Ectopic pregnancy is one of the common emergencies in obstetrics and gynecology. In the early stage of the disease, pregnant women have no obvious symptoms. However, as the gestational sac continues to grow and develop, the rupture may cause the pregnant woman to have hemorrhage, which will cause serious health and psychology of the pregnant woman. Impact. Early detection and early treatment can effectively control the damage caused by ectopic pregnancy to pregnant women. At present, the main methods of clinical examination are abdominal ultrasound, vaginal ultrasound, and abdominal ultrasound combined with transvaginal ultrasound, which will be described in detail below.
Basic knowledge of ectopic pregnancy
Medically, the phenomenon of implantation and growth of fertilized eggs outside the body cavity of a woman’s uterus is defined as an ectopic pregnancy. In the early stage of ectopic pregnancy, the patient has no obvious symptoms, but as the disease progresses, the patient will experience menopause, irregular vaginal bleeding, etc. If pregnant women experience the above phenomena, they should go to the hospital for examination in time.
The most common ectopic pregnancy in clinical practice is tubal pregnancy, which accounts for more than 90%. Other ectopic pregnancy includes abdominal pregnancy, cervical pregnancy, broad ligament pregnancy, uterine residual horn pregnancy, ovarian pregnancy, and interstitial pregnancy. Wait.
Causes of ectopic pregnancy
The cause of ectopic pregnancy can be roughly summarized as the following points.
First, fallopian tube disease. The fertilized egg enters the female uterus through the fallopian tube for implantation. If there is a problem with the fallopian tube, the fertilized egg will be blocked, and then implant and develop in the fallopian tube. Common fallopian tube diseases include fallopian tube blockage, inflammation, infection, fallopian tube dysplasia, and surrounding tissue tumors. , May cause ectopic pregnancy.
Second, contraception failed. If oral contraceptives or the method of placing an IUD in a woman’s uterus cannot effectively prevent the union and implantation of the fertilized egg, it will easily lead to ectopic pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy.
Third, other factors that may cause ectopic pregnancy. Women who smoke for a long time, are too old, change their sexual partners frequently, and have endocrine abnormalities may cause the disease.
Ultrasonography of ectopic pregnancy
When women of childbearing age have menopause, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and early pregnancy test paper test is positive, they need to go to the hospital to check whether there is an ectopic pregnancy. Examination methods include gynecological specialist physical examination, ultrasound examination, HCG measurement, etc. Ultrasonography can be subdivided into abdominal ultrasound, transvaginal ultrasound, and abdominal ultrasound combined with transvaginal ultrasound. This article focuses on the introduction of abdominal ultrasound combined with transvaginal ultrasound.
Abdominal ultrasonography is to scan the patient’s abdomen to observe the position and status of the pregnancy, and to explore the nearby organs and the effusion of the abdominal cavity. The patient should drink plenty of water to fill the bladder before the examination. The purpose of this is to reduce intestinal gas and abdominal wall fat that interfere with the examination results. During the examination, the patient lies on the examination table in a supine position, and the doctor uses an ultrasound probe to examine the patient’s lower abdomen and above the pubic symphysis. It should be noted that abdominal ultrasonography requires cross-section, longitudinal section, oblique section and other multi-angle examinations in order to have a more detailed understanding of the condition. After the examination, the patient needs to be reminded to urinate as soon as possible, and to empty the bladder to facilitate transvaginal ultrasound examination.
Transvaginal ultrasonography refers to the use of an ultrasound probe to enter the body through the female vagina to explore the female’s cervix and vaginal vault to diagnose ectopic pregnancy. After lying flat on the examination table, the patient embraced his legs with both hands and lay on the examination table in a lithotomy position. Then, the doctor applies the couplant on the ultrasound probe, and after putting on the condom, it is necessary to apply the couplant on the condom. After that, the probe is sent into the woman’s vagina through the woman’s vagina to conduct a full-scale exploration of the situation in the uterus. It should be noted that during the examination, the patient’s pubic symphysis can be gently pressed to make the patient’s uterus and the ultrasound probe close to each other, which can make the examination result clearer and more accurate.
Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of ultrasound diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy
The disadvantage of abdominal ultrasound in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is that the gestational sac can be clearly found after 6 weeks, and the attachment of the uterus and its display will also be affected to varying degrees. The timeliness of the examination of ectopic pregnancy is not good enough. Although transvaginal ultrasound does not have the above problems, it has the problem of limited penetration of high-frequency probes, and the patient’s abdominal far-field display is not clear enough. It cannot be displayed well when the mass is large or high. Happening.
The combination of the two for diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is a more respected clinical examination method. Its advantage is that it can carry out a comprehensive and multi-sectional examination of ectopic pregnancy, which greatly improves the accuracy of the examination results. At the same time, this inspection method is non-invasive, safe and convenient, and can clearly display the patient’s abdomen and uterus, which facilitates the determination of the next treatment plan. The disadvantage is that the inspection result is affected by the precision of the instrument, the doctor’s ultrasonic inspection experience and level, and the patient’s cooperation.
In summary, ectopic pregnancy has a serious impact on women’s body and psychology, and early detection and early treatment can effectively reduce this impact. The diagnosis method of abdominal ultrasound combined with transvaginal ultrasound can comprehensively display the patient’s intra-abdominal condition, and also show the various changes and masses in the patient’s uterine cavity, which is helpful for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy and reduces missed diagnosis.