Japanese animation: I have a name called “anime”

As a world animation power, Japan tends to develop anime colors with distinctive characteristics, even in European and American countries in terms of names-Japanese animation is called “anime”, while European and American animation is called “cartoon.” Of course, as an abbreviation for “animation”, “anime” initially had a somewhat discriminatory meaning. This is also one of the characteristics that distinguish Japanese animation from American animation.

Japanese animation works have a preference for surrealist themes and are often closely related to Japanese manga. With advanced technology, Japan still adheres to this traditional hand-drawn method and is committed to the study of animation narrative language.

From observation to creation, the budding period of animation
Since the introduction of film in Japan in 1896, this art form has achieved great success in Japan and has become a widely accepted form of entertainment. After the Meiji Restoration, Japan adopted an open policy, especially in terms of social culture. It advocated learning from Western social culture and customs, and had a high degree of acceptance of new Western things. Animated films were naturally very popular as a new film form at the time. There were often animated short films in theaters, especially the American animation “Transformed Pacifier” and the French animation “Tufang New Picture Book” that were introduced around 1910, which caused a sensation. . This also inspired Japanese painters to create their own animations in Japan.

In 1917, Japan’s first animation “Tarogawa Riding Three Entrance Ban no Maki” produced by Shimokawa Awao was completed and was screened at the Asakusa Film Club in Tokyo. In the same year, Junichi Kouchi’s “Swordsman’s Scroll in the Awaken” and “Ape Crab War” made by Kitayama Kiyotaro were released one after another. These three people were later called the “Fathers of Japanese Animation”, and 1917 was also called the “First Year of Japanese Animation”.

The early Japanese animation mainly imitated Western animation, but also incorporated some visual elements of shadow play and comics into it to form some self-style. But the good times did not last long. Japanese animation production entered a period of stagnation due to the impact of the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923. Afterwards, Japan was influenced by militarism and the Second World War, and the animation industry has been in a state of stagnation. It wasn’t until 1943 that Japan launched the first animated feature film “Momotaro: Sea Eagle”, but due to the influence of militarism, this animated film preached aggression and beautified militarism and became the “black history” of Japanese animation.

After Japan’s defeat in the war, animated films with anti-war themes were very popular and had far-reaching influence. The representative figure is Oto Noburo, an animation master hailed as a “weird” by the Japanese animation industry. He filmed the black-and-white version of “Whale” in 1927 and completed the color version in 1952. This cartoon became the first Japanese cartoon to win an international award. Oto Noburo combined the shadow puppets that have been circulating in China for thousands of years and Japan’s unique Chiyo paper to draw animations, forming animation works with unique regional temperament. Oto Noburo is very well-known in Japan, and the “Oto Award” named after him has become Japan’s first-class animation award.

During World War II, the domestic political and economic environment in the United States remained basically stable, so animated films can still develop rapidly in the United States. As the initiator of the war, Japan has tossed its national power completely because of the war. In addition to the serious disasters it brought to other countries, it has also become poor and the people poor because of the war. Affected by the economic decline and social turmoil after the war, Japan has no conditions for producing and broadcasting animation. In a barren social environment, “Akamoto Manga” has quietly emerged.

“Akamoto Manga” is a single-page manga printed on low-quality paper. Because the cover is mostly red, it is called “Akamoto”. Although the production is poor, but the price is low enough to meet the poor spiritual needs of the people after the war, so it is very popular among young people. The rise of manga also allowed Japan to embark on a road of “anime” integration. Unlike the United States, Japanese animation and comics are very closely integrated. Until now, comics are usually created by an artist and then published in comic magazines. Only comics that have gained attention can they be made into cartoons or Animated movie.

“God of Comics” and Big Studio
The popularity of “Akamoto Manga” provided a fertile soil for creation. Although the post-war economy was in depression, even in such a chaotic environment, with the help of “Akamoto Manga”, many great animators were born. He is the one who leads Japanese animation to glory, and he is Osamu Tezuka.

Cartoonist Osamu Tezuka.

In the comics exhibition, both “Fire Bird” and “Forest King” have set up huge panels.

Tezuka Osamu Akamoto’s “Knight Princess”.

Tezuka Osamu Akamoto’s “Knight Princess”.

“Golden Skull” by Takeo Nagamatsu Akamoto.

