Amazing coincidence of history

Coincidence refers to events that are difficult to predict and are often associated with “supernatural” explanations by some people. Coincidence may be random or caused by cause and effect. There have been many coincidences in history that seem to be really strange, and many people believe that mysterious and huge motivations have played a role in them.

Galileo

The late British master of science Hawking was born on January 8, 1942, which is also the 300-year anniversary of the death of Italian master of science Galileo. Hawking’s death day (March 14, 2018, International Day of Pi) is the 139th birthday of the scientific giant Einstein. You said it was a coincidence? Before the scientific interpretation of coincidences, let us take a look at some famous and surprising coincidences in history.

Two presidents died on the same day
When the Continental Congress was held in Philadelphia in 1775, Jefferson and Adams became friends all at once. The tall and thin Virginian Jefferson and the stout Massachusetts Adams drafted the Declaration of Independence together and worked together as American diplomats in Europe. In 1801, Jefferson succeeded Adams to become the President of the United States. At this time, the two had a diametrical relationship. This situation continued until 1812, when Adams wrote a New Year’s letter to Jefferson. After the two reconciled, the correspondence lasted for nearly 15 years. On July 4, 1826, when the United States celebrated the 50th anniversary of its independence from Britain, 83-year-old Jefferson died in Virginia. On the same day, 90-year-old Adams, who was unaware of Jefferson’s death, said his last words on his hospital bed in Massachusetts. -“Jefferson Live” and then died.

Adams (left) and Jefferson.

Comet accompanies the life and death of great writers
On November 30, 1835, the great writer Mark Twain was born in Missouri, USA. Halley’s Comet appeared in the earth’s sky that day. About every 75 years, Halley’s Comet returns to Earth. In his 20s, Mark Twain predicted this: “If I were not with Halley’s Comet when I finally left, it would be the biggest regret in my life.”

On April 21, 1910, Mark Twain, who was nearly 75 years old, died of a heart attack, 12 hours after Halley’s Comet appeared in the earth’s sky. It is said that Halley’s comet is particularly spectacular this year, and there are other reasons: it was only about 22.4 million kilometers from the earth at that time, which is equivalent to about 1/7 of the distance between the earth and the sun; it was the first time that human beings photographed it with a camera. Halley’s comet. Halley’s Comet last returned to Earth in 1986, and the next time it may be in 2061.

The weight of the Great Pyramid
Another puzzling coincidence is that the weight of the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt is estimated to be 6 million tons. Multiplying this number by 100 million is almost the mass of the earth. In addition, the Great Pyramid is located at 29.9792458 degrees north latitude, and the speed of light is 299,792,458 kilometers per second. Is this amazing?

The unit of length measurement used by ancient Egyptian builders is the cubit. One cubit is equivalent to 0.444~0.529 meters. It can be seen that the cubit is not an exact unit. The international unit of length, the meter, was not officially established until the 18th century, so the ancient Egyptians certainly did not know the meter. If they knew it, they would definitely use it, but they did not adopt this unit. So, how do you explain the coincidence of the above numbers? Scientists say that it is not a strange coincidence that 5 or more numbers match the order completely. After all, some lottery tickets with more than a dozen numbers also win the first prize (that is, the dozen or more numbers they choose are completely aligned with the winning number. Same). Sometimes, sequence matching does not require causality at all, but is purely random coincidence.

A bird’s eye view of the Giza Pyramids from a balloon (photographed on November 21, 1904).

“The Unsinkable Lady”
Jessop, the daughter of an Irish immigrant who was born in Argentina, suspended her studies in the UK after her mother, a Royal Mail attendant, fell ill. At the age of 21, she also became a Royal Mail attendant to supplement her family. Later, she transferred to work at the White Star Cruise Line. In order to compete for the market, the White Star Company launched three luxury cruise ships in 1911-Olympic, Titanic and Brittany. In September of this year, during its fifth commercial voyage, the Olympic collided with a warship in the southern waters of the United Kingdom. Jessop, who was working on the Olympic at the time, was unharmed. In April 1912, the Titanic made its maiden voyage, and Jessop served on the ship. She later stated in her memoirs that in the early morning of April 15, 1912, when the Titanic sank after hitting an iceberg and about 1,500 people were killed, she helped some women and children board a lifeboat. She herself then boarded a lifesaving boat. Boat.

After the outbreak of the First World War, the Brittany was converted into a medical ship. Coincidentally, Jessop was working on the ship when the ship was sunk by a mine laid by a German submarine in November 1916. About 30 people died and more than 1,000 people were saved. Jessop was one of the survivors. After that, she continued to work on the mail ship until she retired. Jessop died in 1971. Because of her legendary experience, she was called “the unsinkable lady”. So, is her “unsinkable” a coincidence?

