The second sun and “Planet Nine”

According to long-term observations, most star systems in the universe have been confirmed to be composed of at least two stars. In 1984, the American physicist Muller proposed the conjecture that the sun has a companion star-a distant red dwarf or brown dwarf star orbits the sun in an elliptical orbit, and enters the Oort cloud (an icy star) every about 26 million years. Microplanets form a sphere cloud cluster surrounding the solar system), disturbing a large number of comets into the inner solar system, causing periodic mass extinctions on the earth. The existence of this companion star called Nemesis has not been confirmed yet, and the Oort Cloud seems to provide clues for finding the companion star.

The Oort Cloud is a spherical cloud cluster surrounding the solar system.

The Oort cloud can be understood as the boundary of the solar system, and its farthest distance to the sun is 100,000 times the distance from the earth to the sun. The icy microplanets that make up the Oort Cloud are bound by the sun’s weak gravitational pull and gather into a sphere that surrounds the solar system. Astronomers believe that if only one star has existed in the solar system so far, the theoretical density of the matter that constitutes the Oort cloud should be less than the actual density measured today, and the more powerful gravitational capture effect of the dual star system can precisely explain Oort. Teyun’s “theory-actual density difference”.

If evidence can be found that the Oort cloud is captured by a binary star, then the theory of solar system formation will be rewritten, and it will help answer all kinds of questions about the origin of life on Earth. The comet originating from the Oort Cloud brought the source of life to the earth-water, and also led to the subsequent extinction of the dinosaurs. Why did the companion star that helped the sun capture the Oort Cloud, and where did it go? Astronomers speculate that the companion star was taken away from the sun by a star passing through the vicinity of the solar system. This phenomenon often occurs in young star clusters, and most of the Oort cloud’s material is also stripped away. Today, this possible companion star may have drifted to a corner of the Milky Way that we don’t know.

“Planet Nine”
In 2006, the International Astronomical Union officially expelled Pluto from the ranks of planets and classified it as a dwarf planet. The concept of eight planets began to be established, but astronomers are still working on finding the unknown “Planet Nine.” Interestingly, all the simulation results of astronomers on “Planet Nine” are quite close. Some simulation results show that this planet is a massive celestial body with a volume of 2 to 4 times that of the Earth and a mass of about 10 times that of the Earth. It takes 10,000 to 20,000 years to revolve around the sun. Other simulation results indicate that the planet is likely to be an exoplanet captured by the young sun about 4.5 billion years ago. When the sun and other stars form together in a star cluster, the positions between the stars are not fixed, and the stars often pass by each other. During the encounter, the sun may have “stolen” one or more planets from other stars, and they gradually separated from the star cluster together and formed today’s solar system. This also seems to coincide with the companion star theory-if the sun has captured the Oort Cloud with the help of a companion star, it may also capture “Planet Nine.”

“Planet Nine” may be a small black hole.

In recent years of observations, astronomers have discovered some strange celestial bodies in the distant outer solar system that orbit outside Neptune and have almost the same perihelion. These celestial bodies are called trans-Neptune celestial bodies (“TNO”). Some astronomers believe that these TNOs are too far away from Neptune. Therefore, it is not Neptune that affects the extreme orbits of these TNOs, but the “Planet Nine”, which is 5 to 15 times the mass of the Earth. “Planet Nine” may be far beyond the orbit of Pluto, and its distance to the sun may be hundreds of times the distance from the earth to the sun.

Another explanation even thinks. “Planet Nine” may be a primitive black hole. A primordial black hole will appear a few seconds after the Big Bang, but this primordial black hole has not yet been confirmed. The basis for this hypothesis comes from the gravitational anomaly discovered by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). Using OGLE, astronomers monitor the sky and look for micro-gravitational lensing events: When a massive foreground object like a black hole passes in front of a background object (such as a star), the black hole distorts and magnifies the light of the background object like a lens. Through observation, scientists have discovered 6 micro-gravitational lensing events, which occurred about 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way galaxy, which is almost the same as the distance from the sun to the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Black holes are very dense. A black hole about 5 times the mass of the earth is only the size of a persimmon, and it can inhale all objects including light. If the sun captures such a black hole, then this black hole will also affect the orbit of TNO.

In 2022, the Willa Rubin Observatory will officially start operation. One of its missions is to find outer solar system objects other than Pluto. We look forward to more new discoveries about the “Planet Nine” by then.

Willa Rubin Observatory
The Willa Rubin Observatory (also known as the Large Integrated Sky Survey Telescope, or “LSST”), named after the late American astronomer Willa Rubin, confirmed the existence of dark matter in the galaxy. LSST is located on Mount Ilpeño in the Coquimbo region of northern Chile, at an altitude of 2682 meters, next to the Gemini Observatory and the Southern Astrophysics Research Telescope. Construction began on August 1, 2014, and will officially start in January 2022 for 10 years. Years of observational work.

LSST is equipped with a primary mirror with a diameter of 8.4 meters. On September 8, 2020, the LSST camera team released the first batch of 32-megapixel digital photos. They are not only the largest images ever taken in a single shot, but also a successful test of the focal plane of the camera. The focal plane of the LSST camera contains 3.2 billion pixels, each pixel is about 10 microns wide, and the focal plane itself is very flat, and its variation does not exceed one-tenth of the width of a human hair. This allows the LSST camera to produce very high resolution image. The images taken by the LSST camera are so huge that 378 4K ultra-high-definition TV screens are required to display the true full size. The focal plane of the LSST camera is large enough to cover a sky the size of 40 full moons, which will enable LSST to complete a full-day imaging of the entire southern hemisphere every few nights.