Yamakawa Soji Akamoto’s “Young King”.

Takatawara Yiichi Akamoto’s work “Drifting on the Fantastic Island”.

Osamu Tezuka was born in 1928. His real name is Osamu Tezuka. He took the pen name “Osamu Tezuka” because of his love for insects. However, he did not come from a painting class, but a medical student. After experiencing cartoon attempts during his student years, he published his debut novel “New Treasure Island” in 1947. This manga was printed on a low-quality recycled paper called fairy paper, and it was widely disseminated in the form of Akamoto. In this work, Osamu Tezuka began to try to apply film composition and montage techniques to comic creation. For the first time, he used the method of drawing onomatopoeia on the screen to flexibly express different sounds in various states. These pioneering works laid the foundation for the narrative style of Japanese manga. The influence of this work is unprecedented, and it is widely recognized as the starting point of modern Japanese manga.

After that, Osamu Tezuka’s creative road was out of control. From 1952 to 1954, he created three landmark works, namely “Astro Boy”, “Knight Princess” and “Fire Bird”.

In 1952, Osamu Tezuka created the manga “Astro Boy with Iron Arms”. This work caused a sensation in Japan as soon as it was launched. This smart, brave, and just little robot doll is almost everyone’s favorite. “Astro Boy” can be said to be a landmark work, not only in the field of comics, far-reaching influence. In 1961, Osamu Tezuka founded “Insect Production Co., Ltd.”, first made “Astro Boy” into an animation, which was broadcast on TV from New Year’s Day in 1963. This “Astro Boy”, known as “Insect Plate”, is the first TV animation in Japan. This animation has been broadcast on TV for 4 consecutive years, setting and maintaining an unprecedented high ratings. Huge boom. In September of the same year, “Astro Boy” was broadcast on NBC Television, becoming the first Japanese animation to go international. On December 7, 1980, China Central Television began broadcasting “Astro Boy”, which was also the first foreign animation introduced by the People’s Republic of China. “Astro Boy” has become a childhood memory of many Chinese.

Although there are so many firsts, as the first work of “Mushi Seiki Co., Ltd.”, “Astro Boy” was still facing the problem of insufficient funding at the time. To save money, Osamu Tezuka used “1 beat 3 “The production method. American animations represented by Disney are all produced using the method of 24 frames per second, which means that there are 24 frames per second. Osamu Tezuka chose to take 8 frames per second and each frame lasts for 3 frames. . This low-cost production method led to the use of Japanese companies for animation production in the United States at that time, which also caused dissatisfaction with many American animation producers. The abbreviation mentioned above uses “anime” instead of the full name “animation” to refer to Japanese animation. It is to imply that Japanese animation “cut corners”.

After that, Osamu Tezuka’s creative path was out of control. In 1954, he began to create the manga “Fire Bird”, which is known as the “highest masterpiece” in the Japanese comics industry. This work can be said to be created by Osamu Tezuka in a lifetime, in 32 years. , Created a total of 12 chapters of “Fire Bird” works. Subsequently, Osamu Tezuka created popular works such as “Black Jack, a Strange Doctor”, “Three Eyed Boy”, and “The King of the Forest”, among which “The King of the Forest” is the first color animation in Japan.

Osamu Tezuka also has an indissoluble bond with China. He once said that it was after watching the animated feature film “Princess Iron Fan” produced by the Wan Brothers in China that he inspired his later creative ideas. In 1980, Osamu Tezuka visited China for the first time and paid a special visit to the venerable senior Wan Laiming. In 1988, at the first International Animation Festival held in Shanghai, Osamu Tezuka, who suffered from stomach cancer, obliged to accept the invitation from the Chinese side to serve as the reviewer of the conference. The work of the committee, this is the last meeting between him and his old friends in the Chinese animation industry. Moreover, Osamu Tezuka’s last animation work during his lifetime was the TV animation “My Monkey King”, which shows his admiration and admiration for Chinese animation artists.

