Three critical moments for Iran and the U.S.

Iran fired dozens of missiles at the U.S. military base in Iraq on the 8th, making the situation in the Middle East violent and turbulent due to the death of Suleimani unknown. Is there a full-scale war between the United States and Iran? Since the hostage crisis at the United States Embassy in Iran in 1979, US-Iranian relations have long been in an ice age, and it is not uncommon for even the critical moments of the guns to go out.

52 Americans held for 444 days

U.S. President Trump has claimed that the U.S. military is targeting “52 Iranian targets”, alluding to the 52 American hostages detained by Iran in 1979. But there is no hate for no reason. Behind Iran ’s seizure of American hostages, it was a major setback for the US ’s Middle East strategy.

Today’s confrontation between the United States and Iran is almost “sworn,” making it hard to believe that these two countries were close hardcore allies more than 40 years ago. When Iranian King Pahlavi used the power of the US Central Intelligence Agency in 1953 to expel Prime Minister Mossadtai to take power alone, he was willing to become a “thuger” in the United States. The soaring wealth brought by the soaring oil prices in the 1970s allowed Iran to launch an industrialization plan of up to $ 70 billion. But in this “foreign leap forward”, the Iranian royal family and foreign companies are making a fortune, a large number of bankrupt Iranian farmers, businessmen and craftsmen are waiting to be fed, and more and more people are full of resentment against the Palestinian government and the US government that has provided him with asylum. .

In October 1977, the eldest son of Iran’s Islamic Revolution leader Khomeini was violently killed. It was suspected that he had been poisoned by the Kingdom’s secret police, but the king’s newspaper “The News” viciously attacked Khomeini and was bought by a foreign government. The people are angry. Since then, demonstrations, repressions, mourning, remonstrations, repressions … one after another, the king’s foundations have been hollowed out. At the beginning, the United States still blindly supported Pahlavi’s bloody crackdown. It was not until after the Tehran Million Parade broke out in December that U.S. President Carter suddenly realized that he refused to “endorse” the shaky Pahlavi regime. On January 3, 1979, Japanese sent in contact with high-level Iranian troops in the hope of rebuilding “intimate relations” with the new regime.

After Pahlavi left the country in January 1979, the “pragmatic” United States attitude toward Iran did not deteriorate too much at first-the United States also counted on Iran’s new regime to continue to purchase US arms and serve as a “Middle Eastern police” against the Soviet Union. However, in order to alleviate severe domestic inflation and fiscal imbalances, the new Iranian government has cancelled a large number of arms procurement contracts. Even so, the United States and Iran have not completely torn their faces. Iran still retains $ 5 billion worth of arms purchase orders. In May and July of that year, the United States also delivered two batches of missiles ordered by the Pahlavi era to Iran.

The “last straw” that overwhelmed the relationship was that the United States agreed to host Pahlavi. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, the country was under the co-rule of religious Mullahs, secular nationalists, Islamic nationalists, and even secular leftists. In October of that year, a draft new constitution was announced and the Fakih system established by Khomeini “Comprehensive Islamization”) is facing fierce debate. Just at this time, the United States agreed to Pahlavi, a “skin soaked with the blood of the people”, to go to the United States for treatment, which completely angered the Iranian people. On the news of Pahlavi’s arrival in New York on November 4, 1979, more than 2,000 Iranian university students stormed the US Embassy in Iran in Tehran. They occupied the embassy building and held 66 United States diplomats hostage (of which 13 women and blacks and 1 patient were released). The students claim that their actions are in retaliation for the United States’ support of Pahlavi for many years and allowing the abolition of the king to heal the disease. Abbas Abdi, who was involved in the incident, later said: “We didn’t expect that the incident would have such a big effect. We thought that this event would only last a few days. But what happened later made the situation even more Complexity prevents both parties from quickly resolving the issue. ”

Khomeini expressed support for the students’ actions after the initial surprise. He used an unprecedentedly high nationalist sentiment, combined constitutional amendments with anti-Americanism, and finally passed a new constitution in a referendum on December 3, establishing an Islamic republic based on Islamic teachings, the Qur’an, and hadith. Already.

