The ancient Greek words (peirates) are usually translated as “pirate”, and their original meanings are broader; the former has been seen in Homer’s epic, the latter appeared roughly in the middle of the 3rd century BC, and the corresponding Latin word is ” In general, piracy at sea, kidnapping and extortion are considered as piracy, but the subjects of such acts often have multiple identities. They may use war or business as their main business, and maritime robbery as their sideline business. Maritime plundering is the main issue, as well as mercenaries or businessmen. Therefore, it is necessary to make a simple definition of pirates. In a broad sense, in a specific space-time background, actors such as maritime plunder and abduction activities can generally be regarded as pirates. In the narrow sense, pirates refer to those who have long engaged in maritime plunder, abduction, and human trafficking, and mainly make a living from it. This article mainly uses the term pirate in the narrow sense.
Modern scholars’ research on piracy in the Roman era can be roughly divided into four categories. The first is a diachronic discussion on the reasons for the rise of piracy, the state of development, and the response of rulers, such as the chronological narrative of the origin and development of piracy in the ancient Mediterranean by HAOrmerod, E. Semple ) Discussion on the characteristics of the geo-environment of the pirate base, ANherwin-White’s analysis of the rise of local pirates and the local rulers’ fight against pirates by the geo-environmental and political situation of Panfilia and Chiriquia The second is to explore the stimulating role of piracy in the development of Roman maritime forces, such as L Casson’s exposition on the positive influence of pirate warships on the island of Rhodes and the Roman Navy, and CGStarr’s An analysis of the impact of piracy on the development of the Roman Republic ’s coastal defense, HHScullard ’s account of the relationship between piracy and Rome ’s measures to protect Spanish shipping routes. The third is to use modern political concepts such as “legitimate”, “right to speak” and “propaganda behavior” to expand the scope of the study of piracy. For example, Ph. De Souza used Rome as the “pirate” label as Demonstration and analysis of its external expansion services. . The fourth is to draw on the research methods of sociology, anthropology, and geography to explain the interactive relationship between piracy and population migration, commodity circulation, and cultural exchanges, such as P. Horden and N. Percell The co-authored “The Fallen Sea: A Study of the History of the Mediterranean” looks at the predators as a part of the trade circle from the perspective of population and commodity connectivity. Mandatory, imperious, unconventional flow of personnel and materials, and D. Abulafia’s Great Sea deliberately explores human material cultural exchanges and civilized exchanges, and believes that pirates, like other people, also carry material products Traveling with civilization information around the Mediterranean also has a positive impact on the formation of Mediterranean civilization. It should be noted that despite the limited number of achievements, domestic academic circles have paid attention to issues such as the origin of the ancient Mediterranean piracy and the nature and impact of piracy.
As far as the evolution of research interests is concerned, the academic community’s discussions on piracy in the ancient Mediterranean have shifted from traditional issues such as the rise, process, and influence of piracy, to focusing on the role of piracy and piracy in the evolution and historical development of ancient Mediterranean civilization. Judging from the existing results, there is no monograph on systematically combing the internal interaction between Roman states and pirates in the process of external expansion and the establishment of the empire. Therefore, this article is mainly based on the records of classical authors, and draws on existing research results to explore the basic conditions and the reasons for its prosperity in the late Republic of China (late 2nd century to 31st century BC). The role of the expansion of the Eastern Mediterranean and the establishment of the empire, and the changes in Rome’s policy against piracy and its underlying causes.
I. The Rise of Pirates of Chiriquia and the Reasons
From the late 2nd century BC to the 1130s, pirates became an unavoidable problem for Roman rulers in political, economic, military and diplomatic aspects. The Pirates of Chiriquia in the Eastern Mediterranean is the largest pirate group that has influenced the historical development of the Roman Republic. The local maritime plunder began in the mountain Chiriquias. In fact, Syria, Cyprus, Pamphilla, Bendu and other Eastern Mediterranean regions are not short of people involved in piracy, but the mountain Chiriguya has become a “base camp” and a landing place for multiple pirate forces with its unique geographical conditions. “Cherikea pirates” became synonymous with pirate forces in the Eastern Mediterranean and beyond.