The “Akamoto Manga” era not only gave birth to the “God of Anime”, Osamu Tezuka, but also created many animation masters and excellent works. Yamakawa Toji’s “Young King”, Yokoi Fukujiro’s “Adventure Tarzan”, and Nagasatsu Takeo’s “Golden Skull” all have good sales. The prosperity of “Akamoto Comics” has made many young people cherish dreams and look forward to the future, and they devote themselves to the creation of comics with a passion. However, behind the prosperity, “Akamoto Manga” also faces many problems: the production process is rough, the works are uneven, and many “grass team” randomly adapt and piece together their works, causing public opinion to almost overwhelmingly criticize the content of the Akamoto comics as vulgar and unsightly. Various problems caused the “Akamoto Manga” to gradually withdraw from the stage of history in the 1950s. Soon, large-scale publishing houses and weekly magazines filled the gaps in the comics market. With strong financial support and professional promotion capabilities, the Japanese manga market affected by the decline of “Akamoto Manga” has once again prospered. It has cultivated countless excellent animation authors and brought countless works that everyone is familiar with. Domestic readers are familiar with “Dragon Ball”, “Saint Seiya”, “Detective Conan”, “China Little Master”, “One Piece”, “Naruto” and other works, all of which are serialized in magazines to meet readers.

In 1956, Toei Animation bought Nippon Animation and changed its name to “Toei Animation” and began to get involved in the animation field. Japanese animation also opened the era of large studios that has continued to this day.

Many people don’t know that the first color animation feature film in the history of Japanese cinema tells a story in China. On October 22, 1958, the animated film “The Legend of the White Snake” was released in Japan. The reason for choosing “The Legend of the White Snake” is because the periodical fantasy blockbuster “The Legend of the White Snake”, co-produced by Toho Corporation of Japan and the Shaw Brothers Company of Hong Kong, was a big success after it was released in Japan in 1956. The story of “The Legend of the White Snake” was not among the Japanese audiences. No stranger. Toei Animation took advantage of the heat and made some Japanese-style adaptations of the story. It was finally successfully published in 1958, making the film the cornerstone of Japanese modern animation in one fell swoop. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of Japanese animation in 2017, October 22 was officially recognized as the anniversary of Japan’s “Animation Day”, which shows the status of “White Snake” in the history of Japanese animation films. “The Legend of White Snake” also has two interesting stories: it is the first Japanese film and television work where the image of a Chinese giant panda appeared, and it was not until 1972 that the first pair of giant pandas “Kangkang” and “Lanlan” officially moved into Nagano, Japan. zoo. In addition, one of the main creators of “The Legend of the White Snake” is named Yasuo Otsuka. This name may not be familiar to most people, but his disciple can be said to be well-known-Hayao Miyazaki. At that time, Hayao Miyazaki, who was in the third grade of high school, became interested in animation because of “The Legend of the White Snake”. After graduation, he entered Toei and paid homage to Otsuka Yasuo.

Toei Animation has outstanding achievements in both animated film and television. As early as the early 1980s, my country had begun to introduce Japanese animated films, and the first to be approved to introduce were Toei Animation’s animated films “Ryoko Taro” and “Swan Lake”. Older people will not be unfamiliar with these two animated films. In terms of television, the TV animations “Clever Ikkyu”, “Flower Fairy” and “Saint Seiya” familiar to Chinese audiences are also produced by Toei.

Japanese-style science fiction-the person who gained “superior power”
Japan’s “God of Anime” Tezuka Osamu referred to the 1970s and 1980s as the “Air Age” of Japanese anime—anime has become an inseparable part of the lives of teenagers, just like air. Among them, science fiction, passion and sports themes are the most representative.

Japan is an island country with relatively poor natural resources and is located in a volcanic earthquake zone. Therefore, the awe of nature, the fear of disasters, the exploration of the unknown world, and the adventure of opening up new homes are deeply rooted in the Japanese genes. After the Meiji Restoration, Japan quickly absorbed the fruits of Western industrial civilization and was full of worship for industry and technology. In the 1950s, with the recovery of the Japanese economy, the vision of industrial civilization quickly became the mainstream thought in Japanese society at that time. It can be said that Osamu Tezuka’s “Astro Boy” is the first embodiment of the thought of the science fiction industry.

In 1958, cartoonist Yokoyama Mitsuki created a giant robot comic called “Iron Man 28”, which was also Japan’s first sci-fi mecha work.

