Mysterious Nazca paintings

  South America is a magical continent, with mysterious buildings and remains of ancient civilizations everywhere. Some people even say that every stone in South America is a mystery. Nazca paintings are a mystery in this land. Many people learn about Nazca from the rankings of various unsolved mysteries and mysterious phenomena, thinking that there have been aliens there.
  Nazca is located in the southeast of Ica Province, Peru. It was originally a little-known town. To the east of the town is the majestic Andes Mountains. Between the town and the mountains lies a vast wasteland with an area of ​​about 250 square kilometers, which the locals call the “Nazca Wasteland”. This barren land is covered by a thick layer of ochre-colored sand. There is no grass, birds and beasts are hard to live, and people are inaccessible. It is called “ghost land”.
  In the middle of the 20th century, archaeologists unearthed a large number of ancient tombs here, and many burial objects such as painted pottery and textiles attracted the attention of historians and archaeologists, so the town gradually became lively. However, what ultimately made this place famous and became a well-known tourist attraction was the huge pictures that people discovered inadvertently.
  In 1939, in order to complete his doctoral dissertation on ancient water diversion systems, Dr. Paul Kosok of Long Island University in New York decided to fly an airplane along the route of the water diversion system for an inspection. When flying over the dry Nazca wasteland, he found some magical pictures, a straight line picture like a parallel runway, and a picture of a hummingbird more than 300 meters long with the bird’s beak aligned in the direction of the sunrise, etc. Wait. The overjoyed Kosok came to the conclusion: “This is the largest astronomical book in the world.” The
  labyrinth-like pictures cover an area of ​​500 square kilometers, and they are made of yellow-white sand under the surface rocks. Because the place is extremely dry, these drawings have been preserved. After World War II, Maria Lecce, a teacher born in Germany, made a serious investigation of these drawings for the first time and named them “land paintings”.
  Since then, people have discovered about 700 simple-line patterns, including vultures, spiders, herons, hummingbirds, capuchins, lizards and other animal patterns, as well as simple human-shaped patterns. Many scientists and amateurs have given various explanations to these giant paintings. It seems that these paintings have become the largest series of Rorschach inks in the world. Some people think that they are the astronomical calendars of the ancient Indians. They determine the seasons and hours according to the sun’s sinking on the lines; some infer that the giant paintings are related to the grand religious rituals held by the Indians at that time; others think that this may be Road sign or irrigation system of ancient Indians. There are also some more magical theories, such as the big pictures used by the ancients who took the original hot air balloons to appreciate, or the runways used by the alien spacecraft to land, etc. These theories are widely spread and make Nazca become More mysterious.
  Maria Lecce began her research on Nazcadi painting in 1948 and has never left this desert since. She has been surveying and clearing the ground silently throughout her life, making corrections based on the original traces of the Nazca Line, and repairing approximately 10,000 lines, 60 images of animals and people, and more than 40 triangles and irregular quadrilaterals. In a book, she once described these giant pictures like this: “Within a radius of 50 square kilometers, various lines are drawn vertically and horizontally, depicting huge birds and beasts and various accurate geometric figures. From a high altitude, these giants The painting seems to be drawn with the fingers of a giant.” She especially wanted to know whether the Nazca people used geometric principles when designing and depicting lines. Many lines climbed slopes through valleys and stretched for a long distance but remained straight. The ancients probably used to draw lines between stakes as a standard for drawing lines. In the 1980s, under the leadership of Lecce, the students of Nazca Town demonstrated to people how the ancients drew a Nazca line: first marked a straight line with a benchmark and a rope, and then The black stone on the surface was taken away, revealing the shining white sand below, contrasting the surrounding iron-rich rocks, and a line appeared. Although Lecce’s experiment vividly verified her hypothesis, it could not explain the pattern composed of many arcs in the Nazca area, such as a capuchin monkey that was more than 100 meters long.
  Lecce exhausted her life to search for the secrets of Nazcadi paintings, and at the end of her life she finally found the most reasonable answer she thought. Fix one end of the line, and rotate the other end on the ground like a drawing with a compass to draw an arc. Lecce’s research also shows that the ancient Nazca people would design patterns on a small plot of land about 1.8 meters in advance. She found these drafts next to several larger patterns. The designers determined the proportions of the arc, center point and radiating line on the small draft, and then appropriately enlarged it.
  However, the world does not generally accept her explanation of how the giant lines are drawn. Her theory also cannot explain how irregular patterns are made, such as giant spiders and magical shepherds. Obviously, the patterns of spiders and shepherds were not drawn by the ancient Nazca people randomly or unintentionally on the vast ground. They must be made after having a blueprint in advance. So, how did the ancient Nazca people enlarge the pictures on the drawings to 10,000 square meters or more? How do they ensure that the pattern is not deformed or distorted during the construction process? There are no answers to these questions so far.
  Lecce has been protecting these huge land paintings all her life. In order to prevent the Nazca land paintings from being damaged by road construction, tourism and other factors, she lobbied in Peru, exhausted her efforts, and worked hard to promote the Nazca land paintings in 1995. Was included in the “World Heritage List.” Lecce died in 1998 and was buried here. She was named “Nazca’s Outstanding Daughter” by the town of Nazca, and a school and a street were named after her.
  In fact, Nazca is not the first civilization to create land paintings. On the slopes of Palpa Hill not far from Nazca, three realistic human figures lay quietly. These people have strange eyes and ray-like hair. These patterns can be traced back to at least 2,400 years ago, before the birth of the recorded Nazca civilization. Researchers classified as many as 75 groups of paintings in Palpa as the works of early civilizations in this area.
  Moreover, the notion that “the paintings of the ground can only be seen from the air” is just a modern myth. The earliest giant paintings are usually placed on the hillside and can be seen from the prairie; in the early days of Nazca, the patterns became It is more abstract and natural, and its location is transferred from the nearby hillside to the surface.
  Research in the 21st century believes that these paintings are more like walking stages, and are places for religious ceremonies. In the early days, these lines may gradually evolve from patterns into paths for ritual queues. According to documents excavated by archaeologists, in the later period, due to the rapid increase in population, more people participated in these rituals, so the ground paintings adopted open geometric patterns. For example, some trapezoidal patterns expanded to 600 meters wide.
  Archaeologists have noticed that there are some large man-made stone piles at the end of the trapezoidal pattern. Among them are some broken pottery pieces, lobster shells, plant remains and other animal remains that are obviously ritual tribute. Human remains of human sacrifice. They speculated that at the end of the Nazca civilization, lack of water had become the biggest crisis, and they asked for rain through various rituals.
  However, this is still only one of the many interpretations of Nazcadi painting. So far, the mystery painted by Nazcadi still has no convincing answer, and it will still exist for a long time in various “unsolved mysteries of the world”.