Biological intelligence in architecture

  Imitating the operation of natural creatures can save humans 10 times, 100 times or even 10,000 times of resources.
  Spider beetles and fire
   located spider abdominal glands secrete six different filament material, woven together into silk. This kind of thread has unique high strength and ductility, and is stronger than all man-made fibers. A materials scientist vividly described the strength and toughness of spider silk: “If you use pencil-shaft thick spider silk to knot a large web, this web may even intercept a Boeing 747
   in flight.” In man-made fibers, The fiber material closest to the characteristics of spider silk is called aramid fiber. Although its toughness is still not as good as spider silk, its strength is comparable to spider silk. However, to make aramid fiber, extreme pressure and extremely high temperature are required, which will seriously pollute the environment. In contrast, spiders can easily make this type of fiber using dead flies and water as raw materials under normal temperature and pressure in an ordinary environment.
   A black fire beetle has an unusual “infrared detector”. The thin stratum corneum of the “probe” is filled with water. When the outside temperature rises, the water in the stratum corneum will suddenly expand, and the pressure changes caused by the expansion will be immediately sensed by highly sensitive mechanical sensory cells. Using this principle, the fire beetle can detect forest fires as far away as 80 kilometers away, and its power is about 10,000 times the detection range of man-made fires. What’s more, this little guy doesn’t need wires, and doesn’t need to connect to a generator that uses fuel, which saves resources.
   Rockets, supercomputers, satellites, space stations, artificial intelligence…Although human science and technology are now highly developed, we can see from the examples of spider silk and fire beetles that we still need to learn from nature to increase the utilization rate of basic resources. , The purpose of recycling resources.
   Bubble construction
   plant and animal cells filled with gas or liquid, drawing on the cells of this principle, the architects designed a series of novel and unique fluid-filled inflatable sports building. Such a building is bright and breathable, with natural and beautiful structural curves, and green and environmentally friendly.
   Similar to the cell principle, there is also the “bubble building” of soap bubbles. The “bubble building” is not only bright and breathable, but also can adapt to any uneven ground by changing the diameter of the bubble, and get rid of the restrictions of the ground shape. In other words, architects can “blow” their own “bubble building” on any complex ground. British architect Michael Paulin and his partners have played a bubble without picking the ground form in the “Eden Project”. The advantages.
   In the “Eden Project” project, the architects needed to build a giant greenhouse. The building environment in which the greenhouse is located is extremely complex, not only irregular, but also constantly changing. Because the local area is still being mined, they adopted “bubble architecture”. The “bubble” structure not only fits well with the local terrain characteristics, reduces the trouble caused by the uncertain terrain, but also ensures the optimal lighting design of the building.
   However, it is not enough to roughly determine the shape of the “bubble”. The outer surface of the real soap bubble is a huge spherical structure. You can’t use the huge hollow glass ball roughly, right? This is almost impossible technically. Therefore, they regarded the spherical surface as a combination of several regular “small bubble units”. In this way, the problem of designing a dome is transformed into a problem of finding a more supportive small part of the geometry.
   Pollen, insects and radiation football ene
   what kind of polygon to be able to put together to form a huge, almost perfectly spherical surface of it? Scientists regard nature as a sample and make plans with reference to the subtle structural design of some organisms, which is convenient and reliable.
   Under the microscope, pollen particles are spheres composed of hexagons. The same is true for soccer alkene, which is an allotrope of carbon. Its molecular structure is a spherical 32-hedron. It is composed of 60 carbon atoms connected by 20 six-membered rings and 12 five-membered rings, like a soccer ball. . Radiolarians, a type of marine single-celled animals with spicules and pseudopods all over their bodies, have a very exquisite and dexterous appearance, which can be called “natural artistic forms”, and they also have a spherical structure composed of pentagons and hexagons.
   Inspired by these natural creatures, the team of architects chose the simplest two types of regular pentagons and regular hexagons, and the structure closest to the sphere after being combined was used as the small bubble unit. The computer numerical simulation also supports this conclusion. In addition, the observant architects learned the structural characteristics of the dragonfly’s transparent wings and successfully solved the link problem between the small bubble units, greatly reducing the amount of steel used and saving resources.
   However, to more efficient use of resources and energy, materials must be reconsidered “little bubble” unit, because the glass ductility is not high, you can not do hexagon largest unit area. At the same time, considering the characteristics of the greenhouse closed film, the architect finally decided to use ETFE, a high-strength polymer material that can replace glass. They made this material into three layers, welded the edges together, and inflated it.
   The unit area of ​​this multilayer material can reach 7 times that of glass, but its weight is only 1% of double glazing, and the material used is only 1% of double glazing. Moreover, the new structure further reduces the amount of steel used at the connection between the unit and the unit. With less steel, more sunlight will come in.
   When the giant greenhouse finished work, the architect was delighted to find that the total weight of the dome above the greenhouse was even lower than the weight of the indoor air, and it was a veritable “bubble roof”.
   The skills learned from natural organisms can not only achieve the same function, but also achieve a multiplier effect with half the effort. In fact, there are countless creatures in nature, all of which can be used for reference by architects.
   Animal skeletons and big trees
   In the 1930s, a Spanish architect had a whim during a construction mission in Basel, imitating the skeleton of an animal body and remodeling the steel frame design on the ceiling of the cafe. This kind of building that simulates the biological bone structure has achieved good results, not only conforms to the force characteristics, but also has a pleasing appearance.
   The Kuwait Exhibition Hall at the 1992 International Fair had a freely-closable roof, which was also designed to imitate animal joints. At night, the roof can be opened to expose a starry sky for various gatherings of human beings.
   In the biological simulation of structural design, the tree structure is also the structure that architects often refer to because it is relatively simple. Many architects imitate the characteristics of the tree-like structure and set up the main load-bearing structure in the center of the house, and the surroundings imitate the growth mechanism of tree branches, designing a suspended floor, and the exterior is decorated with curtain walls, creating a unique building.
   This beautiful and efficient world is worthy of continuous exploration.