Thousands of knots

“Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was born in Corfu. He has dedicated many years to his country. I express my deep condolences to Queen Elizabeth II, the British royal family and the British people.” This is Katerina, President of the Hellenic Republic. A text posted by Sacraropoulo on social media on the afternoon of April 9, local time. Earlier in the day, Buckingham Palace issued a statement saying: “The Queen announced with a sad heart that her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, has passed away at Windsor Castle.”

The island of Corfu that Sacraropoulo said when he mourned the British, the Greeks usually called Corfu, and the Greek spelled Κ?ρκυρα. This is part of the Ionian Islands located along the west coast of Greece. In ancient Greece, Corfu was once one of the three major naval powers in Greece, second only to Athens and Corinth. The Battle of Zibota that it participated in was the catalytic battle of the ancient Greek Peloponnesian War. Because of the victory of Sparta in the Peloponnesian War, Greece bid farewell to the classical era.

When Prince Philip was born on the island of Corfu on June 10, 1921, in the Second Greek-Turkish War, the Greek army was retreating steadily. The Turkish army, led by its national leader Kemal, drove the Greek army that had occupied Smyrna out of the country. At this time, King Constantine I of Greece was forced to give up his seat and go into exile. Greece established a revolutionary military government. Without being able to capture Constantine I, the Greek military government arrested his brother Prince Andreas and his family, including Prince Philip, the son of Prince Andreas.

From the perspective of Greece today, Prince Philip is completely British and has nothing to do with Greece.

In theory, Prince Philip could inherit the thrones of Greece and Denmark. From Prince Philip’s body, it can be seen that there are thousands of knots in the European royal family.

Greek mourning is worth pondering
Prince Philip’s father, Prince Andreas, and Constantine I in exile, were the sons of the old Greek King George I. George I had eight children-three daughters and five sons. Among them, Constantine I was the eldest son of George I. He successfully inherited the Greek throne. Constantine I himself had three sons and two daughters. At least his three sons were ranked ahead of his uncle Prince Andreas in order to succeed to the throne.

Prince Andreas was the fourth younger brother of Constantine I. In other words, in terms of succession, he would rank behind the family of three older brothers. Only if there is no successor in the first three houses, he will be given his turn, and it will be his son Prince Philip’s turn. In other words, the possibility of Prince Philip inheriting the Greek throne is only theoretical and minimal.

Let’s look at the continuation of the throne and political changes in Greece since Constantine I succeeded to the throne. Constantine I, who was sent by George I to study in Germany for many years, married Princess Sophie, the daughter of the German Emperor and King Frederick III of the Kingdom of Prussia, and thus advocated the neutrality of Greece at the beginning of the First World War. However, most of the domestic political forces in Greece hope to join the Allied powers led by Britain and France, and finally put it into practice. With the defeat of Germany, the pro-German King Constantine I of the victorious Greece was forced to give way to his son Alexander. It is not expected that Alexander was bitten by a monkey in 1920 and died. Constantine I was reset. Because of the launch of the second Greek-Turkish war and a disastrous defeat, Constantine I went into exile and died soon after. After the military government controlled the situation in Greece, another son of Constantine I succeeded George II. Within a few years, in 1924, George II was bombed away by revolutionaries, and the Second Republic of Greece was established. In 1935, General George Candilis launched a coup and invited George II to return to China for restoration. Hitler’s German army invaded Greece in 1941, and George II and the Greek royal family went into exile in Egypt. In 1946, George II returned to China and died soon after returning home. He succeeded to the throne by his younger brother, Paul I, who was also the son of Constantine I. On March 6, 1964, the son of Paul I succeeded him as Constantine II. This person can be called the last king of Greece-he was expelled by the colonel of Greece in 1967, and the regent appointed by the colonel was acting as the agent of the Greek state. In fact, he established another military dictatorship in modern Greek history. In 1973, the military government initiated a referendum to completely abolish the royal family and establish Greece as a republic, and Greece entered the era of the Third Republic. In June of the same year, George Papadopoulos became president. Its prosperity is also great, and its death is also sudden. Within a year, the Greek military government collapsed and Constantine II returned to Greece. But in the end, Greece did not restore its monarchy. Constantine II, who claims to love Greece, is also at odds with the government of the Third Republic of Greece. He once said: “It’s very important to be able to blow the sea breeze in Greece, see the mountains, and be with the Greek people. I don’t care if I am the leader of the country. Being a Greek king or an ordinary Greek is really true for me. It’s not important. I just want to stay with the Greeks and my country.” But this wish has not been realized for a long time.

Portrait of Prince Philip’s father of Greece and Prince Andreas of Denmark.