It is the first time for people to come into contact with the visual shock of giant robots so intuitively and vividly. “Iron Man 28” tells that after World War II, a giant robot suddenly came to Tokyo, Japan and wreaked havoc. The juvenile detective Shintaro Kinda fought side by side with a robot that was 10.2 meters tall and weighed 31 tons through a remote control, and finally saved the earth. It can be seen from the plot that “Iron Man 28” has almost all the elements of the Japanese sci-fi mecha works afterwards: in the face of huge disasters, small humans are powerless to resist, and can only create large robots to fight invaders.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Japan’s economy developed rapidly and recovered in an all-round way. The magnificent production facilities of various heavy industries as well as the huge reinforced concrete buildings in the city, the endless stream of cars, high-speed railways, jet airliners, TV phones and other strange landscapes derived from modern technology, for those who enter Tokyo and Osaka from small towns For people in such a cosmopolitan city, the visual and spiritual impact caused by it is beyond addition, further deepening people’s sense of awe in technology. Under this social trend of thought, science fiction animation became the mainstream of the animation industry at that time.

“Ryoko Taro” is a masterpiece by the famous Japanese children’s literature writer Miyoko Matsutani, based on folk tales circulating in Shinshu. This work is also the first Japanese color widescreen animation officially introduced in China.

A promotional poster for the Japanese animated film “The Legend of the White Snake”.

The image of “Shun” in “Saint Seiya”. The whole story is based on Greek mythology, and soon after the work was born, it became popular around the world. It was rated as one of the “15 classic masterpieces not to be missed in Japan in the 20th century” by Shueisha.

Influenced by Osamu Tezuka and Sanpei Shiraito, Hao Nagai determined to become a cartoonist and published his important work “Devil Man” in 1972.

“Space Battleship Yamato” can be regarded as the ancestor-class work of Japanese animation. Its theatrical version “Space Battleship Yamato Resurrection” was released on December 12, 2009.

As a result, the huge steel robot allowed the Japanese to find the saint clothing that gained “superior power”. In 1972, manga artist Nagai Hao created “Magic Z”. Unlike the remote-controlled robots of “Iron Man 28”, “Magic Z” first proposed the setting of “manned giant robot”. Humans drive an indestructible giant robot. fighting.

In 1974, an animation with a trans-epochal significance appeared on the TV screen. This is the “Space Battleship Yamato”, which is known as the first climax of Japanese science fiction animation. The upsurge of exploring the universe caused by the US-Soviet hegemony, after the successful landing of the “Apollo” spacecraft on the moon in 1969, also ignited the exploration of the universe in the hearts of Japanese audiences. “Space Battleship Yamato” is a work that takes the universe as a stage. The huge battleship sailing in the universe also satisfies the psychology of acquiring “superior power”.

Five years later, “Mobile Suit Gundam”, as a milestone in mecha animation, set off the second climax of science fiction animation. Such a high profile not only comes from this work, but also from its commercialization: IP authorization and assembly models. According to statistics, as of 2017, 473 million assembled models of the “Mobile Suit Gundam” series have been sold, and the total value of the series has reached 24.7 billion US dollars. It is the most famous, largest, and most profitable Japanese animation work. One of the series.

In addition to adventure themes in science fiction works, light-hearted comedy themes are also popular. The most famous is the work “Doraemon” released by cartoonist Fujiko·F·Fujio in 1970. Unlike the brave and kind-hearted Astro Boy, Doraemon, known as “Blue Fatty”, is somewhat “anti-routine”-afraid of mice, likes to eat dorayaki, often nags, but always encounters difficulties with others When he reached out to help, his natural and kind image quickly became popular. The other characters in “Doraemon” are also full of life: the innocent and innocent Nobita who often scores zero on the test, the well-behaved and kind Shizuka, the unruly fat tiger, the cunning husband, the nagging mother, the honest father, and The grandmother who loves Nobita…It can be said that everyone can find themselves or the shadows of those around them in these images. In addition, the magical props such as “four-dimensional space pocket”, “bamboo dragonfly”, “any door” and “time machine” all embody the author’s fantastic ideas and the audience’s desire for technological advancement to the fullest.

As one of Riman’s representative works, “Dragon Ball” carries the childhood memories of countless people. “Dragon Ball” author Toriyama Akira.

The comic story of “Naruto” successfully portrays the ninja hidden in the dark as the brightest and most infinite profession under the sun. In the world of ninjas written by Kishimoto Masashi, every young ninja is developing his own way of ninja.