Chiriquia is located in the south of Anatolia, and is mainly composed of two parts. The plain is called Chiriquia in the east, and the mountain is in the west. The eastern part is flat and fertile, rich in flax, grapes and olives. The western part of the country is mountainous and steep, and the terrain is dangerous, and it has become a natural barrier for maritime plunder by the Chiriquias. Although it is not suitable for farming, the forest is dense and provides sufficient timber for shipbuilding. From this point of view, it is not surprising that the mountain Chiriqia has become a “greenhouse” that breeds piracy. According to Geography, Triphon (Diphonus from Casiane, 2nd century BC) played an important role in the rise of local pirate forces; it is believed that this person has led the pirates of Chiriquia to become organized pirate groups Based on Coracesium, he led a rebellion against the Seleucid kingdom and captured a large area of Syria. He is likely to be an agitator and organizer of the maritime plunder of the Chiriquias, trying to use the pirate forces to weaken the ruling power of the Seleucid kingdom, thereby subduing Syria to its rule. Despite Trifon’s failure, the piracy did not end there but spread.
At the end of the 2nd century BC and the beginning of the 1st century BC, the pirates became stronger and the scope of plundering continued to expand. Under the leadership of Isidorus (people of the early 1st century BC), pirates were scattered throughout the Eastern Mediterranean; within its sphere of influence, the pirate leaders were like kings, and the pirates also considered themselves great armies, claiming plunder Things are rewards of war. According to an inscription from Astypalaia, the pirates plundered Ephesus, a core area in the province of Asia. Around 70 BC, piracy activities became more rampant, frequently attacking ports and cities in the Eastern Mediterranean region, destroying the Mediterranean shipping center of Delos; spreading westward to the entire Mediterranean region, plundering people, extorting ransom, disrupting and destroying It even cut off some important commercial roads and even looted the port of Ostia in Rome.
In addition to the geography and folklore conditions mentioned above, there are some factors that cannot be ignored in the prosperity of the pirates in the Eastern Mediterranean in the late Roman Republic, as follows:
First, the intricate political situation in the Eastern Mediterranean provides the opportunity for the rise of pirates. On the one hand, after Alexander’s death, followers delineated the sphere of influence through melee, and gradually formed the three kingdoms of Macedonia, Seleuc and Ptolemy Egypt. For decades, Chiriquia changed hands several times between Seleucius and Ptolemy. When the two countries were strong, they strictly controlled the Chiriquia region, but the continuous internal friction between the two countries combined with the chaotic situation caused by the expansion of Rome; this made Chiriqia to a large extent a “vacuum of power”. The rise of pirates created opportunities. On the other hand, the policies of some forces in the Eastern Mediterranean region on piracy are often indecisive due to their own interests, and sometimes even cooperate openly with pirates. Many cities and residents also choose to work with pirates, providing them with port and sales space. All these have strengthened the pirates, but in a sense, they have made them one of the forces capable of rebuilding the local ruling order.
