Animation is a kind of comprehensive art. It originated in England in the first half of the 19th century and flourished in the United States, while Chinese animation originated in the 1920s. It is the only art with a definite birth date. On October 28, 1892, Emile Renault first showed an optical film to the audience at the famous Graven Wax Museum in Paris, marking the official birth of animation.
In everyone’s mind, the animation may be listening to Popeye’s words and eating more spinach, it may be Shuke driving a plane and Beta driving a tank, or it may be sitting on a bench in front of the TV as a child and waiting for “The Windmill” to start. …
After more than 100 years of development, animation art has a relatively complete theoretical system and industrial system, and is deeply loved by people for its unique artistic charm. When Disney in the United States has been busy creating live-action animation movies, Japanese animation has begun to build theme parks, and Chinese animation has started the revival of national comics with the “Fengshen Universe”. Can the world of animation be redefined?
In 1907, an American named Blackton filmed a short film called “The Humorous Posture of a Funny Face”. This short film of only 5 minutes did not cause any storm at the time, but Blackton never expected , This short film created a brand-new film and television format-animation. He did not even expect that this art called animation would become a trillion-dollar industry.
During this period, Windsor McKay, Pat Sullivan, and the Fleischer Brothers were also engaged in this kind of art of “making the picture move”. They brought “Dinosaurs” and “The Silence of the Rustany”. “Popeye” and other works explore this road that no one has walked.
The business map of a mouse
In 1920, a 19-year-old young painter also embarked on this path. He learned the basic techniques of filming and animation in an advertising company, and began his own animation creation journey. After a period of accumulation, he established a company named after him-Walt Disney, the animation giant officially entered the stage of history. In 1928, Walt Disney had a sudden inspiration and created an animated image based on a mouse called Mortimer. Unexpectedly, his lover Lillian suggested that he change the image to Mickey, so the famous Mickey Mouse was born. And influenced the development of animation in the following decades.
The advent of “Steamboat Willie” marked the official birth of the image of Mickey Mouse.
Walt Disney (Walt Disney, December 5, 1901-December 15, 1966), is the person who has won the most Oscars in the world. He and his staff have created many famous and popular cartoon characters.
“Beauty and the Beast”, released in 1991, is Disney’s first animated film that includes the main songs in the film at the end of the subtitles.
“The Little Mermaid” was adapted by Disney based on the fairy tale “Daughter of the Sea” by Danish writer Andersen.
In this year, the Walt Disney Company released the first sound animation “Steamboat Willie”. This is also the first time Mickey Mouse has met with the audience. Mickey Mouse has been loved by people as soon as it was launched. By 1931, the members of the “Mickey Mouse Club” had reached 1 million. Mickey Mouse was known to all parts of the United States. Many companies signed contracts with Disney to print the image of Mickey Mouse on merchandise On sale. Disney collected some copyright taxes, and this income has since become one of Disney’s financial resources. Even in the current Disney movie titles, we can see the black and white Mickey whistling and the wheel rudder.
Walt Disney’s blockbuster can be said to have taken advantage of the time and place. On the one hand, the cute image of Mickey Mouse and the relaxed and cheerful artistic style of Disney cartoons make people shine. On the other hand, Disney caught up with the famous “Great Depression”-in 1929, the United States began the most profound economic crisis in the history of the world economy. During this economic crisis, industry and trade were hit hard. What is surprising is that lipsticks sold very well during the crisis. This is the “lipstick effect” later called by economists-whenever the economy is down. At times, the more people need psychological comfort and happiness. Lipstick represents self-confidence and beauty, represents a kind of vitality, it is not expensive, but it can cheer up people. Of course, lipstick can only correspond to the female population, and animation can provide spiritual healing for people regardless of age and gender.
