Since 1871, 37 ° C has been regarded as “normal” body temperature, which is derived from values measured by German doctors on 25,000 armpits. Doctors in the United States and other European countries have repeated the experiment and reached the same conclusion, so the number has been carried over. However, according to the US “Time” Weekly reported on the 14th, Stan
Researchers at Fook University have recently discovered that normal human body temperature has fallen for more than a century. This means that the criteria used by doctors to determine whether people have a fever may be redefined.
The university medical school professor Julie Parsonite said her team’s analysis of more than 677,000 body temperature data collected from three periods since 1860 found that the current temperature of men and women is higher than that of men in the late 19th century And women decreased by 0.59 ° C and 0.32 ° C, respectively.
Parsonite believes that this change in human temperature may be justified. She said that people’s average height and weight are increasing, and now people have better nutrition, medical care and public health, and live in comfortable environments with air conditioning and heating. “There is no need to try to maintain body temperature.” That’s not surprising. But the most important reason is probably the remarkable achievements that humans have made in the treatment of infectious diseases over the past century. People use antibiotics and vaccines to cure infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis, which makes the body “no need to deal with these diseases by heating up.”
At the end of the year and the beginning of the year, it is also a node for a periodical summary and outlook on international politics. Taking the 2008 European and American financial crisis as an important sign, a prominent phenomenon in global politics in recent years is that many countries have fallen into a state of significant disability. Britain’s “Brexit” deadlock, France’s “yellow vest” movement, the polarization of political parties in the United States, and Thailand’s recurring political turmoil in the past ten years are all prominent examples.
When some people in the West still use “democracy” as a label to measure the pros and cons of politics, the endless party struggles in these countries and the indecision when encountering problems give the impression that political mechanisms are not used to solve reality Questions are for quarrels. This is obviously not the original intention of human society to construct “politics.”
National disability is a political phenomenon, mainly manifested in the failure of the mechanism for forming political consensus in the past in conflicting opinions, and the government’s inability to formulate public policies that meet the needs of all parties, especially when the country is facing many problems that need to be resolved. The political system is unable to meet the challenges through self-adjustment.
One of the important reasons for the financial crisis in Europe and the United States in 2008 was the severe aging of the existing political system and the lack of early warning of crisis. In recent years, the non-benign factors of international relations have increased significantly, especially in European countries. The situation has generally not improved much, largely due to the gradual penetration and spread of the financial crisis into the political and security fields a decade ago. This also shows that the control of the crisis has also exceeded the capacity limit of many countries.
Why does the country become disabled? From a political perspective, one reason is that the speed of technological development and social change since the second half of the 20th century has exceeded the speed of change in the political systems of many countries, resulting in weak political mechanisms.
British scholars Jennel Foreman and Douglas Baldwin believe that government management in western countries cannot keep up with the speed of financial innovation. Before the financial crisis in 2008, transactions in the financial services sector became increasingly opaque and complex. Such as equity and bond derivatives, hedge fund investments in pension projects, etc., making it difficult for officials and regulators to keep up with the pace of innovation in the private sector. Even if they do, these activities may be “off-shore” to maintain market advantage, making it difficult to regulate.
Of course, the factors that lead to national disability are many. The following phenomena have also become more prominent in recent years, making many countries increasingly incapable of forming political will and resolving domestic and foreign challenges.
First, the financial foundation that underpinned national capacity collapsed. After the 2008 financial crisis, many countries in Europe had a debt crisis. The reason was simple: the government had no money. Running with huge domestic and foreign debts is not unusual for many countries today.
In the past, developed countries have shown an enviable state in terms of economic development, political system, and social governance. That is because “there is food in their hands, and they are not panicked.” It provides a good economic foundation for them to enjoy domestic peace. However, with the years of “de-industrialization” and other industrialized countries catching up later, the era of “developed landscapes” in developed countries is a thing of the past, and their consumption of wealth has already greatly exceeded the creation of wealth.
With less food left in their hands, governments in some countries want to perform their functions of balancing the interests of different groups in the country as they did before. They are less relaxed, and it is much more difficult to resolve various political disputes. The reason why the “yellow vest” movement broke out in France and lasted so long is that the French government has built up debts and dare not use the method of random money distribution and arbitrary commitment of rights to calm down the dispute. This also confirms a view of French philosopher Rousseau, who said that the foundation of politics is that “political conditions can exist only when the gains of human labor exceed their own needs.”
Secondly, the evolution of the political mechanism itself is also weakening the formation of national capabilities. In the industrialization era in the past few hundred years, western countries have long been praised for their good at creating wealth, but since the late 20th century, these same countries have shown more consumption of wealth.
The transition from entrepreneurial countries to consumptive countries coincided with the progress in democracy and the welfare system. The latter once made people see the “end of democracy”, but when the chaos phenomenon occurred in some countries with a higher degree of democratization As more and more people need to reflect on a new issue: whether democratic mechanisms and welfare systems should also have their limits of application. When this limit is constantly breached, a system that looks good in one period may alienate into a source of disaster in the next period.
In the past century or so, the western countries have made visible progress in political construction, but due to lack of prudence, they have also caused two major problems that laid the groundwork for political decline.
One is “political excess”, that is, the expansion of civil economic, political, and social rights with “political correctness” as an important expression. Although it conforms to moral expectations, it may exceed the carrying capacity of the existing political system. The other is “political insufficiency”, that is, under the influence of economic liberal ideology, the original balance between the will of the state and the will of capital was gradually broken. The strong capital forced the policy to give way, not only damaging the country’s financial foundation but also the society. The level of inequality has increased significantly.
Third, the weak regulation of economic globalization has also hurt the internal governance of many countries. For most countries, participation and integration into globalization are important external conditions for absorbing advanced foreign technology and experience, thereby driving their own development. However, if the national autonomy is lost in the tide of economic globalization, it will bring trouble to the country’s internal stability.
Globalization or large-scale economic exchanges with other countries will usually change the economic structure and interest structure of a country. In the absence of regulation, it will also cause tax losses and even the disintegration of the national economy. Transformed into alienation of interests. This will further change the political ecology of a country and pose a challenge to national governance.
The political turmoil in Thailand over the past ten years has reflected the impact of economic globalization on a country’s own factors, which will affect the country’s original governance capabilities. In an open letter to EU citizens early last year, French President Macron stated that the “enemies” of Europe are big countries, Internet giants, and refugees. Internet giants represent the capital forces in the process of globalization. They are racing around the world and rampaging. Macron has seen it as a new source of threat.