The mystery of the fall of the Roman Empire

  There is Rome in the west, and the big man in the east. The Roman Empire was established in 27 BC. After the expansion of the territories of successive imperial kings, the Roman Empire in its heyday extended from Spain, Gaul and Britain in the west, to the upper reaches of the Euphrates in the east, to the north of Africa in the south, and to the Rhine and Danube in the north. In this area, across the three continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, it is the only country in history that has turned the Mediterranean into an inner lake. At that time, Rome had a vast territory, rich country, powerful military, splendid culture, and magnificent buildings. It was like a rare empire in the world, and the Han Dynasty in China, which can be described as the representative of Eastern and Western civilizations at that time.
  The Roman Empire was not only powerful, but also ruled for a long time. It was not until 1453, with the demise of Eastern Rome, that Rome completely withdrew from the stage of history, and the millennium civilization was destroyed. What made this once glorious empire go to extinction? On the surface, it is an invasion by an external enemy, but historians believe that internal factors are the decisive factor, and external factors are only an inducing factor. Because “the fortress is broken from the inside.”
Extreme weather theory

  One theory believes that extreme weather may have played an extremely important role in the fall of the Roman Empire.
  In the northwest of Scotland, there is a cave called Uamh-an-Tartair. This shallow cave is covered by a layer of peat with a history of four thousand years, and these stalagmites are like rings of annual rings that can show When there is more water and when there is less water in peat, because the growth rate of stalagmites will be slower when there is sufficient rainfall. After measuring the annual ring thickness of five of the stalagmites, the experts mapped out a unique three-thousand-year European climate record. Records show that when the Roman Empire collapsed, the Mediterranean region was experiencing a long period of drought. This view believes that it was this harsh and prolonged drought that made the Roman Empire’s economy deteriorating, which resulted in repeated failures in foreign wars and ultimately led to Rome’s demise.
  The above inference can be called the “climate theory”, and the basic view is that “long-term drought has destroyed Rome.”
Religious Dispute Theory

Hundreds of years of chaotic struggle broke out between various “heretical” sects and orthodox sects, and between different branches of orthodox sects.

  Another view is that the demise of Rome was due to religious disputes.
  In Rome, Christianity was regarded as a heresy for a long time and was persecuted. It was not until the “Milan Edict” was promulgated that it became a legal religion. The irony is that after Christianity became the state religion, under the auspices of the ruler, it began to reject people of other faiths. Fanatic Christians continued to create riots in the cities of Rome, destroying ancient “pagan” temples, eradicating all idols and pagans, and prohibiting “pagan” sacrifices and rituals. After cleaning up the “pagans”, there was a struggle within Christianity due to doctrinal differences. After that, hundreds of years of chaotic struggle broke out between various “heretical” sects and orthodox sects, and between different branches of orthodox sects.
  This was a great turmoil that affected everyone in the Roman Empire, causing great turmoil within the empire, and finally disintegrating the Roman Empire from within. This view is called “religious theory.”

  Nietzsche said in the book “The Other Side of Good and Evil” that with the establishment of the Roman Empire, the Romans finally gained freedom and happiness, and no longer need to tremble. The empire is so strong that there are no enemies around it, and the country is prosperous, with abundant living resources, and people begin to enjoy it.
  At this time, hedonism began to prevail throughout the Roman Empire. Various large and small bathing places abound, and the decoration of a family is more luxurious than a family. If the walls in someone’s bath have no magnificent decorations, no Alexander marble, and the bath is not built with Thasos slabs, and the faucet is not made of silver, people will feel that they are very shabby…
  There was a saying at the time. The proverbs that came down truly reproduced the sensuality of the Roman upper class: riding a horse, hunting, watching drama, taking a bath, this is all of their lives. In the 1st century AD, the Roman Empire had 66 days of holidays throughout the year. By the 4th century, there were as many as 175 days. The Romans spent half a year indulging in performances such as slave battles, beasts, naval battles, and operas. The extravagance was shocking. !
  Born in sorrow, die in happiness. The extravagance and depravity of Roman life resulted in low social customs and distortion of ethics and morality, causing the entire empire to suffer from severe “political myasthenia”, losing its vitality, and ultimately leading to the demise of the empire. The view of Nietzsche et al. is called the “extravagant theory”.
Plague theory

