A backpacker’s guide to the solar system

  Space is harsh, destructive radiation, extreme temperatures, and toxic gases, anything can cause us to die. However, the vast and mysterious space also has countless natural wonders. Not to mention the distant places, the solar system alone will be enough for us to explore for a long time.
  Perhaps one day, we will have rocket technology that can launch deep into space, suitable protective equipment, space trekking equipment, etc. Lucky adventurers may be able to personally explore the natural landscape of the solar system.
   If you could really hike in the solar system, where would you like to go? Imagine you are wearing a spacesuit with enough supplies for several months. Please follow me and visit the Star Park.
   Moon cave
   Our first destination is the largest moon on the sea – on the Ocean of Storms. In fact, as early as November 1969, the astronauts of the American Apollo 12 spacecraft landed on the moon here.
   We all know that there is no liquid water on the moon. The lunar sea refers to the darker area on the surface of the moon that we see, and their surface is covered with rocks similar to earth basalt. The Storm Ocean is the largest known 22-month sea so far. A series of hills dot the storm ocean, which is the best place for day hikes.
   In addition to large and small ridges, the most special attraction is the volcanic cave. Earlier, scientists discovered a large number of underground caves on the moon. Among them, the cave on the Marius Mountain in the Storm Ocean is 50 kilometers long. The interior of the cave is tens of meters high and hundreds of meters wide, making it a potential human habitation. Ground. According to the analysis of the researchers, this “tunnel” is likely to be a huge cave left by lava flows during the past lunar volcanic activities, that is, the “lava tunnel”. At the same time, the cave also has three longitudinal holes, which may have been formed by the collapse of the top of the cave.
   Imagine you are climbing a mountain during the day and exploring a shallow canyon nearby. In the evening, you return to the ancient campsite formed by lava and gaze at the earth and the stars through the “skylight”. What a wonderful journey!
   The highest peak of the solar system
   Then walk outside the solar system. On Mars, there is a mountain higher than all the mountains on other planets in the solar system-this is Mount Olympus. Its highest peak is 21 kilometers high, which is about 2.5 times that of Mount Everest. However, compared to the difficulty of climbing Mount Everest, we can easily climb the highest peak of the solar system. Because Mount Olympus is high, but not steep. The angle between the hillside and the horizontal is only about 5 degrees, and the gravity on Mars is only about one-third of that of the earth, so climbing will not be too tiring. In addition to being the highest in the solar system, Mount Olympus has a huge area, the size of the entire France.
   The most lonely mountain
   Earth, Mars, Venus has many mountains, and every mountain contains a wealth of geological history of the planet, so in these three planets, we can choose any mountain they want disapproved. However, on Ceres (the largest asteroid in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter), we have only one choice because there is only one mountain.
   The name of the lonely mountain is Ahuna. It is about 4 kilometers high and 20 kilometers wide. It was formed about 200 million years ago. Apart from being alone, it is also an “ice volcano”. It is not magma, but mud containing salt, ice and other minerals.
   “Ice volcano” is a unique terrain that cannot be found on Earth, but exists on other planets in the solar system. In fact, it is not a real volcano, but the eruption process is similar to that of earth volcanoes. Ice volcanoes are made up of solid ice shells. When the temperature inside the planet rises, the deep ice layer of the planet will melt. If the upper ice layer breaks at this time, the deep melted ice water will be like the magma inside the earth. Compressed by the surrounding pressure, it erupted along the cracks. This is the process of the peculiar ice volcano eruption.
   The existence of “ice volcanoes” makes Ceres widely distributed with water-bearing minerals, which shows that this dwarf planet is likely to have oceans all over the world in the past.
   Since the gravity on the surface of Ceres is only about 0.028 times that of the earth, we can easily climb the only mountain on this planet and look at the dusty surface that was once the ocean world from its highest point.
   Equatorial Ridge of Titan
   Crossing the asteroid belt and Jupiter, we came near Saturn. Saturn’s third largest moon, Iapetus, is a yin and yang face, known for the huge color difference between its two hemispheres, and the dark side is called the Cassini area. The biggest attraction of Titan is its equatorial ridge in the center of Cassini. The so-called equatorial ridge is similar to the continental watershed (mountain that separates two adjacent regions) on the earth. For example, the Qinling watershed in my country is named after the equatorial ridge close to the equator of Titan. In the entire solar system, only the three satellites of Saturn have equatorial ridges. In addition to Iapet, there are the smaller ones, Iaes and Iaes.
   The equatorial ridge of Titan is 1,300 kilometers long, 20 kilometers wide, and 13 kilometers high, covering most of the equator. At the same time, on the bright side of the equator, there are many peaks as high as 10 kilometers. These peaks and the equatorial ridge divide the Iapetus into two halves, which looks like two metal semicircles welded together.
   If you start at one end, gradually climb up the ridge and eventually reach the peak. When you look down on the entire satellite, the dark matter covered in certain areas may attract your attention. These substances actually come from the Phoebe satellite (Ione), and the debris dropped by the Phoebe satellite will be absorbed by Ione. , And finally become a dark covering. When you look up, you will also see the twinkling halo of Saturn, which is not visible on other moons of Saturn, so take a picture now.
   What caused the formation of the equatorial ridge? There are various assumptions about this. One of the claims is that in a short period of time, sub-satellites (satellites) fell along the equator, forming today’s huge mountains. There is also a theory that the equatorial ridge was lifted up by freezing underground ice. The strangest statement is: In combination with the lower density of Iapet, some scientists believe that Iapet is a giant spaceship made by aliens. Either way, Titan is definitely worth a visit.
   The most magnificent canyon
   Finally, we came to Charon, which is the moon of Pluto. On the surface of Charon Star, there is a magnificent huge canyon. It is 1,000 kilometers long and has a depth of 9 kilometers. It is much longer and deeper than the largest canyon on earth, the Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon in my country. Many (Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon is located in Tibet, my country, with a total length of 504.6 kilometers, an average depth of 2.268 kilometers, and a deepest point of 6.09 kilometers). With proper equipment, it will take a few months for hikers to cross the Charon Grand Canyon.
   How did such a large canyon form?
   Although the current geological landscape of Charon is diverse, with huge mountains, wide canyons, diverse surface colors and landslides, the former Charon is likely to be a marine world like Europa and Enceladus. However, with the passage of time, the internal heat of Charon gradually weakened, and the ocean below the surface began to freeze. The sea ice expanded and burst through the surface of the planet, finally leaving a huge scar on the surface of Charon.
   Now that we have all arrived at Charon, we can also stop by to see its dark red polar cap at the North Pole. The formation of the red polar cap is related to Pluto. The methane gas that escapes from Pluto will be captured by Charon’s gravitational pull and be frozen into ice to gather in the polar regions of Charon. Then ultraviolet rays from the sun trigger a chemical reaction, This methane is converted into heavier hydrocarbons, and eventually becomes a red organic substance called Thorin.
   In fact, there are still many scenic spots in the solar system. I can only introduce a few here. If you were to be a tour guide, which scenic spots would you recommend?