife quickly” and ordered more than 10 senior naval generals, including Naval Operations Secretary Denfield, to “retire early” and nearly 200 people were dismissed. The internal fighting also ended with the overall failure of the Navy. The Air Force’s B-36 bomber program continued, and the “United States” aircraft carrier was completely dismounted.
At the same time, the U.S. Congress passed amendments to the National Security Law, renamed the loosely structured “National Military Department” to “Ministry of Defense,” and strengthened the power of the civilian defense secretary, while setting up the post of chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to Coordinate military conflicts. The political structure of the US military was thus established and continues to this day.
On the other side of the turmoil, Secretary of Defense Johnson also suffered bitterly for his arrogance. After the “Admiral’s Rebellion” incident, as the chief boss of Johnson, Truman also lost heart in Congress, the government and the military, and his dissatisfaction with Johnson increased. To make matters worse, the subsequent outbreak of the Korean War showed that Johnson’s claim of “fighting the world by air force” was too radical. During the Korean War, the U.S. Air Force’s bulky strategic bombers could not meet the needs of the battlefield. Instead, the Navy’s mobile and flexible carrier-based aircraft played an important role.
In 1950, Truman dismissed Johnson’s defense chief and quickly approved the construction of a new aircraft carrier. For the purpose of revenge on the Air Force, and also to commemorate the propeller of the United States aircraft carrier, Forrest, the US Navy’s newly built super aircraft carrier was named “Florist” class. Since then, with the miniaturization of nuclear weapons, the United States Navy and the Army have successively equipped new nuclear warheads. The United States Air Force “wins first and then loses” in this incident.