“One Piece” is a juvenile manga created by Japanese manga artist Eiichiro Oda in 1997. It is officially certified by the Guinness Book of World Records as “the world’s most-circulated manga series created by a single author”.

Animation master Hayao Miyazaki.

The style of “Nausicaa” is simple and natural, which is different from other Japanese animation works of the time.

Doraemon can be said to be one of the most beloved characters in Japanese anime characters. At the end of the 2016 Rio Olympics, Japan’s promotion of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics is also composed of “Doraemon” and the game image. “Mario” hand in hand to “send” the then Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to the scene, which shows the status of Doraemon in the hearts of audiences around the world. To this day, the “Doraemon” series has not yet taken off the stage. The “Doraemon” series of movies have been produced and released. This “fat blue” who has been with children for several generations will also accompany more children. Grow together.

Friendship and Belief-Hot-blooded Anime in the Air Age
Hot-blooded animation accounts for a large proportion of Japanese anime, from “Dragon Ball” and “Saint Seiya” well-known to Chinese audiences to “Naruto” and “One Piece” that are popular all over the world.

Japan has had a strong sense of community since ancient times. With the influence of Japan’s “repaying kindness” culture and “samurai spirit”, the Japanese also have a strong worship mentality for “belief and will.” The “growth” process of the protagonist commonly used in hot-blooded animation perfectly fits the psychological state of the Japanese people. As a result, the hot-blooded comics even surpassed the science fiction series and became the “pillars” of sales.

One of the best is “Dragon Ball” created by cartoonist Akira Toriyama in 1984. “Dragon Ball” is the first Japanese manga with world-class prestige in the true sense. The total global sales of manga have exceeded 250 million; it is the Guinness World Records certified manga that has been adapted as the most game; according to Japan’s largest comprehensive entertainment According to statistics from Bandai, one of the companies, the total revenue of Dragon Ball IP in fiscal year 2019 still reached a staggering 129 billion yen; even the type of “juvenile hot-blooded comics” was officially established from “Dragon Ball”. To this day, the terms we often say, such as “summon dragon”, “super Saiyan”, and “combat power”, are all derived from this comic.

The first protagonist of “Dragon Ball”, Monkey King, is not only the “top-tier” mythological character in China, but also a household name in Japan. “Animation God” Osamu Tezuka is a loyal fan of the Monkey King. In 1984, Akira Toriyama began to create comic works based on “Journey to the West”. In the beginning, the stories were mostly based on adaptations, followed the funny route, and the response was mediocre. Later, “Dragon Ball” only kept the name “Monkey King”, completely separated from the original plot, and embarked on the road of passionate fighting. The gradual increase of fighting, adventure, growth, friendship and other elements made “Dragon Ball” a great success. “Shounen JUMP” magazine, with “Dragon Ball”, became the top sales of the three major juvenile animation magazines.

How popular was “Dragon Ball” at the time? In Chapter 420, Akira Toriyama intended to finish, but because of its popularity, under the “coercion and lure” of publishers, TV stations, game manufacturers, and distributors, he could only continue to create. Until the end, because of too much hard work, Toriyama resolutely made a request for completion to the editor-in-chief. Because the interest chain is too complicated, the editor-in-chief can’t make a decision, so he can only report to the parent company Shueisha board of directors to make the final decision. It is unique in the history of comics that a comic has to be so tedious to complete the work. Even because “Dragon Ball” was so popular, the author became a “big taxpayer” in Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture in his hometown with the cost of the manuscript. Because it was troublesome to send the manuscript from his hometown to Tokyo, Toriyama once planned to move to Tokyo to live in. This “big taxpayer”, the Nagoya City Government actually built a road directly from the airport to the gate of Toriyama Akira’s house.

In addition to the story and the protagonist’s name based on “Journey to the West”, there are many Chinese elements in “Dragon Ball”, thanks to the author Toriyama Ming’s love for Chinese culture, especially Chinese food and Kung Fu movies. The Leping in the story is derived from the Cantonese “yam-cha” (yam-cha); his attendant is Pu’er, Xiaobajie’s name is Oolong, and his partner Tianjin Rice is a popular Chinese dish of crab meat and egg fried rice in Japan. Of course, not to mention dumplings.