Second, from the end of the 3rd century BC, Rome gradually expanded to the Eastern Mediterranean, and Macedonia, Seleuc, Rhode Island and other forces in the area were hit hard, and pirates developed. From 214 BC to 146 BC, Rome waged four wars against Macedonia. Macedonia’s national power deteriorated and was eventually classified as a province by Rome. Although there is no historical data on Macedonia’s fight against piracy, according to Li Wei’s record, Perseus, the king of Macedonia (reigned 179-168 BC), implemented an escort system, which undoubtedly suppressed the pirates within a certain range Development of activities. With the collapse of the Kingdom of Macedonia, maritime order was also disrupted. Rome fully suppressed the westward momentum of the Seleucid kingdom and forced the successive defeat of Antiochus III (222 BC 187 BC) to abandon Europa and the territory of Asia west of the Taurus Mountains, retaining only 12 Ship, 15,000 Towers. Later, the ancient kingdom of Seleuc tried to make a comeback, and was strongly suppressed by Rome. In addition, the internal turmoil continued to stagnate. The kingdom was unable to defend itself, and pirates camped in its territory to build a deserted Jewish state. Since the end of the 3rd century BC, Rhode Island, which has been following Rome, has gradually become stronger, becoming a maritime trade center and the main force of anti-piracy in the Eastern Mediterranean, and is known as “Friends of Merchants”. But the strength of Rhode Island caused Rome’s doubts, and after the Third Macedonian War, Rome began to weaken its power. Soon, Rome deprived Rhodes of its territory in Carria, Lucia, opened Delos for free, and imposed heavy taxes on it. This has made Rhode Island financially constrained, it is difficult to maintain huge navy expenditures, and it is unable to suppress pirates. From 155 BC to 153 BC, Rhode Island suffered a fiasco defeat in the Second Cretan War, and the situation worsened. Before Rome’s massive eastward expansion, Macedonia, Seleucus, and Rhode Island did their best, and the Eastern Mediterranean was relatively stable. However, with the expansion of Rome, the situation became more chaotic. It was difficult for local rulers to effectively rule some territories, and a large number of people fled to the sea to engage in plunder. However, Rome did not assume responsibility for maintaining the safety of the sea. Instead, it intentionally reduced its navy and abandoned military ports, and his pirates rose. It can be said that the rise of Eastern Mediterranean Pirates, represented by Pirates of Chiriquia, was largely the result of Rome’s eastward expansion.
Third, the slave trade in which Romans participated and supported fueled piracy. As a historical phenomenon under slavery, for pirates, human trafficking is a lucrative normal transaction. In the 2nd century BC, Delos became the largest slave trade market in the entire Mediterranean. According to Geography, the island’s slave trade amounted to tens of thousands in one day, and practitioners made huge profits. After the destruction of Carthage and Corinth in Rome, an increasing number of wealthy people bought and used slaves in large numbers, bringing business opportunities to the pirates. There is evidence that pirates have become the main suppliers of slaves in Italian and Sicilian estates.
Fourth, the internal and external situation in Rome is also conducive to the rise of pirates. Internally, the long-term large-scale war of conquest has led to increasingly sharp contradictions between conquerors and conquered, slaves and slave owners, and constant conflicts between different interest groups within the ruling class. The Gragu brothers’ agrarian reform, the large-scale slave uprising that swept Sicily and Italy, the “Alliance War”, and the fighting between the Sura and Mallorians were precisely their outstanding manifestations. As far as the outside world is concerned, the conflict between Rome and the surrounding ethnic groups is very acute. (Bit) counterattack in the East, causing the Roman numbers to face the enemy. At that time, Rome’s strategic focus could only be on the control of the land surrounding the Mediterranean, and it was difficult to take into account the sea. Pirates can use this situation to liaise with anti-Roman forces (lost in Rome, rulers of foreign races, leaders of slave uprisings, etc.) to jointly defend Rome.
Anti-piracy operations in Rome and their impact
From the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 1960s, the development of pirate forces went through roughly three stages: the early period (mid-late 2nd century BC); the development period (late 2nd century BC to late 1970s) ); Period of growth (early 1960s BC). Rome’s response strategy, depending on its degree of harm, has undergone the evolution of “ignoring it”, “active containment”, and “determined annihilation”.
In the early period, the scope of the invasion of pirates was mainly limited to the areas of Chiriquia and the Syrian coast, depleting the national strength of Roman rival Seleuc; the cooperation between pirates and Romans in the slave trade also seemed to have a tacit understanding. It can be said that the interests of pirates and Rome in the East have some consistency. In fact, Rome did not take major anti-piracy operations during this period. De Sousa argued that this was either because piracy did not cause substantial damage to Rome at this time, or because Rome was trapped in other difficulties. The author believes that the former is more likely, because at this time Rome’s laissez-faire piracy in the area is more in its actual interest.
