Plague

  In the 15th and 6th centuries, the Spaniards imported smallpox as a weapon into the Americas. The method was to give the patients’ clothes and blankets to the Indians, and then let it spread. The consequence of this plague was to destroy the Inca and Astor. American Empire. The difference is that the American continent is more closed than Eurasia, the natural resistance of people is lower, and society does not have some medical, institutional and customary epidemic prevention methods of the Old World, such as burning the patient and the house utensils. The resulting loss is even more terrible: the Indian population dropped sharply from nearly 20 million before the Spanish arrived in the Americas to hundreds of thousands. This is the darkest scene in the history of the world.
   There is no exact record of smallpox in ancient Chinese classics. In the medical book “Elbow Reserve Emergency Recipe” written by Jin Dynasty scientist Ge Hong, the symptoms of smallpox and its prevalence were described for the first time: “When you are sick, you will get sores on the head, face and body. Such as fire sores, they all contain white pulp, and they will follow the decision. If they are not cured, the dramatist will often die. If the cure is poor, the sore will be purple and black, and the sore will disappear after age. This vicious air is according to Ge Hong. The record in “Elbow Reserve Emergency Fang” is “It was obtained from the attack on the captives in Nanyang in Jianwu, but it was called a sore.” The name “Liu Sore”.
   The earliest method to prevent and treat smallpox was the human pox vaccination method discovered by the Chinese: the vaccinated person was infected with smallpox once and then gained immunity to smallpox.
   The human pox vaccination method invented in our country soon spread abroad. In 1688, Russia first sent doctors to China to learn vaccination and detection methods. In the 18th century AD, our country’s human pox vaccination spread from Russia to Turkey. At that time, the wife of the British ambassador to Turkey, Montagu (1689~1762), saw the locals vaccinating children to prevent smallpox in Constantinople. The effect was very good and she was very moved. Since her brother died of smallpox and she was infected herself, she decided to inoculate her son with human pox. In 1717, under the care of the embassy surgeon, her son was vaccinated with human pox. Afterwards, she wrote the news of her success to her country and told her friends. After Madame Montagu returned to England in June 1718, she strongly advocated vaccination. Since then, human pox vaccination has spread in the UK. Subsequently, European countries and India also tried to vaccinate human pox. In the early 18th century, Tunisia in northern Africa also began to implement this law. In 1744, Li Renshan, a native of Hangzhou, went to Nagasaki, Jiuzhou, Japan, and taught the vaccination method to Ori Ryugen and Horie Gendao. In 1752 AD, “Yi Zong Jin Jian” was introduced to Japan, so the vaccination method also spread in Japan.
   In the 18th century, after the Chinese vaccination technique was introduced to the UK, it was spread in the UK for 40 years. A British country doctor Jenner (1749-1823) also had human pox when he was young. Later, during his medical practice, he learned from the experience of milking women that smallpox would not regenerate after he had cowpox. Jenner was inspired by this and invented the vaccination method. In 1805, the vaccinia breeding law was introduced to my country by Portuguese merchants in Macau.
   In the 20th century, due to the popularity of vaccinia vaccination technology worldwide, the smallpox virus became increasingly nowhere to hide. On October 26, 1977, the last case of smallpox was found in the town of Meer in Somalia. In May 1980, the 23rd World Health Assembly officially announced that humans had eliminated smallpox.
   Flu raging for centuries the history of
   influenza is a virus small and inconspicuous, but its harm is enormous.
   As early as the 4th century BC, there are records of influenza epidemics. In 1658, an influenza pandemic in Venice, Italy killed 60,000 people. The panicked people thought it was a punishment from God and caused by the bad luck brought by the planet, so the disease was named “Influenza”, which means ” devil”. Today, although science has proven that it is caused by influenza virus infection, the name is still used.
   The first epidemic, apparently caused by influenza, occurred in Britain in 1510. Later, in 1580, 1675 and 1733, influenza caused large-scale epidemics. The earliest detailed description of the influenza pandemic was in 1580 and since then. A total of 31 influenza pandemics were recorded in the literature. Among them, the epidemic caused by influenza from 1742 to 1743 involved 90% of Eastern Europeans. The “Russian Influenza” that swept through Western Europe from 1889 to 1894 had a wide range of morbidity and high mortality, causing serious effects. But the greatest harm and the most serious loss was the 1918 pandemic worldwide.
   In the spring of 1915, sporadic influenza patients were found in England, and by 1917, a small amount of influenza epidemic occurred in the European continent. As the war in the First World War continued to expand, and the United States was involved in the war in 1918, a large number of transport ships transported American soldiers from the other side of the Atlantic to Europe. During this more than one month sea voyage, from Alaska to the United States. The flu virus rages among US soldiers. According to records, more than 500 people in a barracks fell from the flu, and more than 50 people died from the illness. The surviving soldiers brought the flu virus to the European battlefield, triggering a pandemic in Europe and the world. The pandemic had disastrous consequences: 50,385 people died in the United States in World War I, compared with 55,868 non-combat deaths, most of which were due to flu. The world’s death toll in this influenza pandemic reached 20 million, surpassing the total number of deaths in the army in World War I.
   After the 1918 flu pandemic, the world was calm for a while. In 1957, the flu once again raged all over the world. It crossed the ocean and became unstoppable. The flu originated in my country’s Guizhou Province, and suddenly moved south, harassing all countries in Asia two weeks later, and then landed in Australia, America and Europe, roaming countless countries. From spring to autumn of that year, 1.5 billion people worldwide fell ill, and tens of thousands of old people and children died in this disaster.
   In 1958, my country’s first batch of influenza vaccines were trial-produced, and good immune effects were achieved by vaccination in humans. In this way, the influenza vaccine developed by our country was finally born.
   In 1968, influenza began to spread from Hong Kong, my country, and then spread to the surrounding area, and finally swept the world again, so that medical scientists named the epidemic influenza A virus “Asian A Hong Kong strain”.
   In November 1977, another large-scale influenza occurred in Australia and New Zealand. The secretions taken from the patient’s nasopharynx were immediately sent to virology research centers in the United Kingdom and the United States for virologists to conduct inspections. . This time, the alarm bell was ringing again! A new strain called influenza A virus-the Australian influenza virus appeared.
   Since 1968, influenza worldwide has occurred almost every few years. The influenza that occurred in the United Kingdom from 1998 to 1999 caused the hospital to be overcrowded, with a shortage of hospital beds, occupancy of operating beds, and cancellation of operations; funeral homes and morgues were full, and funerals were forced to be cancelled.
   The most recent time was from November 1999 to April 2000. In Europe, America, and Asia, there were moderate or higher influenza outbreaks. The most severe one was in France. At the peak of the epidemic, the incidence rate reached 861 per 100,000 people. . The harm our country has suffered is also more serious. Take Beijing as an example. During the influenza epidemic from 1998 to 1999, the incidence rate was as high as 26.49% at the peak of the epidemic, and 10% during the off-peak period.