Plague

   The frightening thing about influenza viruses is that their genes can mutate rapidly in order to continuously adapt to new environments. It is difficult for people to create vaccines that can eliminate this virus once and for all. The current periodic epidemic of influenza is still a major problem that endangers human health.
   Cholera eight times worldwide pandemic
   of cholera is “the destruction of one of Earth’s most terrible plague.” This rhombohedral bacterium called Vibrio cholerae is usually spread through unclean drinking water. It can be stored on foods such as meat, milk, and apples for several days. It is one of the Class A infectious diseases with rapid onset and rapid spread.
   Since ancient times, the Ganges Delta of India has been an endemic area of ​​classical biological cholera, known as the “hometown of human cholera.” In 1817, a particularly severe and deadly cholera epidemic suddenly became widespread in Kolkata, India. In the following 15 years, cholera spread westward to most other parts of the world. Similar to the earlier occurrence of the Black Death, it was spread by travelers, merchants, and sailors. According to reports, Europeans began to panic after cholera began to spread to Europe from northern India, Afghanistan and Persia. By 1830, cholera had spread to Russia, and some European countries tried to restrict the entry of travelers. In the English Channel, British warships intercepted cargo ships arriving from epidemic areas. But cholera is still spreading. By 1831, cholera had spread to Britain, causing 140,000 deaths and almost all small villages were destroyed. Then the ship carried cholera bacteria across the Atlantic and spread to North America.
   Cholera spread quickly without warning. At that time, people didn’t know what medicine to use to treat this disease, so they couldn’t live with this disease. According to statistics, when cholera broke out in 1830, 1 in 20 Russians died, and 1 in 30 Poles died. It was not until 1832 that cholera gradually disappeared. In the 19th century, cholera became popular again and again, but it no longer had such a devastating effect.
   For humans in the early 19th century, the occurrence, spread and control of this terrible plague were a mystery. Religious leaders see the spread of the disease as a punishment from heaven for “human arrogance.” Many people pray for forgiveness for their “crimes”. When a patient goes from intestinal cramps to diarrhea, to vomiting and fever, and faces death within a few days or even a few hours, what people can feel is fear, except for fear.
   But in the midst of disasters and fears, mankind also began scientific exploration. During the fifth cholera epidemic in 1883, the German doctor Robert Koch isolated the pathogen Vibrio cholerae from the patient’s feces and proposed the Koch rule for judging disease pathogens. This series of outstanding work earned him The Nobel Prize in 1905.
   During the more than one hundred years from 1817 to 1923, there were 6 worldwide pandemics, and each pandemic has affected my country.
   Since 1961, cholera caused by the Elto biotype Vibrio cholerae began to spread from Sulawesi, Indonesia to neighboring countries and regions, spreading to more than 140 countries and regions on five continents, and more than 3.5 million patients were reported. , Known as the 7th worldwide pandemic of cholera.
   In October 1992, a new type of cholera caused by a non-o1 serotype-o139 Vibrio cholerae swept some areas in India and Bangladesh. By April 1993, more than 100,000 patients had been reported and it has spread to many countries. And regions, including our country, have the potential to replace the Elto biotype. Some people call it the 8th pandemic of cholera.
   In July 1997, cholera broke out on a large scale in a Rwandan refugee camp in Zaire, causing 70,000 infections and 12,000 deaths.
   In the long look back, the heavy history makes us unable to relax. We found that in addition to the complete elimination of smallpox, the plague, flu, and cholera are still haunting our lives. The battle between mankind and the plague is a never-ending war. In the fight against the plague, mankind is facing more and more severe tests.
  
  
   War and plague humanity long periods without
   human exploration
   In 1831, a mad wolf attacked a blacksmith in a village in eastern France. A few months later, the blacksmith died of rabies. A boy in the village asked his father, “What makes a wolf crazy? Why does a crazy wolf bite a person and people die?” His father replied, “Maybe the devil got into the wolf’s body. If If God wants you to die, you must die.”
   The boy who asked this question was Louis Pasteur. A few years later, Pasteur established the theory of microbial pathogenicity that was of great significance in the history of medical science, thus laying the foundation for modern immunology.
   In 1879, anthracnose was once again prevalent in cattle and sheep in France. Pasteur proposed for the first time that anthracnose in cattle and sheep is caused by microorganisms, and used elaborate experiments to prove this. From this idea, and taking advantage of an accidental opportunity, Pasteur invented the second vaccine in the world besides vaccinia-fowl plague vaccine. This is also the first vaccine that is caused by the disease-causing bacteria itself rather than by a follower. Vaccines made of similar bacteria. The significant advantage of this vaccine is that it is universal and general, because no disease has a naturally occurring weak brother like smallpox-cowpox, but almost all or most of the bacteria and viruses can be used in this way or that. The method reduces its toxicity to use as a vaccine.
   Since then, Pasteur has successfully made vaccines for anthrax and rabies. Inspired by Pasteur’s method, later scientists have invented vaccines against many diseases. Such as diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, measles, polio, hepatitis B, influenza vaccine and BCG, etc., are countless. The struggle between humans and infectious diseases has entered a new stage.
   Under the guidance of Pasteur’s “microbial pathogenic theory”, the British surgeon Lister pioneered the surgical disinfection method and published it publicly in 1867, thus creating a new situation in surgical treatment.
   There are new ways to prevent diseases, but what should we do if bacteria have entered the body? In 1928, Professor Fleming of St. Mary’s Hospital in London accidentally discovered in experiments that Penicillium, a fungus that can kill a large number of important pathogens-Staphylococcus, was born out of the panacea for killing bacteria-Penicillin. Since then, the antibiotic family has grown up rapidly and has played an extremely important role in the history of human struggle against epidemics.
   In 1940, using an electron microscope, people finally saw the original shape of the virus, a little monster, for the first time, and further clarified its internal structure. It turns out that a virus is something between living things and non-living things. Although it is small, it has many atoms concentrated. It is a protein-like compound with a large molecular weight. Since then, people have gradually figured out the pathogens of smallpox, rabies, yellow fever, flu and other diseases, all of which are different types of viruses. Now, the subject of “virology” is constantly studying the nature of viruses, how viruses cause diseases, the relationship between them and the host, etc., and has achieved remarkable results.
   Viruses on the human body
   these go hand in hand with us, so we suffered enough, actually suffered shock virus is like?