Therefore, in the 1930s when the American economy was downturned, Chaplin appeared, Shirley Temple appeared, and an unprecedented pioneering work in the history of cartoons-“Snow White” launched by Disney. “Snow White” released in 1937 is the first animated feature film in history, but its picture quality has no traces of nearly a century ago. Even if it is put at the end of the last century, it will not compare with contemporary works. Looks outdated and old. Whether it is the reflection of the water surface in the forest scene where small animals gather at the beginning of the movie, or the candlelight effect of Snow White who accidentally enters the dwarf’s residence, it can reflect the animators’ attitude of making excellence. “Snow White” is based on “The Grimm’s Fairy Tales”. It is a familiar fairy tale in Europe and the United States. Disney puts fairy tales on the big screen, and also created a precedent in the adaptation of fairy tale animations. It also laid the foundation for the famous “Disney Princess” series in the future. In the following decades, “Sleeping Beauty”, “Cinderella”, “The Little Mermaid”, “Mulan”, etc., female images in fairy tales, legends, and literary works all over the world have begun to be brought to Disney in the form of animation Film screens around the world have indirectly contributed to the exchange of world cultures. From the current point of view, “Snow White” has problems such as loose plot structure and insufficient integration of song and dance clips with the plot. However, at that time, Snow White’s optimistic personality, the film conveyed the idea of goodness over evil and true love forever. , To convey to people in the economic crisis the belief that “you can always see the good side of life”. Therefore, “Snow White” was a big success as soon as it was released, with more than $180 million in global box office revenue, helping Disney take a crucial step. Perhaps many people still don’t know that in June 1938, this cartoon also premiered in Nanjing, China.
“Face of the Führer”, also known as “Donald Duck vs. Führer”, was selected as one of the “100 works of the century of animation” at the 2006 Annecy International Animation Film Festival in France.
“Face of the Führer”, also known as “Donald Duck vs. Führer”, was selected as one of the “100 works of the century of animation” at the 2006 Annecy International Animation Film Festival in France.
“Bambi” was released in North America in August 1942, and is the fifth feature-length cartoon produced by Disney. In 2011, the film was in the permanent collection of the National Film Protection Directory and the Library of Congress Preservation Directory.
Animation inspires people who are suffering
On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the US military base at Pearl Harbor. The next day, the Pacific War broke out, and World War II reached its largest scale. At the same time, Disney stopped the production of the animated feature film, and Mickey Mouse “joined the army.” The war ignited people’s patriotism and anti-fascism sentiment. The US government requires Disney to produce educational and public propaganda films for the military and the federal government. This is a new attempt for Disney.
With the outbreak of war, more and more government-invested and Disney-produced propaganda films have become popular in the United States. This not only surprised Disney itself, but also surprised the government. Disney found that this may be the way of education in the future. Willing to use the way of watching movies to receive education and publicity in leisure and entertainment. The animated short film “Why Fight” produced by Disney explained to the public why it had to fight and why the United States joined the ranks of anti-fascism in World War II. Cartoons can attract the attention of the audience, and the originally boring political propaganda has become lively and interesting. In order to minimize the shadow of war on children, the government has produced gas masks with Mickey Mouse patterns and taught children how to use them. Disney also designs a logo for the military. Disney’s cartoon stars have boarded tanks, armored vehicles, airplanes, and warships. The famous “Flying Tigers” logo is also from the hands of Disney painters. “Mickey Mouse” has even become the passphrase of the US military, which shows its profound influence.
In addition to “Mickey Mouse”, the image of “Donald Duck” stood out in World War II propaganda and became a cartoon image that was more popular with American audiences than Mickey Mouse during that special period. Disney personally wrote the story of Donald Duck, and “The Face of the Führer” is one of the masterpieces: Donald Duck in the United States had a nightmare, in which he became a cannonball worker under the rule of Nazi Germany. Not only do I have to get up early and work hard every day, but I also have to listen to various slogans at any time, and keep saluting the portraits of Hitler everywhere. Finally Donald Duck woke up from his dream and found himself in the United States, wearing patriotic pajamas, hugged the small model of the Statue of Liberty, and said gratefully: I am so glad I am a citizen of the United States of America! This work won the 1942 Oscar for Best Animated Short Film.
If Mickey Mouse is the incarnation of Walt Disney’s perverse, curiosity and adventurous personality, then Donald Duck is his patriotic and anti-fascist humorous hero. Until now, Donald Duck still maintains the image of wearing a sailor suit.
After that, Disney did a lot of promotional animations featuring Donald Duck. The film for the Internal Revenue Service and the Ministry of Finance was initially complained by the Secretary of the Treasury, saying that Donald Duck was a very stupid character, and Disney insisted that people would like to see this tax-promoting film. And it turns out that Disney succeeded. In the film, Donald Duck is a worried citizen who is unwilling to pay taxes at first, but in the end, he regards paying taxes as his patriotic responsibility.
