Black technology on the highway

  In today’s highly developed technological civilization, the popularity of electric vehicles is accelerating, and autonomous driving technology is gradually being accepted by people, and the era of fresher and cleaner smart transportation is coming.
   In fact, the highly developed future of travel is inseparable from driving tools, let alone roads. The impact of roads on the life span of our car, economic development, and environmental protection far exceeds our imagination.
  Asphalt alternative materials
  soft rubber was able to lay the hard way! Studies have found that tires are worn on asphalt roads for many years and will be worn to varying degrees. However, rubber highways paved with waste tires have almost twice the service life of traditional highways and can be 50 quieter than traditional highways. %! Because rubber is not as easy to expand and contract as hard asphalt, and it is not easy to crack at high temperatures, it has a longer service life than asphalt.
   Plastic waste turns waste into treasure and becomes a new star on the road. The Indian government once required that city road construction be filled with molten plastic waste to fill up potholes. This request inspired British engineer Toby McCartney, who soon founded a plastic road construction company to try to build roads with plastic waste. In the end McCartney succeeded! The plastic bottles are ground into granules and mixed with standard asphalt. The cost of paving materials can be reduced by 25%. At the same time, it also realizes the rational use of resources and reduces the extra cost of waste disposal.
   Some researchers have used seemingly impossible cooking waste (such as oyster beans, cooking oil) and even coffee grounds to improve the adhesion of asphalt. Paving roads with this mixed material will reduce the carbon content of new roads (the asphalt is mainly carbon and hydrogen). Even so, don’t expect to smell the food on the road anytime soon. Edible leftovers can only replace a small part of the sticky asphalt required by the road because they do not have strong abrasion resistance. The method is used in a large area.
  Road black technology
  Every year, human beings need to consume more energy. According to statistics, by 2050, global energy consumption will increase by about 25%, which is equivalent to nearly 15 billion barrels of oil consumed annually, which will put tremendous pressure on the earth’s energy reserves and the natural environment. So, some engineers thought, why not get this energy from the streets all over the world?
   As the most typical representative of the combination of new energy and smart transportation, the world’s first photovoltaic highway in Jinan, Shandong must be mentioned. This “solar road”, which is popular all over the world, has realized the “miracle” of generating electricity when exposed to the sun, charging electric cars while running, and automatically melting snow on the road when it snows. Its principle is not complicated, just as people feel “hot” when stepping on an asphalt road with bare feet in summer, an open road tends to absorb a lot of sunlight and heat.
   Experts said that this new type of road is composed of three layers: the outermost layer is a light-transmitting concrete pavement with high strength and a light transmittance of more than 90%; the middle layer is a photovoltaic panel, which can use the solar energy absorbed by the road when no cars pass by. Power generation; the bottom layer is an insulating layer. The total thickness of the three-layer structure does not exceed 3 cm.
   Photovoltaic road can be said to be the best carrier for mobile charging of electric vehicles in the future. This kind of pavement has the characteristics of smoothness, anti-skid, power generation and durability, and it can share green energy in real time and realize the integration of transportation, energy and emission reduction.
  Road will heal itself of
  changes in temperature and humidity cause cracks in the road, how to make it self-repair highways? Currently, scientists are studying various forms of automatic crack repair methods.
   Eric Schlangen, a researcher at the Delft Asphalt Company in the Netherlands, uses steel wool fibers as a matrix to turn the asphalt surface into a huge conductor. When road cracks begin to form, a truck with a huge magnet is used to drive over the road, so that the metal will shrink by the repulsive force of the magnet, thereby automatically repairing the road crack.
   So far, the Dutch have adopted Schlangen’s design on more than 10 roads, and more advanced solutions are also being brewed. Junfeng Su of Tianjin University of Technology once worked with Schlangen to sprinkle a chemical polymer called a “rejuvenator”, which is constantly expanding, like a small capsule, on several streets in Tianjin. Because there are small cracks on the road surface, the capsules will be stuck in these small cracks first. Whenever the cracks begin to evolve into the cracks, the small capsules in the gaps will expand and fill up the cracks. Facts have proved that this method can prevent road safety from being affected by small cracks, and at the same time minimize the possibility of cracks becoming larger, so that aging roads are no longer so fragile.
  Will drink of the road
  as the climate warms, some of the territory below sea level in the countries and regions continue to be affected by extreme weather, floods larger and more frequent. Heavy water often soaks the traditional asphalt pavement, causing serious road damage. In some large cities, due to the insufficient construction of the drainage system in the early years, the scene of “cars swimming in the water” appears every rainstorm day. In addition, long-term use of large areas of concrete will also cause hardening of the road surface, making it difficult for the soil that originally absorbs water to penetrate into the water, making urban flood control more difficult.
   In order to solve this problem, British concrete manufacturing company Lafarge Tarmac has developed a new concrete pavement infiltration system called Topmix Permeable. This kind of pavement can absorb 1,000 liters of water per square meter per minute, compared to the vast majority of concrete roads that can only seep about 8.3 liters of water per square meter per minute. In other words, the drainage capacity of the new pavement is 120 times that of the traditional pavement! If you pour water on the road, the water will not flow in all directions, but will quickly penetrate under the road. The road is like a sponge.
  So how is the new permeable pavement built?
  Topmix Permeable does not use sand-gravel concrete directly on the surface, but first splices smaller granite gravel together, leaving a larger gap for water to pass through, forming a gravel layer with strong surface penetration; then the middle is The water storage layer paved by larger pebbles and the relatively soft rubble bottom layer; the last is the underground drainage pipe we usually see. The hardness and permeability of this pavement can both be considered.
   In order to adapt to different pavement requirements, the company also designed three different pavement structures: full permeability, semi-permeable and full barrier. Full permeation means that all water flows into the underground soil layer through the road surface, which is more suitable for wet areas with abundant rainfall; semi-permeable means that all water enters the nearby drainage pipe or sewer through the road surface, which is more suitable for the soil under the road surface. Areas with poor layer water absorption; full barrier means that all water does not flow into the ground after passing through the road, but into the underground water storage system, which is collected for other purposes. It is more suitable for dry weather and water resources. Areas with high demand for recycling.
   However, this kind of pavement has two disadvantages: one is that it is more expensive than the current asphalt concrete pavement; the other is that it is not suitable for use in colder areas, because too much water under the pavement will affect the road surface due to freezing and cracking. Sturdiness.