Facing the complicated situation, the Carter administration in the United States once again made the wrong response. At first, the United States thought that the new Iranian government would deal with it just as well as the Pahlavi regime, and announced that it would stop importing Iranian oil, freeze Iranian assets in the United States, and send aircraft carriers to exert military pressure, which further angered Iranians. In February 1980, Iran offered conditions to the United States, including repatriation of the abolished king, apologized for US immoral behavior in Iran, and promised not to interfere in Iran’s internal affairs.

Faced with such conditions, Carter “rushed to the hospital in an emergency” and approved a rescue plan code-named “Operation Eagle.” On April 7, 1980, the United States severed diplomatic relations with Iran. Fifteen days later, Operation Eagleclaw began to be implemented. However, the operation encountered episodes of mechanical failure, aircraft collisions and accidental exposure, which ended in failure after leaving 8 bodies, two aircraft wrecks and a complete set of operational documents.

Poor performance in the hostage crisis caused Carter to lose in the general election. On July 27, 1980, Pahlavi died, and Iran’s biggest reason for detaining Americans disappeared. Iran has since launched secret negotiations with the outgoing Carter government, deciding to release the hostages on the condition that the United States cancels the freezing of Iranian assets and does not prosecute the Iranian government. On January 20, 1981, 20 minutes after the inauguration speech of the new US President Reagan, 52 American hostages were finally released after being held for 444 days. ▲

“Shipstrike”, the US military took the opportunity to “under the black hands”

“We detained the American hostages and turned ourselves into American hostages,” lamented Iranian President Barney Sadr at the time. Although the American hostages detained by Iran have been released, the relationship between the United States and Iran has entered an ice age. In the subsequent Iran-Iraq war, the Iranian army was equipped with a full set of US-made weapons, but the US favored Soviet-equipped Iraq.

Beginning in 1985, Iraq and Iran competed to launch a “strike war” in the Persian Gulf region, using missiles and speedboats to attack passing tankers, and laying mines to damage the channel. This is the heart of the Americans who favor Iraq. On September 21, 1987, the U.S. Navy attacked and captured the Iranian navy “Ajer” mine-laying mine in a mine 80 kilometers northeast of Bahrain, killing 3 people and capturing 26 people. In retaliation, Iran launched a missile attack on the port of Ahmed in Kuwait on October 15th, hitting the US tanker Sengari (liberian flag) parked there. The next day, a missile attack on the Kuwait tanker “Island City” flying the US flag outside the port of Shuaibai, Kuwait.

The Reagan administration immediately decided to implement “military retaliation” against Iran. On October 19, the United States dispatched four destroyers to shell Iran’s Rostham drilling platform and blow up radar and communication facilities on the platform. After this military operation, the United States declared that “it is ready. If Iran has any escalation in the military, the United States will make tough revenge.” Since then, both Iran and the United States have exercised restraint and the situation in the Gulf was calm.

However, the good times did not last long. On April 14, 1988, the USS “Roberts” inadvertently broke into a minefield array set up by Iran, and the hull was blown out of a large hole. U.S. Senate President Crowe demanded the opportunity to completely destroy the Iranian navy, but Defense Minister Kaluchi felt that doing so would be a full-scale war with Iran and would be too risky. Reagan eventually decided to destroy three Iranian oil platforms as a warning, and authorized the US military “if Iran sends warships or aircraft to rescue them, they can also be destroyed.”