During the Second World War, Disney stopped all animation feature film production, but only retained one-“Bambi”. The theme of this film is growth. The story tells about the happy childhood of Bambi and his young friends, and then the death of his mother ends his childhood; there is love between Finney the doe, and he must be with others for love. The stags fight; the last is the forest fire caused by the deer hunters, Bambi bravely takes on the fire and protects his beloved. This movie, which uses small animals to witness the hardships and greatness of life, touched people who have suffered from the war. The film’s slogan “Love is a song never ends” also became one of the most inspiring slogans of that era. Winston Churchill, the former prime minister who led the United Kingdom to win the war, was also a “fan” of “Bambi”. According to the Daily Mail report at the time, Churchill watched the movie “Bambi” repeatedly during the war and kept himself alive. High morale and confidence in victory.
At the same time, an animator named Chuck Jones helped Warner Bros. to create animated images such as “Bunny Bugs” and “Daffy Duck”. These animated images are as optimistic and humorous as “Mickey Mouse Donald Duck”. Being positive, it calmed the anxiety of the American people during the war, gave people spiritual comfort and psychological relaxation, and was widely welcomed. Chuck Jones is known as one of the greatest animation masters since Walt Disney. In addition to “Bugs Bunny” and “Duffy Duck”, “Cat and Mouse” familiar to domestic audiences is also his work (1963-1967) Second edition), the protagonists “Tom” and “Jerry” won him 3 Oscars, and in 1996 he was awarded the Oscar for “Lifetime Achievement”.
“Cat and Mouse” is also a classic animation series familiar to Chinese audiences. Since it came out in 1940, it has brought happiness to countless audiences around the world. During Mickey Mouse Donald Duck’s “joining the army”, “Cat and Mouse” and “Bugs Bunny” filled the audience’s entertainment gap. This cartoon is completely characterized by farce, and the plot is very exaggerated and lively. In today’s words, it may be “all kinds of nonsensical brains are opened.” But while having fun, “Cat and Mouse” also created a precedent in the cooperation of music and animation. Many classical music works radiate new vitality in this animation. In this animated series, you can hear John Strauss’s “Waltz of Spring”, “Emperor’s Waltz”, Chopin’s “Revolutionary Etude”, “Glory Waltz”, Rossini’s “Sevilla Classical music works such as “The Barber”, Tchaikovsky’s “Sleeping Beauty” and other classical music works, can be said to be classic works of perfect combination of classical art and animation art. By virtue of this combination, “Cat and Mouse” won numerous awards from 1941 to 1953. In particular, the series “Cat Concerto”, which won the Oscar for Best Animated Short Film in 1947, perfected Liszt’s “Hungarian Rhapsody”. Into this witty animation. This 8-minute short film has a production cycle of 18 months. Tom Cat’s piano fingering is exactly the same as the actual one, which shows the meticulous production of the animators at that time. In the 1980s, a Chinese teenager became interested in the piano because of this “Cat Concerto” and started his piano career. Later, he became a world-renowned pianist. His name is Lang. Lang.
The rise of TV animation after the war
After the end of World War II, Disney entered a period of prosperity. From 1950 to 1966, Disney launched a classic animated feature film almost every year, such as “Cinderella”, “Alice in Wonderland”, “Miss and the Gangster”, and “Sleeping Beauty”, among which there were adaptations of fairy tales and some The brand-new creation, launched the “101 Loyal Dog”, “Winnie the Pooh” (Pooh is Disney’s authorized re-creation) and other series of classic animation images. Disney successfully established the dominance of the animation industry.
However, on December 15, 1966, Walt Disney died of lung cancer. The Disney Company was short of the backbone for a while, and its business stalled. Other animation companies stopped the production of animated films because of the dazzling light of Disney after the war. Suddenly, the animation film was in a state of failure, and the entire industry entered a period of depression.
The obituaries of Disney’s death are sent around the world, seeming to convey the indisputable fact that people will never see Disney’s beloved movies anymore. In the evening news on Columbia TV, Eric Safed said: “Walt Disney used his rich imagination and wisdom to create characters such as Mickey Mouse, Dumbo, Snow White, etc. They brought people For happiness, surly, funny, stupid and dull-all of this is fantasy, an escape from reality. It doesn’t matter how authentic they are, what matters is the war between nations and the polluted air. All around us, people only rely on fantasy to escape these. Whether you admit it or not, this is an era of fantasy, and Disney caters to people’s needs.”
