The secret of immortality

   Looking back on the world history of the past 100 years, the average life expectancy of human beings has increased much faster than that of the previous few thousand years, and it may not be far away to attain the immortality. If one day human beings can manipulate genes to avoid aging and use new technologies to solve problems that cannot be solved now, can human beings who possess the “power of God” at that time be called humans? Can immortality really bring happiness to life? Such a question is worthy of everyone’s thinking, and such a questioning may never stop.
  
   Aging conquer
   a sunny morning, a young marine circular clam lie on the Arctic seabed with seawater filter, if you’re lucky, it’ll be like this 500 years of quiet enjoyment. Above it, a bowhead whale was jumping out of the sea happily, and it happened to be seen by whale-watching tourists from afar. If the tourists’ eyes were sharp enough, they might be able to see the whaling ship on it during the Industrial Revolution more than 200 years ago. The scars left on it. Beside the whale watcher, there is an elderly dog. It has been with its owner since it was born, and now it is old, the owner will continue to take care of its next generation and touch them affectionately.
   Every creature has its own lifespan. Some can witness the transformation of the sea into a mulberry field, while some do not know the spring and autumn, but they will all die, and the Mammal primates are no exception. Humans who think they have understood the laws of nature often use “number of days” and “laws of nature” to answer the puzzle of lifespan, but science has given another answer-genes.
   Telomeres explore
   genes are made of DNA present in all biological composition of the nucleus, although it is a simple four-letter -ATCG composition, but it is all life activities and forms of “core code” to guide each cell development The form also determines when they split and die. The nucleus of an animal (including all its genes) is transferred to another cell by artificial means, then this new cell can develop into an individual that is exactly the same as the original one. The cloned sheep Dolly was bred using this method. By transferring part of the gene of one organism to another species, the organism that accepts the gene can possess the “special functions” of other organisms. For example, scientists use this technology to give roses the ability of glowing jellyfish to glow in the dark, so that the roses can also Can present a moving style in the dark night.
   All the characteristics of life are genetically regulated, and lifespan is no exception. So scientists turned their attention to those long-lived animals, hoping to use science as a weapon to challenge the giant wall that no one has ever surpassed—death.
   In the exploration of conquering death, telomeres were the first target to enter the eyes of scientists. Telomere is a small piece of DNA-protein complex at the end of linear chromosomes of eukaryotic cells. It forms a special “cap” structure with telomere binding protein, which is used to maintain the integrity of chromosomes and control the cell division cycle. In 1990, biologist Kevin Harry discovered that telomeres are related to human aging.
   First, the older the cell, the shorter the telomere length; the younger the cell, the longer the telomere. Telomeres are related to cell aging. Some telomeres in senescent cells have lost most of the telomere repeats. When the function of cell telomeres is impaired, senescence occurs, and when telomeres are shortened to a critical length, senescence accelerates and is approaching death.
   Second, normal cells have shorter telomeres. Cell division will shorten the telomere, divide once and shorten a little, just like the wear of an iron rod. If only one residual root remains, the cell is close to senescence. When a cell divides, its telomere DNA loses about 30 to 200 bp (base pairs).
   Scientists have discovered that the reason cancer cells do not age is that they can constantly express telomerase (a protein that can lengthen telomeres), so that they can always maintain the integrity of their own chromosomes. Damaged by the passage of time. Scientists are trying to give other animals the “superpower” that cancer cells do not age, and see if it will help animals delay aging or resist death. The results of the mouse experiment are very gratifying. The transfer of telomerase greatly prolongs the life of the mice and does not cause cancer. Three American scientists were also awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering the mechanism by which telomeres and telomerase protect chromosomes. It can be said that the study of telomeres is a solid step taken by human beings on the road to fight against aging.
   Enlightenment of the tortoise
   The continuation of life is inseparable from oxygen. With the continuous development of science, people have discovered that the apoptosis of life is also inseparable from oxygen. As an active chemical component, oxygen participates in various chemical activities of the human body and is an indispensable part of metabolism. But also because it is so active, it produces a substance called free radicals while participating in various life activities in the human body, and this substance can cause damage to the human body. More and more studies have shown that antioxidant is an important step to prevent aging, because free radicals or oxidants will break down cells and tissues, affect metabolic functions, and cause different health problems. If too many free radicals can be eliminated, many aging-related diseases caused by free radicals can be prevented.
   The longevity of tortoises has been widely known since ancient times. Turtles have two well-known characteristics: slow movement and very little food. In fact, this is a manifestation of slow metabolism. The less energy you take in, the lower your activity ability and the corresponding reduction in oxidative damage. Therefore, animals with slow metabolism usually live longer, as are turtles, and so are Greenland sharks (the longest-lived fish, the longest-lived individuals are known to be over 500 years old).
   In 1989, the Wisconsin Primate Research Institute began a 20-year nutritional study. The study found that the experimental group that restricts calorie intake has many health benefits compared to the control group, such as lower overall mortality and lower prevalence of various senile diseases.
   We can clearly see that the monkeys in the control group on the left have sparser hair and sunken eye sockets. In fact, the two monkeys on the left and right are the same age. The experiment found that the life span of monkeys in the “calorie control group” was much longer than that of the “Hu Chi Haisai group”, which translates to a human life span of about 20 years.
   Of course, it is unrealistic to let everyone eat half of the food and stick to it for a lifetime. Human beings are not monkeys in the laboratory. We need energy to engage in various tasks in life. In addition, only reducing metabolism and reducing oxidative damage can only extend life to a limited extent, and it is still far from the goal of escaping death.
   Clear senescent cells
   human life, damage to cells by oxidative damage not only one, random gene mutation, ultraviolet light, chemicals and so will cause cell damage.
   Scientists have discovered through research that damaged cells cannot perform their normal functions and no longer divide, and they are related to body aging. In the future, the most promising drugs for successful development include drugs to attack “senescent cells.”
   A scientific study in 2018 found that the proportion of aging cells in mice is indeed related to aging-related symptoms, such as weakness, low endurance, and slower walking speed. Researchers believe that aging cells rely on the human body like “cell zombies” and secrete a small protein called cytokine that damages surrounding cells. The toxicity of aging cells not only affects neighboring cells, but may also cause mild systemic inflammation, which is also one of the signs of body aging.