The first head of the Roman Empire-Gavis Octavian

  There is also a view that the demise of the Roman Empire was due to a great plague.
  According to foreign documents, since the 2nd century AD, there have been plague outbreaks in Central Asia and West Asia. The plague spread to Rome in the 3rd century AD and spread to the European continent in the 6th century. This large-scale plague made the European population out of ten, and the Eastern Roman Empire was not immune. The plague caused a sharp decline in the population of the Eastern Roman Empire, economic depression, and a decline in the combat effectiveness of the army, which led to the complete destruction of the empire. This view is called “the plague theory.” This infectious disease was inferred by the “epidemic hemorrhagic fever” thousands of years ago as today’s “epidemic hemorrhagic fever”. The patient had a high fever and ulcers on his body. It was almost incurable at the time.

  There is also a view that the Roman Empire was destroyed by the Imperial Guard system.
  The Imperial Guard was a special defense force set up by Octavian when he was in power and was only subordinate to the head of state. It was similar to the Imperial Forest Army in the history of our country. But with the passage of time, the imperial guards gradually formed a tendency to be unstoppable: when the emperor succeeded to the throne, he often had to pay huge sums of money to buy the imperial guards. After that, the army became a threat to the throne and even frequently killed the king. In 193 AD, the Imperial Guard public auctioned the throne of the Roman Empire. Tirpissianus, the county guard of Rome, promised to give each soldier 5,000 dinars; but the wealthy councillor Julianus promised to give each soldier 6,250 dinars, so that the latter successfully took the throne.

  According to statistics, in the few months of AD 238, the emperor changed hands during the slaughter by the Guards, and six emperors were killed. During the 15 years when Emperor Galienus was active in politics, a total of 19 people ascended to the throne, all of them came from the ranks, and none of them died well. In the 50 years from 218 to 268 in the life of Emperor Galienus, a total of 50 arrogant persons won titles, on average every year Create a new “emperor”.
  The imperial guard system allowed the military to kidnap the emperor, causing frequent changes in the imperial political arena, leading the country to an unpredictable dark abyss, damaging the vitality of the Roman Empire, and finally heading for destruction. This view can be called the “Forbidden Army Theory.”
Lead poisoning

  Another recent discovery in recent years indicates that the demise of the Roman Empire may be due to lead poisoning.

Since lead was discovered, it has been applied to all aspects of life by the ancient Romans.

  Since lead was discovered, it has been applied to all aspects of life by the ancient Romans: lead powder can be used for whitening, and the Romans used lead powder to make cosmetics and apply it to the face and even the whole body; the Romans drink wine well, and wine has been prospered for a long time. Put it in a lead container; they mixed the grape juice and wine in a ratio of 1:30, put them in a lead pot and repeatedly boiled them to synthesize a special sweetener-lead acetate… In addition, Roman drinking water Pipes, roofs, coins, etc. are inseparable from the shadow of lead. It is said that 12,000 tons of lead was used in a pumping station in Lyon at that time. This shows how much lead was used by the Romans.
  Excessive use of lead caused severe lead poisoning in the Romans. From 1969 to 1976, an archaeological team excavated a Roman tomb in Cirencester, southern England. The lead content in most of the bones in it was severely exceeded, 80 times that of normal people, and children suffered even more serious damage.
  Lead poisoning can make people feel weak and mentally weak, and have a great impact on people’s health and lifespan. Emperor Claudius of Rome suffered from a very serious illness: nervous, absent-minded, pale, and tormented by gout all the year round. According to records, Claudius was very alcoholic when he was young, and these symptoms happened to be the manifestation of lead poisoning. In addition, lead also affects human reproductive ability. According to records, among the 35 nobles who married in Troy, ancient Rome, half of them were infertile. Under the rule of such a weak aristocratic class, the empire will inevitably become weaker and weaker and eventually decline. This view is called the “Lead Poison Doctrine”.
  The internal reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire were the dry climate, religious strife, and excessive luxury? Or is it the plague epidemic, the military system, lead poisoning? To this day, there is no final conclusion. Perhaps with the advancement of research, there will be newer points of view. One day, history will tell us the truth.