After Disney’s funeral, some animators gathered together and thought about other ways to make a living. At this time, an animator endured his grief and smiled and said, “It doesn’t matter, there are TV viewers.” He was very correct. The year Disney died, it was the three major television networks in the United States that broadcast cartoons on Saturday morning. Start.
In fact, as early as 1960, the TV animation “Modern Primitives” produced by Warner Bros. had already been broadcast on ABC. As the first animated sitcom in history, “Modern Primitives” was widely popular since its launch. Praise, quickly won a very high ratings, and set off a wave of TV animation craze. From 1961 to 1962, 7 animations were simultaneously broadcast on prime time of the three major television networks in the United States.
“Modern Primitive” is a popular cartoon in the United States in the 1960s. The story is based on primitive people, using modern means to show primitive people’s humorous and interesting lifestyle, and it is very realistic.
“Alice in Wonderland” is a 3D animation and live-action movie of Disney. Director Tim Burton gave it a weird light, and the film won a super high box office.
At that time, the main group of TV audiences was still mainly adults. The reason why they chose the form of sitcoms was to suit their tastes: work crisis, conflicts between husband and wife, and friends bickering. Initially, the sponsor of this animation also included a tobacco company, and it was not until 1961 that it had to withdraw due to protests from parents. And the most able to see the background of the audience is the portrayal of the entangled fighting between the two sexes in the play. Obviously, the current jokes that the husband was caught playing bowling and watching games without his wife were not for children. There is also an organization called “Buffalo Loyalty Club” in the play, which is similar to some male clubs and fraternities in reality, mainly engaged in stray carnivals and fun activities, in order to temporarily escape the control of his wife and family. But when the fourth season began, the broadcast time was advanced from 20:30 to 19:30, which is more suitable for children. In the play, there are a lot less trivial matters about the adult world such as work and family, and more fantasy content such as alien invasion and personality exchange is added. In the last season, another alien named Gazu appeared as an important role. The protagonist’s arrogant and reckless bad personality has also been restrained. In the first season, he would only yell when he was crying in front of children, but later he was trying to become a qualified father.
This marked the return of TV animation from adults to children. At the same time, with the development of the anti-war movement in the 1960s and 1970s, the review of animation by TV networks was much stricter than before. They give their own censorship departments great powers. In these departments, all protest letters must be carefully read and checked, and then all the clips in the film that may cause protests are cut, regardless of how the animation fans object. Violence has become their most annoying thing, even more than pornography. Hannah Barbara Company produced a very gentle cartoon “Cat and Jessie”, which tells the story of a kitten being chased by an enemy and hidden in a plate of spaghetti. CBS is not allowed to distribute this film, because it is easy for ignorant children to learn to put cats in spaghetti and cause tragedy. The “Smurf” series adapted from a Hungarian comic book just appeared on American screens and was soon banned. Its creator, Boyi Carriford, said: “I have to delete the most exciting parts of most stories. For example, Smurf wearing glasses hit the preaching Smurf on the head with a stick. “Even some peace-loving people have complained about this. They said that such cartoons should not be shown on TV, because if such films are shown, young children are likely to run into their father’s garage. Bring a hammer and hit it on the head of my sister.
Under the strict censorship mechanism, educational animation represented by “Sesame Street” has become the mainstream of TV animation, and the first season has attracted millions of preschoolers to watch. The performance form of puppet animation is very popular with children and parents. Since its first broadcast, the “Sesame Street” series of animations have been broadcast for 44 seasons and 4356 episodes. It is the children’s show that has won the most Emmy awards so far.
Until the 1980s, with the gradual development of TV networks, the broadcast time of TV animation was no longer limited to the “children’s time” on Saturday morning. Animations aimed at teenagers appeared at other times. These animations are dominated by fantasy adventures, and some fighting scenes meet the needs of teenagers for TV animation. Among them, “Transformers”, “Special Forces”, “Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles” and some superhero animation series are representative works. Among them, many dramas were introduced to China and became the “childhood memories” of Chinese in the 1980s.