By the end of the 2nd century BC, with the expansion of Rome to the Eastern Mediterranean, the original political structure and order of the local area were destroyed. War, turmoil, and natural disasters are increasing in numbers of refugees, and a significant portion of them have become pirate reserves. The organizational level of the pirate group has improved, and the battleship equipment has become more complete. Its scope of activities has gradually expanded, gradually expanding from the eastern Mediterranean region to the west, increasing the threat to Rome, and damaging Rome’s national interests and reputation. The situation forced Rome to organize navies and promulgate anti-piracy laws to curb the spread of piracy. The real game between Rome and the pirates kicked off.
From 102 BC to the 1970s, Rome repeatedly dispatched troops to combat piracy, and used legislative and administrative measures to restrict piracy. In 102 BC, Rome sent Marcus Antonius (the Orator, 99 BC) to combat piracy. Li Wei only recorded that “Anthonyus chased the pirates and entered Chiriguia”, and it was unknown whether the Romans won; Plutarch mentioned that Anthonyus had won a triumph. But since then the pirates have still run rampant judgments, and the results of this operation seem to be unsatisfactory. The main force of the operation came from the provinces and the dependent countries. Anthonyus intends to run for the office of the governor, and may just want to use this to gain political capital. Therefore, the purpose of this operation in Rome was to stop the spread of pirates on the one hand and to show the provinces and allies their willingness and ability to suppress pirates. In 100 BC, Rome promulgated the “lex de provinciis praetoriis”, which contains anti-piracy content, in order to combat piracy, it intentionally raised the administrative “level” of Chiriguia; It is stipulated that Rome’s allies have an obligation to ensure that no pirate bases appear in its area, no officials can hide pirates, and must try their best to ensure the safety of the Romans and so on.
Thereafter, Sulla Felix (138-78 BC) served as governor of the Chiriquia Bank in 90 BC and formed a navy with the support of Roman allies. At this time, Rome’s primary goal was to fight Mithrada and restore the throne of Ariobarzanes (96-52 BC) to Cappadocia, and dealing with pirates was only a secondary goal. During his tenure, LLICinius Murena (Judge 88 BC) also formed a fleet to deal with Mithrada and deter pirates.
From 77 to 75 BC, Servilius Isauricus (circa 134-44 BC) went to the east to suppress pirates. Despite the lack of relevant historical data, it is still certain that he cleared the pirates in southern Asia. Geography records that he had taken off a pirate base on the Taurus Ridge and had captured many places in Cyprus, Fáselis, and Jafferia. Although it has achieved great results, this operation is difficult to eradicate piracy for two reasons. First, the main purpose of this operation is not to eliminate pirates, but to regain control of what was lost during the first Mitra Darti war. The strategic place opened up the overland route to Cappadocia. Second, after the war, Servirius confiscated the land that was originally a pirate, and they could only drift back to the sea to resume their old business. Moreover, Rome did not strictly control the eastern Mediterranean waters, so that the pirates of Chiriquia were just driven out of their nests, but set up camps and waited in other places, especially Crete. In 74 BC, Rome sent M. Antonius Creticus (unknown) to clear the pirates. At this time, some cities in Crete were considered to be closely related to the pirates and even Mithrada, so he decided to use Crete, but was defeated and died on the island. Since then, until Pompeo took command, Rome no longer sent naval generals to combat piracy, and anti-piracy matters were the responsibility of the provinces.
