Poets and chroniclers usually don’t put imagination on breakfast, it is only related to alarm clocks, traffic lights and commuter cars. But have you ever thought that this familiar and unfamiliar meal is the cultural essence accumulated by various countries for a century, and the wave of globalization has swept in…
Most people admit that Hillary Clinton is an extraordinary woman, because she is a person who tried to break history and become the first female president of the United States. However, she always starts her day with the ordinary: American scrambled eggs and vegetable salad with fresh jalapeños. If there is no fresh jalapeño, she uses the regular salsa to make the salad. In the abundance of products in the United States, there are a lot of choices in what to eat. If it is lunch and dinner, it seems strange to repeat as simple as Hillary. However, the breakfast meal, so traditional, so lacking in adventurous spirit, is completely acceptable.
Breakfast is the most stubborn
Costa Rican red bean rice.
Some people, like Hillary, eat the same food for breakfast every day. Some people cycle back and forth between several predetermined options. Most people choose to eat foods that they are very familiar with when they grow up. Even those who dare to try new things often choose to start a new day with familiar foods when traveling.
Chinese Cantonese-style morning tea.
Hotels in Vietnam offer bacon and scrambled eggs for American tourists, and hotels in Hawaii offer sushi and miso soup for Japanese tourists. China Tong and British writer Paul French have lived in China for more than 20 years, but he said that, like most foreigners, he cannot bear to drink porridge-a breakfast food that many Chinese like.
People in northern and western India drink tea in the morning and eat wheat cakes rolled with potatoes and onions.
At lunch or dinner time of the day, people are almost always willing to try new dishes. In contrast, the stubbornness of breakfast is a bit thought-provoking. Nowadays, European and American countries have already accepted all the food brought by immigrants: Londoners eat Japanese sushi for lunch, Indian curry for dinner, and Turkish barbecue when drinking. The Americans are even worse. They swallow the Laotian minced meat salad, which is a cold dish of pork, beef, fish, chicken, duck (both raw and cooked) and lime mint fish sauce fish sauce; for Ethiopian Pancakes are also welcome. This kind of pancakes are fermented with gluten-free flour for 2-3 days until the tropical temperature makes it sour. But in the early morning, most people don’t want to taste foreign tastes.
A vegetable salad of American bacon, scrambled eggs and fresh jalapeños.
Traditionally, Russians eat a buckwheat paste for breakfast, which can be paired with wheat dumplings filled with sweet cream and cheese shortbread if economic conditions permit. Russians also like jam made from red berries. The red bean rice is a traditional Costa Rican delicacy. It is mainly made of rice and beans. The rice and beans are cooked separately, then fried together, and seasoned with coriander, usually with fried eggs.
English breakfast has a wide variety of options, including bacon, sausage, toast, eggs, tomatoes, mushrooms, potato wedges, black blood sausage, and English breakfast tea.
From the north and west of India to Karnataka, people in these areas call breakfast “nashta”, which means snack. They drink tea in the morning and eat wheat cakes rolled with potatoes and onions. The farther you go south, the more people prefer rice. In the countryside of Karnataka, breakfast is usually made of corn balls. In the southern state of Tamil Nadu, urban residents like meatballs made with coarse rice flour or deep-fried bread. In the countryside, the most common porridge is a mixture of white rice and corn. And these are just a few of the countless Indian breakfasts. Breakfast is not only different from region to region, but also from city to country, not to mention the difference between social classes. Breakfast in China is also varied, such as gnawing fruit in Tianjin, sizzling noodles in Chongqing, drinking bean juice in Beijing, eating morning tea in Guangdong… In Mexico, breakfasts in different regions are slightly different, but they usually have tortillas, eggs, beans and Seasonings are just matched in different ways. The most typical breakfast is Chilaquiles. Cut the tortillas into small pieces and deep-fry them, then add the spicy tomato sauce and cook until the tortillas are soft. Finally, it is eaten with espresso, cheese, chicken, raw onion, avocado or omelette, usually with rice and beans for breakfast.
6. The traditional German breakfast will be served with bacon, eggs, cheese, vegetables and fruits. 7. Italian breakfast is as simple as cookies and coffee
It can be said that each country has its own set of breakfast: Vietnam has Vietnamese noodles; Japan has miso soup and grilled fish; the United States has waffles and oatmeal; the Philippines has chocolate glutinous rice porridge with salted fish. Bulgarians like to eat Banitsa for breakfast, which is a type of pie, baked with cheese wrapped in a dough roll thin like a spring roll, and seasoned with yogurt during the production process. Banizza has different fillings and flavors, the most authentic is the original flavor of white cheese, and others include spinach filling, apple filling, green onion filling and so on.
To say what breakfasts in all countries have in common, it is far more clear than lunch and dinner. If you mention bacon and eggs in front of the British, they must understand that you are describing breakfast. In the Netherlands or Belgium, if you put a thick chocolate sauce on the bread, or sprinkle with chocolate chips, or directly sandwich the chocolate, you can only cook it for breakfast. When you eat croissants at any time except in the morning, the French will be blinded.