1. “Monster Electric Company” was released in 2001, and the audience began to marvel at the originality of the Pixar animation plot. 2. “The Lion King” was released in the United States in 1994. In order to be both in shape and spirit, Disney even “invited” a few real lions to the studio at the time, allowing animators to get in touch with them. 3. “Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles” is adapted from the American comics published by Phantom Studios, and later released the 1987 TV animation version, the 2003 TV animation version and the movie version. 4. “The Simpsons” is a cartoon produced by the American Fox Broadcasting Company. The film makes a humorous mockery of American culture and society from multiple angles. It is a humorous family comedy.
“Toy Story” is Pixar’s animated film series. The first film was released in 1995. It was the first animated feature film entirely using computer technology. As of 2019, 4 copies have been produced.
Animated films make a comeback
After 20 years of silence, animated films ushered in a resurgence in 1989. The representative of the recovery is still the animated feature film “The Little Mermaid” launched by Disney. This is the largest cartoon produced by Disney since “Fantasia” in 1940. It took more than a year to complete a 2-minute stormy scene with 10 special effects artists. Thousands of underwater bubbles in the film are drawn by hand, rather than copied, which also used a lot of manpower. Because of the requirements of the director team for excellence, this cartoon has drawn more than one million pictures.
“The Little Mermaid” is adapted from the famous fairy tale “The Daughter of the Sea” published by Andersen in 1836. But the whole story actually only borrows the shell of Andersen’s fairy tales, and the theme is completely different. The protagonist of “The Little Mermaid”, Ariel, is no longer the image of a weak princess in previous Disney movies, but an independent and even rebellious modern woman. The staff even joked that if Mr. Disney is alive, she will never allow a girl who runs away from home like Ariel. In terms of music, “The Little Mermaid” also broke the tradition of separate production of the plot and music, and finally together, the song and music completed a systematic integration.
Disney’s work on “The Little Mermaid” finally paid off. After the film was released, the response was strong, and the first round of screenings received a global box office of $211 million. After the disastrous box office filming of “Black Hole” by Disney in 1979, “The Little Mermaid”, as a symbol of Disney’s 10-year financial recession, finally resumed its growth, brought Disney back to the right path on the cliffside and led the trend of singing and dancing in the subsequent cartoons.
In 1991, Disney made persistent efforts and launched the animated film “Beauty and the Beast”, which was the first film nominated for the Oscar Award for “Best Picture”. This film breathed new life into the traditional story, and the heroine no longer came from Show off the innocence or sexy “Monroe mode”, but a lovely and true “strong woman” armed with knowledge and striving to control her own destiny.
Three years later, a big hit “The Lion King” was born. Once this animal version of “Hamlet” was launched, it won the world’s attention with its wonderful plot, grand scenes and majestic music. And favor, achieved unprecedented success and brilliance. “The Lion King” earned 968.5 million US dollars in the global box office, setting a box office record for animated films, and maintained this record for nearly 20 years-in 2013, it was surpassed by Disney’s own “Frozen”.
The brilliance of “The Lion King” not only drove the full recovery of Disney’s business, but also gave the long-silent animation film once again the hope of revival. The veteran movie giants Universal, Warner Bros., Fox, and Columbia have renewed their sights on animated films. But the ship was in a difficult situation to turn around. While the established giants were still preparing to return to animated films, some little-known studios had taken the lead in the fast train of animated film revival.
Computer production began to replace hand-drawn animation
In 1995, Pixar Studios launched the world’s first fully computer-produced animated feature film “Toy Story”. This animation studio, which was born in 1986, has only released a few short animation films before, and most of its work is to help clients make commercials and computer animation creations.
Due to the IT background of founder Steve Jobs, Pixar Studios has always believed that computer production will replace manual work and become the mainstream way of animation creation. In 1991, Pixar Studios persuaded Disney to sign an agreement with Disney to produce three computer animation feature films, which will be distributed by Disney, which also opened the prelude to the long-term cooperation between Disney and Pixar. “Toy Story” is said to be “the third leap since “Mickey Mouse” gave the animation sound and “Snow White” gave the animation color”-the animation 3D! The new technology has triggered a series of changes in the animation industry. Compared with this, the global box office performance of “Toy Story” of 360 million US dollars is not even worth mentioning.
With excellent script creation and increasingly mature technology, Pixar Studios has become a veritable “Oscar professional” and “box office harvester” after “Toy Story”. Pixar’s striving for excellence in art and technology has brought animated films to a whole new level. In the same period, even Disney, the overlord of animated films, looked a bit eclipsed in front of it. “Toy Story” series, “Finding Nemo” series, “Monster Electric Company” series, “Robot Story”, “Mind Agents”, “Flying House”, “Dream Quest” and other works have won both word of mouth and box office. Bumper harvest. Most of the film works of this period have been introduced into domestic theaters at that time, and they have also set off a lot of waves, and have been talked about by animation practitioners.