Even Constantine II cannot become the king of Greece again, so the possibility of his uncle Prince Philip inheriting the Greek throne is over. Let’s take a look at Catalina Sacraropoulo’s statement of condolences to the United Kingdom. “He has dedicated many years to his country”, which is obviously an announcement-in the view of Greece today, Prince Philip is The British have nothing to do with Greece.

After so many “European father-in-laws”
Let’s look at the relationship between Prince Philip and Denmark.

Constantine II’s great-grandfather, that is, Prince Philip’s grandfather, King George I of Greece, was also a real Danish prince. Because the father of George I, Christian IX, was the king of Denmark from 1863 to 1906. Christian IX and Prince Philip, one of his grandsons, did a similar thing, but with very different consequences. Both grandparents and grandchildren proposed to the Queen of England. Christian IX, a man who wanted to be king, was ruthlessly rejected by Victoria. After that, Queen Victoria and her cousin who was three months younger than her, Saxe-Coburg married Prince Albert of Gotha. For Christian IX, the consolation is that after he married the niece of King Christian VIII of Denmark, Princess Louise of Hessen-Kassel, he finally won the Danish throne with a slight surprise. The reason is that in 1853, the Danish King Frederick VII was unable to bear children. With the support of several European powers, Christian IX obtained the Danish prince status because of the blood of his wife Princess Louise, and then inherited the Danish throne.

After Christian IX became King of Denmark, there are two things worth mentioning.

One is that although he failed to marry Queen Victoria, he married Princess Alexandra, the daughter of Princess Louise, to Queen Victoria’s eldest son, Edward VII.

Second, Christian IX not only became relatives with Queen Victoria, he also married many royal families in Europe, which led to the nickname “European father-in-law”. As far as the “father-in-law” level is concerned, in addition to being the father-in-law of Edward VII, he also married his daughter Maria to the Russian Tsar Alexander III, and his daughter Tira to the Prince Ernst August of Hanover. world. It can be said that, under the guidance of his wife, Princess Louise, Christian IX was the father-in-law of the kings of various countries with a heart. Speaking of Maria’s marriage to Russia-originally her marriage partner was Nicholas, the eldest son of Tsar Alexander II. But in 1865, the year when Nicholas and Maria were about to get married, Nicholas fell from a horse and died. As a result, Maria could only marry Nicholas’ second brother Alexander, who would later become Tsar Alexander III. For this political marriage between Russia and Denmark, Alexander had to break up with his original favorite. The sons of “European father-in-law” are also unambiguous. In the same year that Christian IX succeeded to the Danish throne, he and Princess Louise’s second son Christian William Ferdinand Adolf Georg became the king of Greece earlier than him, called King George I. The previous year, King Otto I of Greece was deposed. The National Assembly of Greece passed a resolution, preparing to endorse Prince Alfred, the family of Christian IX and the second son of Queen Victoria, as the King of Greece. The Greek side wanted to further strengthen its in-law relationship with the United Kingdom, so that the “sun never set empire” could support itself at that time, and even grant the sovereignty of the Ionian Islands colonized by the United Kingdom to Greece, a famous ancient Greek state. After the Middle Ages, it experienced the rule of the Byzantine Empire, and also experienced its annexation to the Republic of Venice, and was subsequently conquered by the Napoleonic Empire. After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, the Ionian Islands were ruled by the British.

Left: Christian IX. Right: 6 children of Christian IX.

But Prince Alfred’s dream of becoming the king of Greece was rejected by France and Tsarist Russia. They came up with the London Treaty of 1832-written in black and white that Britain, Russia, and France cannot use their royal families as the kings of Greece. Therefore, the British proposed to let Prince William of Denmark be the king of Greece. This resolution was also accepted by the Greeks. On March 30, 1863, George I took office as King of Greece, and the ascension ceremony of George I was held in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. Former Greek Prime Minister Konstantin Kanaris led the Greek delegation to participate.

It was not until November 15, 1863 that Christian IX became King of Denmark. As the great-grandson of Christian IX, Prince Philip did not join the British citizenship until he married Princess Elizabeth of the United Kingdom in 1947, and at the same time gave up the right to inherit the two crowns of Denmark and Greece-although in terms of succession, the two crowns They are far away from him.

After the death of Prince Philip, the Danish royal family chose an oil painting of him wearing the Danish Elephant Medal on the official photo wall (ins) to express their respect for the Danish prince.

The royal family will experience the “consumer revolution”
The current Queen of Denmark, Margaret II, is the eldest daughter of Frederick IX. In other words, Margaret II’s grandfather, Christian X, and Queen Elizabeth II’s grandfather, George V, and Prince Philip’s father, Prince Andreas, have a common grandfather-Christian IX. . From this perspective, Elizabeth II and Margaret II are distant sisters, and Prince Philip is their distant cousin.

