How can lung cancer be detected and treated early?

  Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor of the respiratory system, and it is one of the malignant tumors with high morbidity and mortality. Environmental pollution, smoking and other factors can cause the disease. According to relevant statistics, lung cancer is the first and second malignant tumor in men and women in morbidity and mortality. According to existing medical conditions, if any cancer is to be cured, early detection and early treatment are essential. Lung cancer is no exception. This article specifically introduces how to achieve early detection and early treatment of lung cancer?
  1 What is the pathogenesis of lung cancer? What kind?
  Lung cancer is a malignant tumor that originates in the lung mucosa and is one of the most common malignant tumors in clinical practice. According to statistics, lung cancer is the malignant tumor with the highest morbidity and mortality in men, and it ranks second among malignant tumors in females.
  The pathogenesis of lung cancer has no uniform conclusion in medicine. However, according to related research, environmental pollution, long-term smoking and drinking, long-term exposure to ionizing radiation, genetic factors, etc. can cause lung cancer. In addition, some chronic lung diseases such as tuberculosis and bronchiectasis, if left untreated, can also cause squamous metaplasia (a precancerous lesion) and cause cancer. Lung cancer is also an “occupational cancer.” Lung cancer is divided into two kinds of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer according to the source of the cells. There are two types of lung cancer: central lung cancer and peripheral lung cancer. Generally speaking, the left lung and the upper lobe are the most susceptible, especially in the anterior part of the upper lobe, but less in the middle lobe.
  According to the degree of lung cancer differentiation, it can be divided into three types: highly differentiated lung cancer, poorly differentiated lung cancer, and undifferentiated lung cancer. The lower the degree of differentiation, the more difficult it is to treat lung cancer. In general, the treatment of highly differentiated lung cancer is relatively satisfactory, and the mortality rate is relatively low. The treatment of poorly differentiated and undifferentiated lung cancer is relatively poor, with the highest mortality rate.
  2 What are the pathways for the spread and metastasis of lung cancer?
  Generally speaking, in the middle and late stages of cancer, cancer will spread and metastasize to establish its own “network of relationships” outside the primary site. The spread and metastasis of lung cancer include direct spread, blood metastasis and lymphatic metastasis.
  2.1 Direct diffusion
  That is, cancer cells spread directly to adjacent organs through the mucosa and other parts. Generally speaking, lung cancer with the disease site close to the periphery of the lungs can invade the visceral pleura, thereby causing cancer cells to partly escape from the tumor and be implanted in the pleural cavity. For central or near mediastinal lung cancer, the visceral pleura, chest wall tissue, and mediastinal organs infiltrate.
  2.2 transfer of blood
  that is transferred to the channel through the blood. This is the fastest transfer method. Generally speaking, cancerous cells return to the left atrium along with pulmonary veins, and can then be transferred to other distal sites such as the liver, craniocerebral, skeletal system, adrenal glands, and pancreas.
  2.3 lymph node metastasis
  that is transferred is through the lymphatic channels. This is also the most common form of metastasis in lung cancer. Generally speaking, cancer cells can pass through the bronchial tubes and the lymph channels around the pulmonary blood vessels. First, infiltrate the lung lobes or lymph nodes around the bronchus adjacent to the tumor’s original site, and then infiltrate the hilar or subcarinal lymph nodes, then infiltrate the mediastinum And paratracheal lymph nodes, and finally infiltrate the supraclavicular or cervical lymph nodes.
  3 What are the common early symptoms of lung cancer?
  The symptoms of lung cancer are roughly composed of local symptoms, systemic symptoms, extrapulmonary symptoms, infiltration and metastatic symptoms. Once the last two symptoms appear, it indicates that lung cancer has reached the middle and advanced stages. Most of the early symptoms of lung cancer are not obvious. Generally, the early symptoms of central lung cancer are more obvious and it is easier to detect early. Peripheral lung cancer has significant symptoms later, and is therefore not easy to detect early. Generally, a common early symptoms of lung cancer include the following aspects:
  3.1 local symptoms
  local symptoms refers to symptoms in the respiratory system itself, because the lung cancer cell infiltration caused by stimulation, blocking and compression brought about, These include: cough, bloody or hemoptysis in the sputum, chest pain, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.
  3.2 systemic symptoms
  including fever, skin abnormalities, cardiovascular dysfunction, blood disorders.
  4 How should early lung cancer be diagnosed?
  Early diagnosis of lung cancer is usually performed clinically by plain radiographs, blood tests, chest CT, bronchoscopy and pathology, sputum cytology, and thoracotomy.
  5 How should early lung cancer be treated?
  Once diagnosed as early-stage lung cancer, radical lung cancer surgery should be performed immediately, and the tumor lesions and adjacent lymph nodes that may be involved are resected together with postoperative chemotherapy and other means. In recent years, the rapid popularity of thoracoscopy and Da Vinci robots has made radical surgery for lung cancer minimally invasive, with less bleeding during the operation and quicker postoperative recovery.
  Now, with effective treatment of early lung cancer, its five-year survival rate has reached more than 90%. However, the effect of lung cancer in the middle and advanced stages is very unsatisfactory. So the significance of early detection and early treatment can be seen.