In the early morning of April 18, the U.S. forces opened fire on the Iranian oil platform, and the stimulated Iranian navy quickly dispatched ships to fight back. The Iranian missile ship “Johan” was sent to the sea by the US cruiser “Winwright” as soon as it left port. The unwilling Iranian navy sent the “Sahand” frigate and a squadron gunboat from the port of Abbas, and was intercepted by A-6 and A-7 attack aircraft taking off from the US carrier “Enterprise”. Under severe air-to-sea strikes, the “Sahand” and two gunboats were sunk. During the fierce battle, another Iranian frigate “Sabalan” rushed to the theater was also seriously injured. After the conflict, the United States warned Iran: “If Iran escalates provocatively, it will impose a mine blockade on the port of Abbas and Khark; if Iran causes further major damage to the United States or damage to its personnel, it will completely destroy Iran All coastal facilities. ” ▲

290 passengers on Iraqi plane shot down by U.S. forces

Iranian President Rouhani shouted to the United States on the 6th that “I hope the United States can also remember the number” 290 “, referring directly to the 290 passengers killed in the 1988 incident of” crucifixion “of Iranian civil airliners by US cruisers. In the minds of Americans, this is only the consequence of the escalation of the exchange of fire between the United States and Iran around the “strike war” since 1988, but in Iran’s view, this is a deliberate massacre in the United States, and the US government has not yet apologized.

On the morning of July 3, 1988, the USS “Vinsons” cruiser patrolling the Strait of Hormuz received a briefing saying that six Iranian speedboats were trying to attack a Liberian tanker. The US military immediately ordered the cruiser “Vinsons” to rescue. The Seahawk helicopter, which was the first to take off from the cruiser, quickly rushed to the scene, but found that it was a false alarm. But soon after the helicopter reported that it was attacked by an Iranian speedboat, the captain of the “Vinsons” Will Rogers ordered to rush to rescue at full speed-at this time the “Vinsons” had broken into Iranian territorial waters.

At the same time, Iranian Airlines Flight 655 was taking off at the nearby Iranian port of Abbas. The Airbus A300 took a weekend to civilians shopping in Dubai, including 66 children. Coincidentally, its course is just above the cruiser “Vinsons”.

The cruiser Vinsons radar also detected an aircraft taking off at the port of Abbas. Since the port of Abbas is a military-civilian airport, and Iran has a powerful F-14 fighter there, the US military is extremely vigilant. The investigation revealed that the first fatal error was made by Sergeant Anderson, a radar operator. His passenger and cargo flight schedule on July 3 did not find any information that a civil aircraft took off from the port of Abbas. -Flight 655 happened to take off that day and was late. So he took it for granted that the aircraft on the radar was an Iranian fighter and informed this information to Captain Rogers. The second mistake came from Rogers. He claimed that he had repeatedly issued warnings to Flight 655, which flew “from the Vinsons”, but the other party did not respond, which is enough to prove the hostility of the other party. However, it was discovered later that these warnings were sent through military frequencies, and it was impossible for civil airliners to receive them. Based on a series of misjudgments, Vincens fired two missiles on Flight 655, and the aircraft crashed into the sea, killing all 290 people on board.

The wreckage of the passenger plane fell into Iran’s territorial waters. The Iranian television broadcasted the sea full of dead bodies and aircraft wreckage, which shocked the world. Faced with a tragic tragedy, Iran described the incident as a “barbaric massacre” and accused the United States of deliberately shooting down civilian aircraft. But the United States insisted that “Iran must take responsibility for this tragedy” because Iran allowed a civilian aircraft to fly near the conflict area, and “this is not the result of the negligence and fault of any US Navy personnel in this matter.” The Pentagon also deliberately concealed the truth, denying that the “Vinsons” broke into Iran’s territorial waters, and Captain Rogers received the Medal of Merit.

“After all, the paper can’t hold the fire,” the truth about the downing of Flight 655 gradually surfaced over time. ICAO has also accused the US Navy of being the chief fault. In 1989, Iran sued the United States to an international court, demanding that the United States compensate the victims and the bombed airliner. The two governments reached a settlement in 1996. The United States expressed “deep regret” to the families of the victims and compensated for the losses, but “not responsible”.