With the continuous deterioration of the natural environment and the rapid development of urbanization, in addition to facing sudden natural disasters, we must always beware of large-scale infectious diseases that may erupt at any time. In the face of various sudden disasters, how do architects create and design the most valuable architectural products under disasters? Emergency buildings have become a particularly important part of the emergency plan.
In its design, in addition to considering its emergency, practicality, economic cost and other factors, more and more emergency buildings are also based on modern technology and modern aesthetics, considering the use of materials and aesthetics. Its impact on the living environment and mental health of the people after the disaster.
A community of “half houses”
A community composed of “half houses”, they appeared in Chile after the 8.8 magnitude earthquake in 2010.
In Chile, a middle-class family may live in a house of about 80 square meters, while a lucky enough low-income family can only own a house of 40 square meters. They cannot afford a big “good” house. In the 1970s, some people thought about how to allow residents in cities in developing countries to build their own houses. This idea was implemented as a “half house” by designers after the earthquake.
All houses have the same basic building on one side, and completely different on the other side, leaving it empty for its owner to build. All the concrete foundations, pipes and electricity are complete, and the residents only need to spend their time, labor, additional materials within the economic burden and everyone’s imagination.
A community of “half houses”
Residents can also participate in construction seminars. Each house has a manual to provide professional methods and reference to standard building materials for residents who will be “designers”, so as to prevent anyone from buying expensive materials.
In the design vision, everyone will have their own comfortable new home, which is better than relying solely on state funding or blindly building it yourself.
Cubicle with privacy screen
In 2014, Okayama Prefecture faced the deadliest flood in Japan in 30 years. More than 155 people died in the entire area, and up to 30% of the area was flooded. The figure of the famous Japanese architect Shigeru Ban once again appeared, bringing hope to people in the rainstorm.
The refugees were placed in the stadium of Kurashiki No.2 Fukuda Elementary School. Although the stadium was already a large-scale shelter, Shigeru Ban and the volunteers used recycled paper tubes, cardboard panels and fabrics to build one after another.” Home”.
These modular isolation systems have privacy screens that protect everyone, and are even equipped with Japanese-style doors. Even in the midst of a disaster, each victim can still maintain respect and emotions between people. room.
Cubicle with privacy screen
Shigeru Ban’s design has indeed taken care of every type of population. Through a paper zoning system, residents of local nursing homes are placed in one corner individually, and each unit has wheelchairs and elderly care beds to prevent these elderly people with mobility difficulties from worsening the situation.
Shigeru Ban once said in an interview: “We work for the public. We have many very powerful invisible forces. We can only perceive its existence when we build a building. This is the social responsibility of architecture.” This is also the case. The social responsibility of architects is even more shining than professional skills.
Chengdu Paper Tube Temporary Schoolhouse
The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake should be Ban Shigeru’s closest to the Chinese people. This tragic disaster has displaced countless people, not to mention the children’s studies. Soon after the earthquake, Shigeru Ban received a commission from the Education Bureau of Chenghua District, Chengdu, to build a temporary school for the children in the earthquake area, so that knowledge can continue to encourage the growth of seedlings.
Shigeru Ban used the paper tube he is best at to build the structure, and these raw materials can also be easily obtained in disaster areas where resources are scarce. Members from the research office of Keio University in Japan and more than 100 volunteers from Southwest Jiaotong University in China used a month to build 3 school buildings (9 classrooms).
”This is the first temporary school in the disaster area. I think it is also a veritable’Hope Primary School’. The smiles on the faces of the children in the classroom are the purest hope at the time. If a building is only for commercial purposes, even if it is constructed of concrete It is also very temporary. If a building can be loved by people and soothe people’s hearts, even if it is a paper tube building, it can be eternal.” This “paper school” is still preserved today, as if it speaks of eternity Hope.
“Guatemala Plan B” shelter
In June 2018, the Fuego Volcano, only 44 kilometers away from the capital, erupted. Thousands of people were displaced. The government built 26 residential projects at a critical point to rescue residents who lost their homes.
The designer therefore proposed the “Guatemala Plan B” to build a batch of yellow hollow houses to form temporary shelters and new homes in the future. These 86-square-meter shelters are divided into two parts: the “living room-kitchen-bathroom area” and the bedroom, which are separated by an inner courtyard. The designer also thoughtfully laid the groundwork for the bedroom. If needed in the future, the bedroom can be expanded vertically upwards, or one more horizontally.
The most attractive thing about this building is the small yellow grids one after another. These grids made of special concrete make the whole building transparent, and natural wind passes through the space, bringing a gentle comfort to the people affected by the disaster. The grid has also become a partition between different areas, distinguishing naturally. The yellow paint in the grid is the personal business card of each family. This bright color can always give people visual power. All building materials are made of cheap and easily available materials such as bamboo and sheet metal. This not only helps the rapid construction of shelters, but also allows residents who have resumed production and life to use their own creativity and rebuild. In their own hands.
Emergency sandbag shelter
The emergency sandbag shelter is the most famous work of an Iranian-American architect. In the poem of Rumi, the mysterious Poet of Persian Sufism, “the soil will become the gold of the wise”, which deeply influenced the architect. He used the sandbags, barbed wire, and free soil under his feet to build an arched house that was durable and poetic. These materials are taken from nature, and they are rooted in nature after gaining new life through human industrious hands.
Sandbag buildings often exist in poverty-stricken areas such as deserts. The architect hopes that local residents can complete this refuge with their own hands, and even innovate. He believes that only by relying on their own strength can they have human rights and dignity. This is not a kind of high-level humanistic care.