Not only food, Toriyama is also a “kung fu fan”, especially for Jackie Chan’s kung fu movies. The prototype of Sun Wukong’s grandfather, Sun Wufan in “Dragon Ball” comes from Su Qier in Jackie Chan’s movie “Drunken Fist” and Bai Changtian in “Snake Shaped Hand”. The prototype of the killer Tao Baibai is Shangguan Yiyun, the villain in “Snake-Shaped Hand”. In addition, when the turtle fairy participated in the competition, the pseudonym used was also Jackie Chan.

Soon after, many “hot-blooded anime” appeared on the stage of history, including “Saint Seiya”, which is well-known to Chinese audiences. It also opened up “girly blood anime” represented by “Inuyasha” and “Sailor Moon”.

With the economic recovery of Japan after the war, its competitive sports quickly appeared on the Olympic stage. In 1951, Japan was once again allowed to enter the International Olympic Committee, and sports-themed animation works came into being. “Baseball Hero”, “Captain Tsubasa” and “Slam Dunk” are known as the three pinnacles of Japanese sports comics. Later, works such as “The Prince of Tennis” and “The Soul of Gossip” were born. Sports animation can be said to be a characteristic animation of Japan, but the United States, which is also a major sports country and animation country, rarely has such works come out.

Neon Genesis Evangelion brings anime back to life
On July 1, 2009, “Neon Genesis Evangelion” was voted as the most classic animation in Japanese history in the “100 Selections of Japanese Traditional Art” organized by the Agency for Cultural Affairs of Japan. This animation, which was born in 1995, is not very well-known outside of Japan. Why did the Agency for Cultural Affairs award such an important award to this animation? Let us go back to the 1980s.

“Air Age” Japan’s animation industry continued to prosper, and countless classic works were born, and a now-known name “Otaku” was born. Otaku is the name of people who are interested in manga. In the Japanese society at the time, the recognition of this term was very low, and the term otaku was not yet popular.

Until 1989, the appalling Miyazaki Tsunami incident occurred. A man named Qin Miyazaki kidnapped and killed 4 girls from 1988 to 1989. This vicious incident caused shock to the Japanese society. News reports said that a pile of various animation and video discs was found in Miyazaki’s home. Taciturn, unsocial, and likes to stay at home, the image of the otaku was quickly typified by Miyazaki. Otaku and even anime enthusiasts have become the targets of criticism, and the animation industry has been devastated. The circulation of animation publications has plummeted, and many works have fallen into a stagnant stage.

At the end of the 20th century, the Japanese real estate bubble burst. Teenagers generally think that they have lost the meaning of survival and the value of trustworthiness. Although no one calls themselves “otaku”, more and more people like to stay at home alone and don’t want to socialize with others. In this environment, cults and eschatological thinking began to prevail. In 1995, Aum Shinrikyo’s “Subway Sarin Gas Incident” and the Great Hanshin Earthquake brought this sentiment to a culmination.

In this social environment, “Neon Genesis Evangelion” was released. At the beginning, this animation did not attract people’s attention, but as the plot progressed, everyone found that the characters in the play were no longer optimistic and just, or sinister and evil in the traditional animation image. The protagonist is cowardly, autistic, and not good at communicating with others. Each character in the animation has different psychological barriers. Everyone strongly hopes that they can be useful to others, but they don’t know how to tell others what they think. In the film, a concept called “absolute domain” is used to express estrangement, and the “wall of heart” that exists in everyone’s heart reflects the interpersonal relationship in Japanese society.

The shaping of the characters gives every audience the same sense of substitution, and the film’s analysis of social phenomena and the call to “return to reality” have resonated with more and more people and played a positive and positive role. It also makes people realize that the original animation can carry more things. The animation industry is gradually recovering.

In the same year, the manga adaptation film “Ghost in the Shell” directed by Japanese genius director Mamoru Oshii was released, which was also a success. This film has a strong “hard science fiction” style. At the same time, works that have profound thinking about science, society and philosophy have won wide acclaim and have a profound impact in Japan and even internationally. It has not only caused James Cameron The artistic resonance of Hollywood figures such as Quentin Tarantino directly inspired the creation of the Wachowski brothers and led to the birth of the “The Matrix” series.

“My Neighbor Totoro” was released in Japan in 1988, and the high-definition remake released years later was released in China in December 2018.