It is worth noting that in the above actions, Rome relied mainly on the strength of its allies and provinces, and it did not do its part. This is likely because piracy at this time was mainly confined to the Eastern Mediterranean and Rome’s core interests were not harmed. As Casius Dior puts it: “Only when they received some reports, they [the Romans] sent some fleets and generals, but with little success.” Although the pirates of the Eastern Mediterranean were damaging Rome’s own interests Smaller, but harmful to its dependent countries, Rome’s attack on pirates has been widely expected. This undoubtedly shows Rome’s special status throughout the Mediterranean. In other words, the active and growing pirates in the Mediterranean region not only made Rome’s hegemony more prominent, but also provided it with legitimate reasons and legal basis for its further expansion to the east.
In the early 1960s BC, piracy spread to the entire Mediterranean, posing a serious threat to Roman national security, and the eradication of pirates became a common demand and an inevitable choice for Roman society. At the political level, if pirates disrupt maritime traffic, it will inevitably threaten Rome’s control over provinces and territories, weakening its political influence in the Mediterranean region; if it is not handled properly, it may shake Rome’s dominant position in the Mediterranean region. It is worth noting that at this time, the Pirates of Chiriquia and Mitra Date were closely related, the latter has been Rome’s confidant in the East. For Rome, the anti-piracy operation was largely part of the Mithrati war and an important move for Rome to expand into Asia. In terms of socio-economic aspects, the spread of piracy in the Mediterranean will inevitably weaken Rome’s economic ties with provinces and affiliated countries, affect Rome’s tribute income; it will also hinder and disrupt normal Mediterranean trade, and will damage Roman merchants, especially The interests of the Cavaliers. It is estimated that the resident population of the Roman city in the late Republic period reached about 750,000, and essential items such as food and olive oil were mainly imported by sea. 4 If pirates block sea routes, food shortages in Rome are bound to be a deadly threat.
Pirate looting caused a food crisis in Rome, and the people complained that the Senate could not continue to take measures to eliminate pirates. The Senate passed the 1 Gabinia Act in 67 BC, granting Pompeius (Cn. Pompeius (106-48 BC)) unprecedented powers, allowing him to recruit troops in provinces And collecting money. Pompeii adopted the strategy of annihilating the west and then east, and divided the area into 13 areas along the coast and the sea. Each area is equipped with a batch of ships and a general; Pompei will be a combination of hard and soft. In just 40 days, it will lack a unified organization The pirates broke through, and their remnants were eventually driven to Chiriguia. As for the actions in Chiriguia, there is very little historical data, Cicero said: Pompeo “started from Brundisium in 49 days and merged the entire Chirigua into Rome’s territory” . After the pirates were quelled, the Roman Senate ordered Pompeii to succeed L Licinius Lucullus (117-57 / 6 BC) and continue to fight Mithrada. In 64 BC, Pompeii defeated rivals such as Mithrati and included Bendu and Bittinia into the Roman territory. The following year, Syria was made a Roman province and annexed the Jewish Kingdom; while other originally independent kingdoms, For example, Cappadocia, Galatia, etc. have also become Rome’s affiliates, and the eastern territory of Rome has been consolidated and expanded.
The fundamental reason for Rome’s determination to eliminate pirates is that pirate forces have seriously threatened its core interests. The success of the Qing Dynasty piracy operation consolidated and expanded Roman territorial waters, stabilized the political and social situation in Rome, and safeguarded the overall interests of the ruling group. When the Roman army set out to fight piracy in the Eastern Mediterranean, it already started the historical process of Rome’s further conquest of the East. It also heralded the establishment of an unprecedented large empire in the Mediterranean. A decisive link. Therefore, the interaction between the internal “thrust” and the “gravity” of the prospects of annihilating the interests of the pirates after the damage of the national interest caused the Roman ruling class to work together to clear the pirates.