The twins “miracle”
In 1979, a pair of twin brothers in the United States reunited. They were separated at one month of birth and did not meet until 37 years later. In these 30 years, they did not know the existence of each other. By the time they meet. I learned that they were both named “Jim” by their adoptive parents. They both liked mathematics and carpentry. They both worked as security guards. Both their ex-wives were named “Linda”, and their wives after divorce were named “Betty”. , Each other’s sons are called “Allen”. Many people are surprised by this series of coincidences, believing that this is a miracle made in heaven.

Brother Jim.

Sandwiches change the world

The assassination of Ferdinand.

You may have heard that World War I was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. In fact, the killer’s actions at the beginning were unsuccessful: their bomb exploded behind the Grand Duke’s car, and the Grand Duke was safe. Afterwards, a killer stopped to go to a restaurant to buy sandwiches. Clinker, the driver of the Grand Duke made a mistake when driving a turn, and he happened to pass the restaurant where the killer was. The killer saw the Grand Duke and his wife and immediately shot them.

Father and son died on the same day of the same month
A total of 96 people died during the construction of the Hoover Dam in the United States. On December 20, 1921, a man named John died in a flood on this river. On December 20, 1935, his son fell to his death from an intake tower of the dam. He was also the last deceased related to the dam.

Some miracles are coincidences
Walpole, a member of the British House of Commons in the 18th century, almost “find whatever you want.” He created a word for his mysterious ability-“serendipity”, which means “rely on luck and wise observation to discover thing”. The interpretation of “serendipity” in some dictionaries is “the luck of accidentally discovering treasures”, but in fact this kind of luck also includes randomness, active search, educated guessing, and observation.

By calculating the probability of coincidence (randomness), it helps to distinguish pure coincidence from causal events. Probability theory is used to predict the “consequences” of a large number of independent events, but it must be noted that each of these independent events is unpredictable. The famous Swiss psychologist Jung and the 1989 Nobel Laureate in Physics, Austrian American physicist Paul believes that all great coincidences (or miracles) can be explained by cause and effect; although some seemingly coincidental events are There is no obvious causal link between the two, but these events can be seen as a whole; in other words, at least all the big coincidence events cannot happen completely randomly, but have a reason.

Although Jung and Paul are both respectable scholars, their theory is often questioned because there must be greater or lesser randomness behind some coincidences and even great coincidences. Some people say that Jung et al.’s causal explanation of coincidence is actually an illusion, a series of unrelated events that mistakenly see the correlation. The “Law of Miracles” proposed by Littlewood, a scholar at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, pointed out. Even some big coincidence events are actually a manifestation of randomness, but the probability of these events is very low, so it is surprising, but since there is a probability of occurrence, then it is not strange that strange coincidences happen, so there is no need to look for some ” The “heaven” behind the “match made in heaven”.

Jung (left) and Paul.

“The Law of Miracles”
You are walking down the street and you see a vulture swooping down and landing on the back of a tortoise. Is this a miracle? Or, you have an appointment to see the dentist, but you leave too late for some reason. It seems that you will definitely miss the appointment, but on the same day you were driving with a green light all the way (this has never happened before), and finally you arrived on time. Is this a miracle?

Note that the miracle here refers to a great coincidence. With regard to such miracles, Littlewood, a professor of mathematics at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, proposed the “Law of Miracles” and believed that on average there will be a “miracle” coincidence event every 35 days in our lives. In other words, it is possible for you to encounter many big coincidences in a year.

The miracle that Littlewood refers to is an event with a probability of 1 in 1 million. The reason why he defines a miracle in this way is based on two assumptions: one is that, excluding sleep time and time spent not thinking about it (for example, watching a series), a person is awake and stays awake for 8 hours a day; the other is , An event occurs approximately every 1 second. It seems rigorous, but as a famous university professor, why did Littlewood put forward a certain rule or formula to explain the seemingly mysterious number or event that is not completely objective?

The answer is: he is joking. He proposed the “Law of Miracles” and its calculation formula, not to prove that there are so-called “miracles” with mysterious and supernatural colors, but on the contrary: if you think that an event with a probability of only 1 in 1 million is a miracle, Then there are many such miraculous events; in other words, these events are not considered miracles in the true sense at all. They are just a coincidence with a low probability of occurrence but there is indeed a probability of occurrence; the reason why they are called coincidences is because the probability of occurrence is very low. It still happened, because such coincidences actually happen “frequently” in the long run, and there is no so-called karma or divine assistance.

In 2004, a book in the United States seemed to have given birth to the Littlewood’s law proving that miracles really existed. The author of the book claims that Littlewood’s “Law of Miracles” proves that supernatural phenomena are really possible. But the fact itself is: Littlewood proposed the “Law of Miracles” precisely to mock those who believe in the existence of mysterious miracles or supernatural phenomena. What’s ridiculous is that someone went against his original intention and took his “miracle law” as an arrow.