The “oil house” scene in “Spirited Away” refers to the old buildings in the Dogo Onsen Main Store, Yuhara Onsen Oil House, and the “Edo-Tokyo Architectural Garden”.

“Spirited Away” poster.

Hayao Miyazaki’s Animation Kingdom
In 2002, one of the highest international awards in the field of film-the Berlin Film Festival Golden Bear Award was awarded to two films, because one of them was an animated film. The Berlin Film Festival without animation awards can only give the Golden Bear Award Divide into two parts. This movie is one of the greatest animated movies in Japanese movie history, “Spirited Away”. One year later, the American Academy Award for Best Animated Feature Film was also awarded to this film. This is the only time a non-American animated film has won the award. Produced by American DreamWorks). But the person who created this movie did not go to the scene to receive the award, because at the time the United States invaded Iraq, he did not want to go to the United States to receive the award at this time. This person is the Japanese national treasure-level animation master-Hayao Miyazaki.

On January 5, 1941, Miyazaki was born in Tokyo, Japan. He was from a wealthy family and attended the “Noble School”. Former Prime Minister Taro Aso was his classmate, but he did not enter politics or business according to the wishes of his family. , But engaged in a career he loved since childhood-comics. In 1958, the animated film “The Legend of the White Snake” was released, and Hayao Miyazaki, who was in high school, became interested in animated films. So in 1963, Hayao Miyazaki joined Toei Animation Company and worked as an artist in the Otsuka Yasuo group. Here, he also met Hun Takahata, a mentor, friend, and lifelong partner.

In 1974, Hayao Miyazaki participated in the production of the TV animation “Girls in the Alps” directed by Takahata, which was adapted from the novel “Heidi” series by the Swiss female writer Johanna Spiri. This is a well-known story in the West. It has been adapted into a movie many times. In 1937, Shirley Temple became famous with this movie. This animation not only tells the protagonist Heidi’s family and friendship in the process of growing up, but also shows the contrast and conflict between nature and modern urban civilization. This deeply affected Hayao Miyazaki, and to a certain extent formed the values ​​of his subsequent works.

In 1982, Hayao Miyazaki started the creation of the manga “Nausicaa” and brought this animated film to the big screen two years later. The movie tells about 1000 years later, most of human civilization was destroyed by war. The fungus-based Corrosion Sea exudes poisonous gas, eroding human settlements, and the king insects living in the Corruption Sea can even live in Instantly destroy the terrifying creatures of the new homes that have been painstakingly established. People began to miss the original ecologically harmonious natural homes, and began to reflect on what caused this status quo.

In his boyhood, the line “The forest is moving” in “Macbeth” triggered Miyazaki’s far-reaching imagination and gave birth to the idea of ​​”manipulating plants”, which later evolved into the “sea of ​​rot” in “Nausicaa” “. The beginning of the story puts forward the concept of opposition between nature and technology, and the second half is transformed into world purification. This transformation comes from the influence of the Yugoslav Civil War on Miyazaki: “The so-called war seems to be a just act, but once it begins , No matter what kind of war, it will become corrupt.” This is also the content reflected at the end of the movie.

Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind attracted 910,000 viewers as soon as it was released, and the box office reached 700 million yen, becoming an out-and-out box office myth at the time. After watching “Nausicaa”, many viewers believe that the meaning of the movie is far greater than the movie itself. Hayao Miyazaki also used a warm way to bring hope to people, arousing people’s conjecture, and letting the audience know that there is at least hope in the harsh environment.

This film formally established the core value of Hayao Miyazaki’s subsequent works, that is, how humans and nature should get along. “Nausicaa” has also contributed to a pair of golden partners in the history of Japanese animation and even art-Hayao Miyazaki and Joe Hisaishi. During the film production, Joe Hisaishi produced an impression album for the film on the recommendation of the investor. The original soundtrack of the film “Nausicaa” has been scheduled to be in charge of Haruomi Hosino, who has written the theme song and sang it by Narumi Yasuda. However, both Hayao Miyazaki and Takahata Takahata like Hisaishi Joe’s impression album and directly used it in the feature film, only retaining the theme song of Haruomi Hosino. Since then, almost every work of Hayao Miyazaki has been produced by Joe Hisaishi as the music producer. This pair of partners achieved each other’s achievements and left a deep mark on animated films and music.