“Past” and “Future” have different emotions in time
Think about the night before the spring outing when you were a child. Is it exciting to fall asleep late or wake up early in the morning, but it’s no big deal to recall it now? The exam or interview that is about to be held tomorrow will definitely make you more stressful than the one that ended yesterday: these are human nature, after all, the future is full of uncertainty, no matter expectation or worry, in the dust It will always make people feel unsure before it settles.
Then, on the time scale of “past” and “future”, when we compare ourselves with others, do emotions such as jealousy and dissatisfaction change due to different “time points” of the same thing?
Ed O’Brien, associate professor of behavioral sciences at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, and the research team gave a positive answer: People feel more jealous of the good things that will happen to others in the “future”, in other words, facing those ” When people who have what we want, if they already have it, our sour lemon mentality will be lessened. After all, this is an established history.
The team conducted a total of three experimental studies. In the first study, 620 participants needed to imagine a hypothetical scenario: my friend got lucky (for example, getting a paid long vacation, finding a job with less living and more money, getting a new car Supercars…), and these opportunities are what the participants were unable to realize. At the request of the researchers, they recorded their jealousy or envy of their friends’ good fortune, but used two different sets of “time points” as a control. In the imagination of some of the participants, the good luck of their friends was about to Happened, and in the imagination of other people, these things have happened in the past.
The original experimental samples were 208 college students, 217 Chicago local residents, and 200 participants from the Amazon online platform; five events were assumed: vacation, date, new job, new home, and new car.
Experimental results show that the jealousy index of “future” is higher than the value of “past”. In the hypothetical scenario, the “point in time” has an important influence on emotions: people are more jealous of things that have not happened (but will happen) than things that have already happened.
Before Valentine’s Day can cause more jealousy than after Valentine’s Day
But can this conclusion be confirmed in real life?
The research team carried out a follow-up experiment: They published 100 paid questionnaires on Amazon’s online platform every day for 28 days in February 2017. Each participant had only one opportunity to answer the questionnaire. In the end, 2,824 were received. Feedback from independent participants. Among them, women accounted for 53.82%, with an average age of 35.9 years.
Because it is impossible to determine whether the participant is single, the researchers set up a “perfect Valentine’s Day plan for someone else’s house” scene story that makes ordinary people jealous. Participants take at least 30 seconds to read this story before recording it. Current time, jealousy towards other people’s plans, etc. The statistical results are basically consistent with the first study: Generally speaking, the jealousy index of participants will increase as Valentine’s Day approaches on February 14. However, once Valentine’s Day is over, from February 15th At the beginning, their jealousy began to weaken and remained at a relatively low level for a long time.
The researchers repeated the same experiment in February 2018, but it was simplified to a three-day (February 13-15) observation. Among the 200 online participants with an average age of 38.5 years, 54% The sample is female. Finally, the same conclusion as the previous experiment was reached.
Benign jealousy and malicious jealousy are affected by “time point”
Another interesting phenomenon worthy of attention is that benign jealousy (that is, “envy”) and malicious jealousy will also trade off due to the difference in “time point”. In the imagination of experiment participants, if they had already happened in the past, compared to what was about to happen, the nature of jealousy would undergo a subtle change: the accompanying negative feelings (frustration/disgust/hostility) would be less and more positive. On the contrary, emotions increase, such as feeling motivated, happy for the other’s luck, and so on.
The good things that happen to others in the future make people have more negative emotions and fewer positive emotions. On the contrary, if it happened in the past, people will have more positive emotions.
Regarding this point, the research leader cited an example from Internet life: most people may think that their life is okay, but they just swipe their hands on social media and see the perfect life carefully created by others, even if they know that they are with us. There is no overlap in real life, but still can’t help but compare, which may lead to a collapse of mentality. However, it is also envy, but there are many nuances in it-if you read a post on social media that “pack your bags and prepare to set off for Hokkaido”, it may be better than seeing a line “return home from Hokkaido” Receive greater stimulation.
People have always been evasive and demeaning to jealousy, and are reluctant to admit it directly. One significance of this research is that when you feel jealous, you realize that “time is also one of the variables of jealousy”, and then effectively regulate your emotions. Not only can you better control it, but you can reject it (or Worry) may also be able to follow a bit.
Jealousy is human nature, but it does not mean that you are totally helpless with it. Whether it is jealousy, sadness, or anger, you will understand yourself better if you understand them.