The breakfast foods that we swallow in a hurry and make us day after day, no matter where they are, they have a profound meaning of identity. In addition to their own national identity, they also have social class and family pedigree. Recognition. The French sociologist Claude Schiller once said that “what we eat makes us”, which makes sense in reverse.
European breakfast is divided into north and south
Italy is a country famous for its cuisine, with a wide variety of dishes and exquisite styles. The breakfast of most Italians is bad cookies and coffee. The breakfast in the country of gourmet cuisine contrasts sharply with the high-end dishes of other meals. The same is true in France. The French drink a cup of coffee and add a piece of croissant between the time they wake up and the dinner. Breakfast is called “petit déjeuner” in France. Petit means “small”, which means “a little break”. fasting”. It can be seen from the name that the French do not pay much attention to breakfast.
However, in Europe, there is a clear North-South difference in breakfast. This is because the geographical difference between the north and the south inevitably affects the geographical distribution of appetite in the early morning. Of course, northerners feel more hungry than southerners when they wake up early in the morning. Therefore, on the breakfast table in Germany or Scandinavian countries, you can see bacon, eggs, cheese, vegetables and fruits. The English breakfast is even more generous.
Although breakfast in English means “breakfast: to break ones fast” as in French, the English breakfast has a variety of flavors. The essentials are bacon, sausage, toast, eggs, tomatoes, mushrooms, potato wedges, black blood sausage, plus English breakfast tea. The English breakfast is also called “fry-up” (fried food). Bacon, sausages, and black pudding are all fried in a frying pan, sometimes even toast is fried in butter; eggs can be fried or fried. Fried eggs are called Scrambled eggs, which are made with butter and milk. Fried; tomatoes and mushrooms are roasted in the oven; potato wedges are fried in hot oil. Such a rich English breakfast has created an English saying: “Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince, dinner like a beggar.”
When it comes to the British signature dishes, the English breakfast is just as important as pizza is to Italy and hamburgers are to the United States. We know that English breakfast is not a dish, but a table of dishes, or a large plate of protein combinations, and its soul is eggs and bacon. “A Brief History of Breakfast” author Heather Arndt Anderson said that eggs have always been a popular breakfast food. A long time ago, a Bible scholar named John A. Rice once described that the Virgin Mary prepared eggs for Jesus’ breakfast. After the hens have laid their eggs in the morning, every household can quickly make a simple egg breakfast. Meats that do not need to be slaughtered on the same day but are easy to preserve are also a breakfast option. Anderson pointed out that chicken never appeared on the breakfast table in ancient times, because no one came together to kill the chicken in the morning, but the pork slaughtered in advance can be served directly after being cured.
In fact, before the decadent 19th century, the British breakfast was usually nothing more than a piece of bread or rolls. Bacon and eggs are part of a hearty dinner. The Victorian people turned bacon and eggs into breakfast, along with lamb chops and lamb kidneys, smoked herring, green peas and fish egg risotto, cold steak pie and even curry, etc., all served on the breakfast table. Even the most gluttonous Victorian gentleman cannot eat every dish. It is said that in the UK, curing hangovers, replenishing energy, and indulging in weekends are all inseparable from a full English breakfast. The English breakfast is deeply ingrained in British culture, and it is difficult to imagine life without it.
Since breakfast in Europe presents a trend of richness in the north, streamlined in the south, and distinctness, are there any similarities in breakfast in Europe? The answer is yes. Although the difference in latitude makes the breakfast habits of European countries very different, breakfasts in all regions of Europe have a common feature, that is, to drink a sweet hot drink, which may be coffee, tea or hot cocoa. However, in those places where breakfast is indeed a meal, people drink relatively light tea and coffee, while in areas where solid food is rare for breakfast, generally they drink very thick coffee or hot cocoa.
Although there are many differences in the drinking habits of these three hot drinks across Europe, it is a fact that the whole Europe has changed to sweet and hot drink breakfast. These three “tropical products” have been on the breakfast table in Europe, to some extent, they also reflect the process of globalization, and in retrospect have deeply influenced the European diet map.
Continental breakfast on the global train
Drinking a cup of coffee, occasionally with bread spread with sauce, this abbreviated breakfast, a simplified version of this rich northern breakfast, spreads the world as a European colonial heritage. However, there are subtle differences around the world: Canada will use maple syrup and high-calorie pork sauce to coat bread; Continental Europe is happy to spread a layer of very salty and slightly bitter Vigema sauce, which is considered to be British marmite sauce. Southern cousin”; The United States has been influenced by the Netherlands and Germany, and the traditional English breakfast has been mixed and matched since the beginning of the 19th century. The most enduring breakfast food is muffins.