In 2016, Disney acquired Pixar Studios for $7.4 billion. When Pixar was founded, Steve Jobs only invested $10 million.
Pixar’s success has ignited another fire for the animation film industry, and the animation film has finally come to a time when a hundred flowers bloom.
The animation industry flourishes
In 2001, DreamWorks launched the “Shrek” series, which opened a precedent for the “anti-routine”. The film laughs at mocking all classic fairy tales and subverting ordinary people’s stereotypes of fairy tales. The protagonist is no longer a handsome prince, but a dirty monster, and the princess is no longer a weak vase. A series of subversion and remodeling made DreamWorks and “Shrek” an instant hit, and deconstruction. Classics and anti-routines also bring new vitality and broader fields to animated films.
After that, Universal Pictures launched “Despicable Me” with “bad guys” as the protagonist, DreamWorks launched “Unconventional Heroes” “Kung Fu Panda” with Chinese elements, and Blue Sky Studios launched “Ice Age” , Warner teamed up with the talented director Tim Bolton to create “Zombie Bride”… In the end, Disney “revolutionized his own life” and launched “Invincible Destruction King” with the “villain” as the protagonist in 2012. All of these works were a big success.
In 2013, Disney made changes to its most classic “Princess Series”. “Frozen” is no longer a story of a prince and a princess, but the “two heroines” of the princess sisters as the biggest selling point. “Frozen” received a global box office of 1.276.5 billion U.S. dollars, breaking the box office record of “The Lion King” for nearly 20 years, and maintaining this record for another 6 years-in 2019, it was sequel to “Frozen” 2″ Pull down the throne. This animation empire started with a mouse is the only big Hollywood company that has not been traded so far. It seems that he is constantly catching up with himself and setting his own record.
The “How to Tame Your Dragon” series of films is produced by DreamWorks and its story content is adapted from “How to Tame Your Dragon” by Grecida Cowell in 2003. The story content of the film also incorporates Nordic folklore.
“Shrek” is an animated work produced by DreamWorks, which was released in 2001 and adapted from the picture book of the same name by William Steiger. The laughter of the film is that it mocks almost all classic fairy tales and subverts ordinary people’s stereotypes of fairy tales.
“Zombie Bride” is a puppet animation film released in 2005. The director abandoned the popular computer animation technology and instead returned to the original and complicated “stop + move” technology, which took a full 10 years of production time.
With the revival of animated films, American television animation has also ushered in a new bright moment. In 1989, Fox Broadcasting Company produced an animated sitcom comedy “The Simpsons”, which is after “Modern Primitives”, an animated sitcom once again appeared on TV screens. Since then, with the continuous improvement of the American classification system, TV animation has shown extreme development in the two directions of “children” and “adults”. Traditional animation giants such as Disney and Warner have opened up TV media, launching TV animation works for young children, including “Mickey Series”, “Winnie the Pooh”, “Bunny Bugs” and so on. And traditional TV channels have also launched their own younger works, such as “Little Pig Peppa” and “My Little Pony” that have become popular all over the world in recent years.
On the other hand, with the rapid development of the Internet, TV animations (web animations) launched for adults are like a runaway wild horse. The works of “South Park”, “Bojack on the Horse” and “Rick and Morty” and “Love, Death, Robots” that have gained momentum in the past two years are often more complex and dark, and even contain sexual hints, violent scenes, swear words or Black humor discusses philosophical, political or social issues. Some works are also known for their complex or experimental narrative and animation techniques. These animated series mainly focus on wild imagination, breakthroughs in the brain of the sky, pungent irony and non-verbal dialogue, although under the banner of adults, they also make society have general concerns. After all, many involve pornography and violence. Even the suggestion of drugs is quite lethal to adults.
In the future, due to box office demand and grading system restrictions, animated movies will already be dominated by all age groups in terms of themes. And the polarization of TV animation, especially for adult animation series, will become a new artistic exploration through self-restraint, or is it because the more and more extreme plot repeats the mistakes of the 1960s and 1970s, everything will take time Come to test, we will wait and see.