But Margaret II’s mother was Princess Ingrid of Sweden. Princess Ingrid’s father is the seventh child of Queen Victoria, Prince Arthur Connaught and Duke of Strathson. Counting this down, Margaret II is again Queen Victoria’s great-granddaughter, and is equal to Prince Philip.

The stories of princes and princesses can hardly hide the changes of the times.

There is also an algorithm-Prince Philip’s mother, Princess Alice of Battenberg is the great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria. According to this algorithm, Prince Philip is the distant cousin of Elizabeth II. The father of Princess Alice of Battenberg, the grandfather of Prince Philip, is Prince Louis Alexander of Battenberg. Prince Louis is the eldest son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and Rhein. However, the prince from Germany later became an important member of Edward VII when he built a powerful Royal Navy.

After the death of Prince Philip, the Spanish royal family sent such a message of condolences: “Dear Aunt Lilibet, we are very sad to hear the news of the death of dear Uncle Philip. At this painful time, we would like to represent the Spanish government and people. You express your deepest condolences and our support. We will never forget the memories shared with Uncle Philip, and his legacy of service and dedication to the royal family and Britain. Sincerely, Felipe, Leticia.”

Lilibet is the nickname of Queen Elizabeth II. The condolences of the Spanish royal family can be said to show its intimacy with the British royal family. In fact, Sofia, the old queen of Spain and the wife of former Spanish King Juan Carlos I, is the daughter of Greek King Paul I and Princess Frederick of Hanover. King Paul I of Greece and Prince Philip are cousins. From this line, Sophia should be called Prince Philip’s cousin. From another line, Juan Carlos I and Queen Elizabeth are peers.

The reason why the thousands of knots of the European royal family are so complicated is that the second, third or fourth generation of cousins ​​are often intermarried across generations. This is mainly due to two factors. One factor is the continuation of the noble lineage. For example, Christian IX, hereditary from today’s northern German town Glücksburg. Previously, he held the title of Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonnendeburg-Glücksburg. Because he married Princess Louise and inherited the Danish throne, he actually created the Glücksburg dynasty in Denmark. The son William, who became the king of Greece in the same year as him, founded the Glücksburg dynasty in Greece. Of course, Glücksburg in Greece was destroyed within a short period of time. However, until now, the Glücksburg family still retains more than one crown in Europe. In addition to Queen Margaret II of Denmark who is the family of Glücksburg, King Harald V of Norway is also the family of Glücksburg. The reason is that Norway and Sweden separated in 1905, and then King Oscar II of Sweden no longer served as King of Norway. During Christian Mitchelsen’s six-month tenure as regent, Norway held a referendum. In this referendum, the Norwegians still retain the monarchy. As a result, they chose Karl, the second son of King Frederick VIII of Denmark, to ascend the throne, also known as Hakon VII. Hakon VII died in 1957, his son Olaf V, his son Olaf V died in 1991, his son Harald V.

Compared with the Glücksburg dynasty, the Chinese people are more familiar with the Bourbon dynasty. Those who are familiar with the history of the French Revolution must know that Charles X was overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. But the Bourbon dynasty did not disappear in Europe. The Bourbon dynasty in Italy did not end until 1860. The current Spanish King Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso is still the Bourbon family. Judging from the length of time of the patrilineal royal family, the ancestors of the Spanish royal family can be traced back to the 8th century AD in the French Cape Dynasty-Bourbon is a branch of Cape Verde. In 1700, before the death of Carlos II, the last male of the Spanish Habsburg royal family, the edict passed the throne to his nephew, Philip, Duke of Anjou, the second grandson of Louis XIV from the French Bourbon dynasty. This was the beginning of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty. .

Today, Prince Philip has passed away. When people look back at the modernization of Europe, nation-states were born and the dynasty collapsed. The monarchy of some countries has been improved but still continues. The royal families of various countries have strengthened their ties through various marriages, whether they are in a group for warmth, so that countries can have more “home” ties between countries to reduce the possibility of war, all kinds of stories about princes and princesses, But it is difficult to conceal the changes of the times. Even though Elizabeth II has been very charming in Britain since the middle of the 20th century, there have been long-term forces within the British Labor Party to demand the abolition of the monarchy. There is even a “Republican Labor Party” activity group in the party.

In June 2019, the Guardian published a series of articles enumerating how the royal family suppressed the republican claim. The article pointed out: “The British royal family is like those long-established brand stores on the commercial street. Once the consumer revolution orders them to encounter business difficulties , The product is unpopular, and if the brand owners are conservative and vulgar, consumers will be dissatisfied with the services they receive. “Perhaps one day, the British monarchy will also come to an end. However, in this process, people can still recall the life of Prince Philip. In the course of the great history, the former Greek and Danish princes who have passed through many countries are not an inexplicable history, but it seems to be a bulge of history that people cannot forget…