3. Piracy and “Peace under Rome”
After Pompey’s suppression, pirate activities were silent for more than 20 years. As the domestic political struggle in Rome intensified, pirates rose again. After Pompeii lost to Caesar, his son Sextus Pompey (circa 76 or 70 BC to 35 BC) went into exile, engaged in plunder, and successively occupied Sicily, Corsica, and Caesar. The island of Dingdao and other places have formed a trend of encircling the Italian peninsula. Octavius (63 BC-14 AD) began construction of the navy in 38 BC and granted naval training and command to M. Vipsanius Agrippa (64/3 BC) 12 years). Two years later, Agrippa battled successively in Mylae and Naulochus, completely destroying Pompeii’s navy and lifting a major threat to Roman national security.
During the rule of the rule, Rome followed Pompeii’s strategy of controlling pirates and divided the Mediterranean and other seas into regions. It set up naval bases in Missenum, Ravenna, Celia, Alexandria, Danube, Black Sea, English Channel 2. Stationed in the navy to prevent the resurgence of piracy. Cornelius Tacitus (circa 55-120) said vividly that “the empire has been surrounded by the ocean and distant rivers.” Obviously, the above measures effectively stabilized Rome’s control over the vast waters of the Mediterranean Sea, maritime traffic seemed to be unimpeded, and maritime trade was unprecedentedly prosperous. C. Suetonius Tranquillus (b.70) was a symbolic event highlighting the peace and tranquility of the empire: after sailing through Campania and its nearby islands, he David) spent four days resting and recreating in a villa on Capreae. As he sailed through the Gulf of Puteoli, an Alexandrian ship arrived shortly after, and the passengers and crew on the ship put on white robes, wore garlands, lit incense, and addressed Octavian Best wishes and praises. They asserted that it was precisely because of Octavian that they were able to live a stable life, sail around, and enjoy freedom and good fortune. Octavia was very pleased after learning about it, and issued 40 gold coins to each accompanying person, so that he could only buy the goods of the Alexandrians. There are still many ancient documents describing Octavian’s maintenance of the ocean. For example, Geography records the favorable trade environment between the Iberian Peninsula and Italy. It is believed that the military actions of the Romans have greatly reduced piracy. Horace Horace (63 BC-8 BC) and Propertius (late 1st century BC) also praised peace at sea under Augustus.
Octavius’ anti-piracy operation and measures to maintain unimpeded maritime transportation have made pirates “disappeared” under the reflection of “The Dawn of the Empire”. Although this is not the case, it is basically certain that the great containment of pirates no longer constitutes a major threat to the Roman nation. The reasons should be analyzed in the context of Roman politics, economy and military.
First, in general, social turmoil and political chaos are important factors that stimulate the rise of Mediterranean pirates; during the period of the rule of the head of state, the situation at home and abroad in Rome was relatively stable, and there was no political environment to promote piracy. In the late 1st century BC, Octavian eliminated all opposition forces and became the last winner of the Roman power struggle in the late Republic, and the internal contradictions of the Roman ruling group gradually eased. As far as the external environment is concerned, the external adversaries that previously plagued Rome were either annexed or weakened. The Roman national borders have encompassed the entire Mediterranean coast, and the Mediterranean has become a veritable Roman “mare nostrum”. And since the end of the Republic, the Parthian Empire, which threatened Rome in the east, gradually eased relations with Rome in the early days of the system of heads of state. The so-called “Pax Romana” emerged in the Mediterranean. In this situation, any activities, including piracy, that are contrary to the wishes of the ruling class will be regarded as illegal acts that disrupt social order and endanger national security and be suppressed. Furthermore, the dramatic changes in the political situation in the Mediterranean have made the pirates lose their previous instrumental role in the game of great powers.
Secondly, economically, on the one hand, Rome’s maritime trade extends in all directions, becoming an important pillar affecting Rome’s fiscal revenue. The importance of maritime trade in the empire’s rule determines the importance that rulers attach to maritime security. On the other hand, during the period when the imperial economy was booming and there were relatively many ways of earning a living, piracy was naturally excluded as a profession with a very high risk factor. As De Sousa said, due to the establishment of Roman rule, through peaceful acts, people can get many opportunities to get rich, and there is no stronger motivation to plunder manpower and wealth through violence; compared with those who were on the edge of the empire before, With the relative prosperity of the provinces and the improvement of people’s livelihood, the motivation of eastern residents to engage in piracy is naturally less than the old days.