After the 19th century, Western hotel chains caught the train of the tourism industry’s globalization. The hotel restaurant created a standardized diet, with classic hot drinks paired with toast or sweet bread as the main axis, and jam and cream were also provided. Occasionally you can see fruit or ham bacon, plus eggs. This abbreviated version of the English breakfast is generally called the continental breakfast. Continental breakfast is like the lowest common denominator of dietary globalization. Any restaurant around the world that claims to be “international”, the appearance of breakfast will not deviate too much from the norm. In the middle of the 20th century, the American breakfast model began to spread, and the continental breakfast included American oatmeal to meet the dietary needs of every international business traveler or tourist. Today, the continental breakfast has become the standard breakfast mode in every hotel.
Although the breakfast choices of various countries are deeply rooted in the soil of their own countries, but nowadays, in restaurants in Western countries and in global chain commercial hotels, breakfasts rarely have unexpected things: juice (mostly citrus-based). Main), eggs (fried eggs, scrambled eggs and hard-boiled eggs), tea, coffee and hot cocoa, bread pastries, jams and butter, cereals, fruits and a few kinds of cured foods (fried bacon, small hot dogs, ham , Italian sausage). Even in high-end hotels, the breakfast dishes are generally not out of this range.
French anthropologist Marc Ouge believes that transfer and relay spaces such as airports and hotels do not have the meaning of “places” for society. Compared with the places with relations, history and identity in anthropology, he calls these places “non-places”. “(Non-lieu). Therefore, these places are exactly where the continental breakfast exists.
The continental breakfast spreads to all parts of the world with Western culture, so I drink a cup of sweet and hot drink (the British colonial rule gives tea an opportunity to develop, but the consumption of milder American coffee can not be underestimated), and add a piece of bread, like this The lite breakfast has now become the standard breakfast for many urbanites around the world. This also makes us feel that, like “non-local”, breakfast can also be said to be a “non-gourmet” meal.
The shelves of the library are full of cooking guides and gourmet books, but there are not many that specialize in breakfast. Almost all of the cuisines introduced in food books, recipes, restaurant guides, etc. are prepared for lunch and dinner. For breakfast, there has never been a chef who has won a Michelin star for breakfast, right? Of course, it’s not that the food for the continental breakfast is definitely not good, it’s just that it’s nothing new. This also has nothing to do with cooking technology, because since the end of the 19th century, the shadow of food factories can be seen on the breakfast table in the United Kingdom and North America. The agricultural product processing industry has accelerated the popularity of continental breakfast, but it has also compressed the diversity of food.
Does breakfast provide a sense of security?
Today, the potluck at home has long been globalized, and pasta is almost ordinary enough that no one thinks it is an exotic food. Perhaps the Jewish chef and food writer Ottolenghi Yotam is the best representative of this food trend. He has 5 popular restaurants in London, has won numerous awards, and published 6 best-selling cookbooks. A well-known American food magazine once said He is “the chef who made the world fall in love with vegetables”. His recipe embodies the culinary tradition of Arabs and Jews coexisting, including all hometown ingredients, but not limited to Jewish cooking methods. He used common fish, meat, and agricultural products in the UK, and then moved around to borrow some flavors, and finally turned into a very distinctive recipe. The most popular is the roasted eggplant. The oven-baked eggplant is topped with lemon, thyme, Zaatar (a Middle Eastern spice), pomegranate seeds and buttermilk yogurt sauce, which is rich in flavor and exotic. Such diverse and symbiotic cuisines are quietly changing the way people cook food.
But at breakfast, no one went on a culinary adventure. In addition to the troublesome creative cooking in the early morning, there is a deeper psychological reason why people do not want to eat early food at breakfast: people are in their most vulnerable time, the day has not officially started, breakfast should be Provide people with a sense of security.
Anthropologist Kaori O’Connor said that in all cultures, breakfast is the most conservative meal of the day. O’Connor is a senior researcher in the Department of Anthropology at the University of London in the United Kingdom. He wrote a book on English breakfast. She wrote in the book: “We have globalized food, but breakfasts unique to different cultures have all been preserved. This is the sacrament for you to start the day, and weird ideas can be saved for later.” She continued. Said: “But in any case, you want to start a new day in the right way. You want to be ready; you are waking up from your sleep… You want to know that you are on a good start.”
This morning meal seems to be more about national identity. However, like other aspects of daily life, although the pace of globalization has been resisted, it is also quietly changing. The main reason for the change in eating habits in the early morning is the tension in the pace of life brought about by the so-called modernization. This is also the root cause of the popularity of the continental breakfast that accompanies the industrialization of food.
There are also a few people who try different breakfasts at home. In 2013, Michael Xu, who lives in London, cooked a special breakfast for his lovers and shared it on his Instagram account. This is a completely symmetrical breakfast, which has been praised by many netizens. Since then, Michael has made an exquisite breakfast for his lovers every morning, completely symmetrical, never repeated, uploaded on time at 7 o’clock. After the blog “Symmetry Breakfast” became popular, a related book was born. This also makes people realize that breakfast can become as exciting as dinner, and it is worth everyone to try and innovate.