Thirdly, in terms of military level, Octavian established an empire standing navy, ruled the Mediterranean Sea, and established naval bases in strategic locations, stationed naval fleets, and cruised regularly to firmly control the Mediterranean’s sea power. It can be said that Rome’s powerful military machinery has become a solid backing to suppress the rise of opposition forces such as pirates.
The relatively stable domestic and foreign political situation, prosperous maritime trade, and strong military forces during the period of the system of heads of state have become the key factors that inhibit the generation and development of piracy. During this period, although piracy was not completely extinct, it became a historical memory of the people of the Empire to a certain extent. It is not only an important historical material that sets off and supports the stability and prosperity of the Empire, but also an important history for the rulers of the Empire to brag about their cultural and military achievements. certificate. In other words, the historical concept of “piracy” has become an important rhetoric tool for rulers to shape propaganda discourse, enhance their authority, and build their legitimacy.
Fourth, the conclusion
In the late Roman Republic, the two acts of piracy were long-lasting, threatening, and widespread. How to evaluate the status and role of ancient piracy, the author believes that, from a macro perspective, in the long historical process of mankind denying barbarism, the contradictory movements of conquest and anti-conquest, plunder and anti-plunder, slavery and anti-slavery must be Along with the birth and development of slavery, the game between Rome and the pirates was just a manifestation of this contradictory movement. Due to the low level of productivity, there are always a large number of people who cannot make a living across the Mediterranean, making piracy an inevitable product of the era of slavery in the ancient Mediterranean. As for the game between the Roman Republic and the pirates in the late Republic, and the status of piracy in the development of the Roman maritime forces and the establishment of their land and sea empires, some specific analysis should be made based on relevant historical facts.
First, the pirates of Chiriquia began to mainly use Chiriquia as a base and were active in the Eastern Mediterranean. It played a role as a diversion to Eastern powers such as Seleucius and actually weakened potential rivals for Rome Role.
Second, the plundering of pirates in the Eastern Mediterranean provided a valid reason and a legal basis for Rome’s eastward expansion. On the one hand, in the game with pirates, Rome used its power to consolidate provinces and allies to expand naval power; on the other hand, in other foreign wars, Rome often declared that its opponents were “evil” and “cruel” pirates. Collusion, shaping the negative image of pirates in public opinion, and even proclaiming “communis hostis omnium” in order to fight against it justified. In the Mithrati war, Rome accused the opponents of collaborating with pirates and doing no evil in order to discredit the opponents for the sympathy and support of their allies. At the end of the 1970s, Rome claimed that Crete harbored a large number of pirates, forcing the other party to surrender 300 leaders and all ships with a compensation of 4,000 Tariente; after this unreasonable request was rejected, Rome sent Matt Ruth (Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus (Consular Officer, 69 BC)) washes Crete.
Third, the game with the pirates inspired and strengthened the Romans’ sense of the sea. The Romans have always attached great importance to land expansion and land transportation. During the anti-piracy process, Rome gradually realized the importance of the ocean, navy, and sea territory, and regarded the control of the ocean as the fundamental interest of the country. Rome promulgated laws related to combating piracy, established naval ports, trained navy, and improved naval warfare. Octavius established a standing navy, established naval bases in Missenum and Ravenna, and deployed fleets in Syria, Egypt, the Black Sea, and the English Channel. From then on, it has been firmly in control of the Mediterranean sea power for more than 200 years, which is an important foundation for Rome’s political stability and economic prosperity. In the game with the pirates, Rome successfully achieved maritime expansion and expanded the sphere of influence at sea. It successively included Crete, Chiriquia, Syria and other places into its territory, making the Mediterranean its “inland sea”. Established its land and sea supremacy, and since then has truly become the master of the Mediterranean world.